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Bloodstream infection detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#1
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076388/risk-factors-for-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-and-failure-of-empiric-first-line-therapy-in-acute-cholangitis
#2
Philipp A Reuken, Dorian Torres, Michael Baier, Bettina Löffler, Christoph Lübbert, Norman Lippmann, Andreas Stallmach, Tony Bruns
BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis (AC) requires the immediate initiation of antibiotic therapy in addition to treatment for biliary obstruction. Against a background of an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the risk factors for the failure of empiric therapy must be defined. METHODS: Using a pathogen-based approach, 1764 isolates from positive bile duct cultures were retrospectively analyzed to characterize the respective pathogen spectra in two German tertiary centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063000/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-rapid-identification-of-bacteria-and-resistance-determinants-in-positive-blood-cultures
#3
J Rödel, J A Bohnert, S Stoll, L Wassill, B Edel, M Karrasch, B Löffler, W Pfister
The use of molecular assays to rapidly identify pathogens and resistance genes directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) contribute to shortening the time required for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been examined for their potential use in BC diagnosis. Three different assays were applied. The commercially available eazyplex® MRSA test detects Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, mecA, and mecC. Two in-house assays [Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN)] have been developed for the detection of streptococci, enterococci, vanA, vanB, Pseudomonas spp...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062319/nanomechanical-sensor-applied-to-blood-culture-pellets-a-fast-approach-to-determine-the-antibiotic-susceptibility-against-agents-of-bloodstream-infections
#4
Petar Stupar, Onya Opota, Giovanni Longo, Guy Prod'hom, Giovanni Dietler, Gilbert Greub, Sandor Kasas
OBJECTIVES: The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility, to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently, we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy, capable of detecting movements of biological samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044296/microfluidic-based-bacteria-isolation-from-whole-blood-for-diagnostics-of-blood-stream-infection
#5
Sergey Zelenin, Harisha Ramachandraiah, Asim Faridi, Aman Russom
Bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) potentially leads to life-threatening clinical conditions and medical emergencies such as severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi organ failure syndrome. Blood culturing is currently the gold standard for the identification of microorganisms and, although it has been automated over the decade, the process still requires 24-72 h to complete. This long turnaround time, especially for the identification of antimicrobial resistance, is driving the development of rapid molecular diagnostic methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012898/development-of-a-high-throughput-multiplexed-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-human-pegivirus-1-and-2
#6
Matthew Frankel, Kenn Forberg, Kelly E Coller, Michael G Berg, John Hackett, Gavin Cloherty, George J Dawson
Human Pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) was recently identified in the bloodstream of HCV-infected and multiply transfused individuals. Initial reports show HPgV-2 circulates at a low prevalence in HCV co-infected individuals, necessitating testing of large cohorts of samples to identify infected persons. The identification of additional HPgV-2 cases was facilitated by the development of a high throughput and reliable molecular reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay intended for use on the automated Abbott m2000 system with a capability of extracting and testing 96 samples at once...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012637/determination-of-clinical-significance-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-blood-cultures
#7
Asiye Karakullukçu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Sevgi Ergin, Gökhan Aygün, Kenan Midilli, Ömer Küçükbasmaci
The aim of this study was to investigate the criteria used to distinguish coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia from contamination. We evaluated 162 adult patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures (BCs). Of the 162 patients, 35 (21.6%) had at least 2 positive BCs and 127 (78.4%) had a single positive BC. According to the Laboratory-Confirmed Bloodstream Infection (LCBI) criteria, 24 (14.8%) patients with the same species of CoNS had true bacteremia, and 138 (85.2%) patients had contaminants. Despite the detection of the same CoNS species, 9 of the 24 patients had different CoNS genotypes...
December 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011352/clinical-characteristics-and-predictive-factors-for-mortality-in-coryneform-bacteria-bloodstream-infection-in-hematological-patients
#8
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Tomotaka Ugai, Yusuke Komiya, Kazuaki Kameda, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Junya Kanda, Shinichi Kako, Aki Tanihara, Yoshinobu Kanda
BACKGROUND: We examined the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for mortality in coryneform bacteria bloodstream infection in hematological patients. METHODS: We searched for hematological patients who had positive blood cultures for coryneform bacteria at our center between April 2007 and January 2016. Patients with definite bloodstream infections were included. We started species identification in April 2014. RESULTS: Twenty of twenty-eight cases with a positive blood culture for coryneform bacteria were regarded as definite infections...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005691/clinical-and-bacterial-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-in-india
#9
Laura E B Nabarro, Chaitra Shankar, Akila Prakasam, Georgekutty Mathew, Visali Jeyaseelan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Valsan P Verghese
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an increasing cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized children worldwide. Few studies have investigated risk factors for mortality in children with CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). Data are particularly scarce in areas where NDM and OXA carbapenemases predominate. Here, we investigate mortality rates, clinical and microbiologic risk factors for mortality in 50 pediatric patients with CRBSI in India. METHOD: Children younger than 17 years old with meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli isolated from blood culture in 2014 and 2015 were identified from laboratory records...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004592/non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-intravascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections
#10
Li Zhang, C M Rickard
intravascular catheter related bloodstream infection (IVC-BSI) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection and adequate treatment of causative pathogens is critical for a favourable outcome. However, it takes significant time to receive microbiological results due to the current reference diagnostic method's reliance on microbial growth. Areas covered: This review discusses culture and non-culture based techniques for the diagnosis of non IVC-BSI and IVC-BSI, including molecular methods and biomarkers...
January 2, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998819/quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-direct-detection-of-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-in-positive-blood-culture-bottles
#11
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Hyeyoung Lee
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is crucial for initiating an appropriate antimicrobial therapy which decreases the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay system [i.e., the Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP)], obtained directly from blood culture bottles, to simultaneously detect the presence of bacteria and identify the genes for antibiotic resistance...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997618/evaluation-of-a-commercial-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-pathogen-dna-in-blood-from-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#12
Ingrid Ziegler, Anna Fagerström, Kristoffer Strålin, Paula Mölling
The Magicplex Sepsis Real-time Test (MST) is a commercial multiplex PCR that can detect more than 90 different pathogens in blood, with an analysis time of six hours. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this method for the detection of bloodstream infection (BSI). An EDTA whole blood sample for MST was collected together with blood cultures (BC) from patients with suspected sepsis at the Emergency Department of a university hospital. Among 696 study patients, 322 (46%) patients were positive with at least one method; 128 (18%) were BC positive and 268 (38%) were MST positive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980379/epidemiology-and-biomolecular-characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-an-italian-hospital
#13
REVIEW
M L Cristina, M Sartini, G Ottria, E Schinca, N Cenderello, M P Crisalli, P Fabbri, G Lo Pinto, D Usiglio, A M Spagnolo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of CRKP infections in a tertiary care hospital and to analyse the allelic profiles of the clinical strains involved and the most frequent carbapenemases. DESIGN: The study analyzed cases of infection due to CRKP in the period 2013-2014; 147 cases were recorded, most of which (82.31%) were in-hospital infections. SETTING: A hospital in northern Italy. METHODS: We retrospectively collected: data on patient characteristics and the microbiological characteristics of CRKP...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974890/clinical-significance-of-molecular-diagnostic-tools-for-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Jean Pierre Rutanga, Therese Nyirahabimana
Bacterial bloodstream infection (bBSI) represents any form of invasiveness of the blood circulatory system caused by bacteria and can lead to death among critically ill patients. Thus, there is a need for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with septicemia. So far, different molecular diagnostic tools have been developed. The majority of these tools focus on amplification based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows the detection of nucleic acids (both DNA and small RNAs) that are specific to bacterial species and sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization that allows the detection of bacteria in order to reduce delay of appropriate antibiotic therapy...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965724/enterogenous-infection-of-candida-albicans-in-immunocompromised-rats-under-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#15
Xiang-Wang Zhao, Lei Yan, Dan Xu, Yu-Hui Cui, Chun-Hui Yang, Yan-Jun Zhou, Jian-Guo Tang
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has become a serious problem in immunocompromised patients. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of enterogenous infection of C. albicans in immunocompromised rats under severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n=100) were randomly assigned into 5 groups as the following: blank group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone+SAP group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone group, cyclophosphamide+SAP group, and cyclophosphamide group...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955932/molecular-analysis-of-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-different-types-of-infections-from-patients-hospitalized-in-12-regional-non-teaching-hospitals-in-southern-poland
#16
A Chmielarczyk, M Pomorska-Wesołowska, A Szczypta, D Romaniszyn, M Pobiega, J Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Accumulated data indicate that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with a worse prognosis than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections. AIM: To assess the epidemiological profile of S. aureus infections and the genetic diversity of clinical strains of MRSA in 12 hospitals in southern Poland. METHODS: Samples from bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections from adult patients were examined...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932084/a-novel-method-for-the-rapid-detection-of-microbes-in-blood-using-pleurocidin-antimicrobial-peptide-functionalized-piezoelectric-sensor
#17
Xiaohong Shi, Xiaoqing Zhang, Qiongqiong Yao, Fengjiao He
The rapid detection of microbes is critical in clinical diagnosis and food safety. Culture-dependent assays are the most widely used microbial detection methods, but these assays are time-consuming. In this study, a rapid microbial detection method was proposed using a pleurocidin/single-walled carbon nanotubes/interdigital electrode-multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal (pleurocidin/SWCNT/IDE-MSPQC) sensor. The selected pleurocidin antimicrobial peptide served as a recognition probe that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the SWCNT acted as the electronic transducer and cross-linker for the immobilization of pleurocidin on the IDE...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928019/tlr2-ligation-enhances-hiv-1-replication-in-activated-ccr6-cd4-t-cells-by-increasing-virus-entry-and-establishing-a-more-permissive-environment-to-infection
#18
Jean-François Bolduc, Michel Ouellet, Laurent Hany, Michel J Tremblay
: In this study, we investigated the effect of TLR2 ligation on the permissiveness of activated CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection by focusing our experiments on the relative susceptibility of cell subsets based on their expression of CCR6. Purified primary human CD4(+) T cells were first subjected to a CD3/CD28 costimulation before treatment with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Finally, cells were inoculated with R5-tropic HIV-1 particles that permit to study the effect of TLR2 triggering on virus production at both population and single-cell levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924986/a-nasba-on-microgel-tethered-molecular-beacon-microarray-for-real-time-microbial-molecular-diagnostics
#19
Y Ma, X Dai, T Hong, G B Munk, M Libera
Despite their many advantages and successes, molecular beacon (MB) hybridization probes have not been extensively used in microarray formats because of the complicating probe-substrate interactions that increase the background intensity. We have previously shown that tethering to surface-patterned microgels is an effective means for localizing MB probes to specific surface locations in a microarray format while simultaneously maintaining them in as water-like an environment as possible and minimizing probe-surface interactions...
December 19, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899074/antibiotic-resistance-and-clonal-diversity-of-invasive-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-rural-ashanti-region-ghana
#20
Denise Dekker, Manuel Wolters, Eva Mertens, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Norbert G Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Holger Rohde, Martin Christner, Florian Marks, Nimako Sarpong, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common pathogens isolated from blood cultures in Ghana; yet the epidemiology of blood infections in rural settings is poorly described. This study aims to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal diversity of S. aureus causing bloodstream infections in two hospitals in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. METHODS: Blood cultures were performed for all febrile patients (≥37.5 °C) on hospital admission. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for S...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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