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Guided growth

Deepali Jain, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
CONTEXT: - There has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. A number of oncogenic drivers have been identified in non-small cell lung carcinoma, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene rearrangement. Because of the clinical presentation at an advanced stage of disease in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, the use of minimally invasive techniques is preferred to obtain a tumor sample for diagnosis...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Suhyung Cho, Donghui Choe, Eunju Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Bernhard Ø Palsson, Byung-Kwan Cho
Along with functional advances in the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing, endonuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) has provided a versatile molecular tool for exploring gene functions. In principle, differences in cell phenotypes that result from the RNA-guided modulation of transcription levels by dCas9 are critical for inferring with gene function; however, the effect of intracellular dCas9 expression on bacterial morphology has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we observed unexpected morphological changes in Escherichia coli mediated by dCas9, which were then characterized using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Sebastian J Klein, Anna K Brandtner, Georg F Lehner, Hanno Ulmer, Sean M Bagshaw, Christian J Wiedermann, Michael Joannidis
PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in critically ill patients and often precipitates use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, the ideal circumstances for whether and when to start RRT remain unclear. We performed evidence synthesis of the available literature to evaluate the value of biomarkers to predict receipt of RRT for AKI. METHODS: We conducted a PRISMA-guided systematic review and meta-analysis including all trials evaluating biomarker performance for prediction of RRT in AKI...
March 14, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Xingrong Peng, Xia Wang, Long Chen, Han Yang, Lei Li, Shuangyang Lu, Lin Zhou, Minghua Qiu
Ganoderma cochlear, as edible and medicinal fungus, has long been used to prevent and treat various diseases. As our continuously phytochemical investigation of this fungus, a HPLC-UV-guided method led to the isolation of nine previously undescribed aromatic meroterpenoids with different ring systems, including six pairs of racemates, (±)-cochlearins A-E, G (1-5, 7), and three new analogues, cochlearins F, H and I (6, 8, 9). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and MS analyses...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Jacqueline Counts, Rebecca Gillam, Teri A Garstka, Ember Urbach
The challenge of maximizing the well-being of children, youth, and families is recognizing that change occurs within complex social systems. Organizations dedicated to improving practice, advancing knowledge, and informing policy for the betterment of all must have the right approach, structure, and personnel to work in these complex systems. The University of Kansas Center for Public Partnerships and Research cultivates a portfolio of innovation, research, and data science approaches positioned to help move social service fields locally, regionally, and nationally...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
John R Horton, Xu Liu, Lizhen Wu, Kai Zhang, John Shanks, Xing Zhang, Ganesha Rai, Bryan T Mott, Daniel J Jansen, Stephen C Kales, Mark J Henderson, Katherine Pohida, Yuhong Fang, Xin Hu, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney, Matthew D Hall, Anton Simeonov, Haian Fu, Paula M Vertino, Qin Yan, Xiaodong Cheng
Isomers of chiral drugs can exhibit marked differences in biological activities. We studied the binding and inhibitory activities of 12 compounds against KDM5A. Among them are two pairs of enantiomers representing two distinct inhibitor chemotypes, namely (R)- and (S)-2-((2-chlorophenyl)(2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethoxy)methyl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (compounds N51 and N52) and (R)- and (S)-N-(1-(3-isopropyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carbonyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)cyclopropane-carboxamide (compounds N54 and N55)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yan Ting Shue, Jing Shan Lim, Julien Sage
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a fast-growing, highly metastatic form of lung cancer. A major difference between SCLC and other forms of lung cancer is that SCLC tumors often respond well to chemotherapy initially; unfortunately, resistant tumors rapidly recur. In addition, despite a large number of clinical trials with a variety of therapeutic agents, little progress has been achieved in the past three decades in improving the survival of SCLC patients. These clinical observations indicate that SCLC tumors have a high degree of plasticity and rapid adaptability to changes in growth conditions...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Alan H Nagahara, Bayard R Wilson, Iryna Ivasyk, Imre Kovacs, Saytam Rawalji, John R Bringas, Phillip J Pivirotto, Waldy San Sebastian, Lluis Samaranch, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Mark H Tuszynski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to the entorhinal cortex is a candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to reduce neurodegeneration that is associated with memory loss. Accurate targeting of the entorhinal cortex in AD is complex due to the deep and atrophic state of this brain region. Using MRI-guided methods with convection-enhanced delivery, we were able to accurately and consistently target AAV2-BDNF delivery to the entorhinal cortex of non-human primates; 86 ± 3% of transduced cells in the targeted regions co-localized with the neuronal marker NeuN...
March 13, 2018: Gene Therapy
Eun Byeol Lee, Jun Hyeong Kim, Chang Wan An, Yeong Jee Kim, Yun Jeong Noh, Su Jin Kim, Ju-Eun Kim, Abinash Chandra Shrestha, Ha-Neul Ham, Jae-Yoon Leem, Hyung-Kwon Jo, Dae-Sung Kim, Kwang Hyun Moon, Jeong Ho Lee, Kyung Ok Jeong, Dae Keun Kim
In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions...
March 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Kristina Glenske, Phil Donkiewicz, Alexander Köwitsch, Nada Milosevic-Oljaca, Patrick Rider, Sven Rofall, Jörg Franke, Ole Jung, Ralf Smeets, Reinhard Schnettler, Sabine Wenisch, Mike Barbeck
The regeneration of bone tissue is the main purpose of most therapies in dental medicine. For bone regeneration, calcium phosphate (CaP)-based substitute materials based on natural (allo- and xenografts) and synthetic origins (alloplastic materials) are applied for guiding the regeneration processes. The optimal bone substitute has to act as a substrate for bone ingrowth into a defect, as well as resorb in the time frame needed for complete regeneration up to the condition of restitution ad integrum . In this context, the modes of action of CaP-based substitute materials have been frequently investigated, where it has been shown that such materials strongly influence regenerative processes such as osteoblast growth or differentiation and also osteoclastic resorption due to different physicochemical properties of the materials...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chunlei Zhu, Suphannee Pongkitwitoon, Jichuan Qiu, Stavros Thomopoulos, Younan Xia
A hierarchically structured scaffold is designed and fabricated for facilitating tendon-to-bone repair. The scaffold is composed of three regions with distinct functions: (i) an array of channels to guide the in-growth of cells and aligned deposition of collagen fibers, as well as integration of the scaffold with the tendon side, (ii) a region with a gradient in mineral composition to facilitate stress transfer between tendon and bone, and (iii) a mineralized inverse opal region to promote the integration of the scaffold with the underlying bone...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ramanjeet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
Bacteriocin LB44 was purified from cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Pediococcus pentosaceus LB44 using activity-guided chromatography techniques. It was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2.0-6.0, sensitive to proteinase K, papain and trypsin, and retained complete activity in the presence of organic solvents tested. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was ∼6 kDa and initial ten amino acid residues (GECGMCXECG) suggested a new compound. The loss in viable cell count and K+ ion efflux of target cells of Micrococcus luteus suggested bactericidal activity...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vincent P Groot, Sameer S Thakker, Georgios Gemenetzis, Michaël Noë, Ammar A Javed, Richard A Burkhart, Behnoud B Noveiry, John L Cameron, Matthew J Weiss, Christopher J VandenBussche, Elliot K Fishman, Ralph H Hruban, Christopher L Wolfgang, Anne Marie Lennon, Jin He
BACKGROUND: Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare pancreatic cystic lesions. Since LECs are benign, preoperative diagnosis is important to differentiate from a cystic neoplasm and avoid unnecessary surgery. The aim of this study was to identify clinical, radiographic and cytopathologic features associated with LECs. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients diagnosed with LEC between 1995 and 2017 at our hospital. Clinicopathologic and radiographic imaging features were documented...
March 9, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Tracy W Krick, Neil M Bressler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present some recent clinically relevant results from Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research (DRCR) Network trials that may guide management of diabetic macular edema (DME) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). RECENT FINDINGS: Among eyes with DME and visual acuity 20/50 or worse, aflibercept, on average, had greater improvement in visual acuity over 2 years compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Aflibercept is associated with higher rates of improvements in diabetic retinopathy severity among eyes with PDR and vision-impairing DME at baseline compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Marcus S Niepel, Fadi Almouhanna, Bhavya K Ekambaram, Matthias Menzel, Andreas Heilmann, Thomas Groth
BACKGROUND: Cells possess a specialized machinery through which they can sense physical as well as chemical alterations in their surrounding microenvironment that affect their cellular behavior. AIM: In this study, we aim to establish a polyelectrolyte multilayer system of 24 layers of poly-l-lysine and hyaluronic acid to control stem cell response after chemical cross-linking. METHODS AND RESULTS: The multilayer build-up process is monitored using different methods, which show that the studied polyelectrolyte multilayer system grows exponentially following the islands and islets theory...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Zachary Jonas Hall, Vincent Tropepe
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Patricia Wonch Hill, Julia McQuillan, Eli Talbert, Amy Spiegel, G Robin Gauthier, Judy Diamond
In the United States, gender gaps in science interest widen during the middle school years. Recent research on adults shows that gender gaps in some academic fields are associated with mindsets about ability and gender-science biases. In a sample of 529 students in a U.S. middle school, we assess how explicit boy-science bias, science confidence, science possible self (belief in being able to become a scientist), and desire to be a scientist vary by gender. Guided by theories and prior research, we use a series of multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationships between mindsets about ability and these variables...
June 2017: Social Sciences
Joel B Huleatt, Carl W Nissen, Matthew D Milewski
The treatment of sports injuries in the skeletally immature has a unique set of complications. Growth deformity may occur after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; therefore, skeletal age is used to help guide the choice between physeal sparing and transphyseal techniques. Arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture fixation can be reduced by initiating immediate range of motion, and should be treated early and cautiously to avoid iatrogenic fracture. Nonunions of medial epicondyle elbow fractures are more common with nonoperative treatment, but seldom lead to clinical problems outside of certain athletes...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Xin Wang, Yi Zhang, Wenjun Ji, Jun Ao
Fracture hematoma formation describes a transitional phase that involves a dynamic and tightly choreographed interaction between the fibrin matrix, cells, and cytokines that guides the ensuing bone repair. Here we propose a novel hypothesis to explain why hematomas in conjunction with critical sized bone defects are prone to differentiate into fibrous tissues, which eventually results in non-unions of the bone. We postulate that certain hematoma qualities are triggers that influence cell biological behaviours and that the release of certain growth factors determines what pattern of remodelling will prevail: intramembranous or endochondral ossification...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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