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Bloodstream infection detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647051/longitudinal-nosocomial-outbreak-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-bloodstream-infection-of-2-years-duration-in-a-coronary-care-unit
#1
Yuichiro Oba, Takahiro Nakajima, Chiyo Ogida, Miyuki Kawanami, Mamoru Fujiwara, Ikuko Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of bloodstream infections (BSI) of nonfermenting bacteria are a critical issue and often associated with hospital environments. We experienced a long-lasting outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens BSI limited to a coronary care unit (CCU). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic investigation and a case-control study for Pseudomonas fluorescens BSI from April 2011-July 2014. Environmental sample culture was conducted to detect the specific environmental source of transmission...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642012/evaluation-of-a-device-combining-an-inferior-vena-cava-filter-and-a-central-venous-catheter-for-preventing-pulmonary-embolism-among-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#2
Victor F Tapson, Joshua P Hazelton, John Myers, Claudia Robertson, Ramyar Gilani, Julie A Dunn, Marko Bukur, Martin A Croce, Ann Peick, Sonlee West, Lawrence Lottenberg, Jay Doucet, Preston R Miller, Bruce Crookes, Rajesh R Gandhi, Chasen A Croft, Anthony Manasia, Brian A Hoey, Howard Lieberman, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Victor Novack, Gregory Piazza, Samuel Z Goldhaber
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of a novel device that combines an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and central venous catheter (CVC) for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical trial, the device was inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopy and subsequently retrieved before transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from clinically significant PE or fatal PE 72 hours after device removal or discharge, whichever occurred first...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#3
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637912/parallel-evaluation-of-the-maldi-sepsityper-and-verigene-bc-gn-assays-for-rapid-identification-of-gram-negative-bacilli-from-positive-blood-cultures
#4
Miguel A Arroyo, Gerald A Denys
Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures has improved clinical management and antimicrobial stewardship. The advent of the matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has reduced the time to identification of cultured isolates and is now often the definitive method used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The commercial in vitro diagnostic MALDI Sepsityper (Sepsityper) kit has the potential for standardization and clinical routine use for the rapid identification of a broad range of bacteria from positive blood cultures...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631944/clinical-significance-of-repeat-blood-cultures-during-febrile-neutropenia-in-adult-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-undergoing-intensive-chemotherapy
#5
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Masaharu Tamaki, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Tomotaka Ugai, Machiko Kusuda, Kazuaki Kameda, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Shinichi Kako, Aki Tanihara, Yoshinobu Kanda
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical significance of repeat blood cultures in persistent and recurrent fever during neutropenia in adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the chemotherapy cycles at our centre between January 2007 and December 2015. Blood cultures obtained within three days after initial febrile neutropenia (FN) were defined as initial blood cultures and those obtained on or after day 4 were defined as repeat blood cultures...
June 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626833/the-lung-is-a-host-defense-niche-for-immediate-neutrophil-mediated-vascular-protection
#6
Bryan G Yipp, Jung Hwan Kim, Ronald Lima, Lori D Zbytnuik, Björn Petri, Nick Swanlund, May Ho, Vivian G Szeto, Tamar Tak, Leo Koenderman, Peter Pickkers, Anton T J Tool, Taco W Kuijpers, Timo K van den Berg, Mark R Looney, Matthew F Krummel, Paul Kubes
Bloodstream infection is a hallmark of sepsis, a medically emergent condition requiring rapid treatment. However, upregulation of host defense proteins through toll-like receptors and NFκB requires hours after endotoxin detection. Using confocal pulmonary intravital microscopy, we identified that the lung provides a TLR4-Myd88-and abl tyrosine kinase-dependent niche for immediate CD11b-dependent neutrophil responses to endotoxin and Gram-negative bloodstream pathogens. In an in vivo model of bacteremia, neutrophils crawled to and rapidly phagocytosed Escherichia coli sequestered to the lung endothelium...
April 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622982/comparison-of-the-vitek-2-antifungal-susceptibility-system-with-etest-using-clinical-isolates-of-candida-species
#7
Wadha Alfouzan, Tahani Al-Enezi, Ebteehal AlRoomi, Vayalil Sandhya, Rachel Chandy, Zia Uddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. AIMS: To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest...
June 13, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598310/in-vitro-activities-of-vancomycin-and-linezolid-against-biofilm-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-species-isolated-from-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-from-an-egyptian-tertiary-hospital
#8
Asmaa A Hashem, Noha M Abd El Fadeal, Atef S Shehata
PURPOSE: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to survey methicillin resistance, biofilm production and susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics for staphylococci isolated from CRBSIs. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-eight isolates [20 S. aureus and 38 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 20 Staphylococcusepidermidis, nine Staphylococcushaemolyticus, three Staphylococcusschleiferi, two Staphylococcuswarneri and four Staphylococcuslugdunensis)] were tested for methicillin resistance by cefoxitin disk diffusion and detection of the mecA gene by PCR; biofilm-forming ability using Congo red agar and tissue culture plate methods; susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin and tetracycline; and MIC determination for vancomycin...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594635/epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-a-chinese-children-s-hospital-predominance-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1
#9
Fang Dong, Ye Zhang, Kaihu Yao, Jie Lu, Lingyun Guo, Shuang Lyu, Ying Yang, Yan Wang, Hongyan Zheng, Wenqi Song, Gang Liu
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) has become a significant problem worldwide; however, relevant data in children are limited. We performed a retrospective study to better understand the epidemiology of CRKp bloodstream infections at Beijing Children's Hospital. A total of 164 K. pneumoniae strains were collected from blood cultures between January 2011 and September 2014, of which 52 (31.7%) were CRKp strains. All 52 CRKp strains were multidrug resistant; 46 (88.5%) and 49 (94...
June 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592925/second-generation-multiple-reaction-monitoring-assays-for-enhanced-detection-of-ultra-low-abundance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-peptides-in-human-serum
#10
Carolina Mehaffy, Karen M Dobos, Payam Nahid, Nicole A Kruh-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB), the number one cause of death due to an infectious disease. TB diagnosis is performed by microscopy, culture or PCR amplification of bacterial DNA, all of which require patient sputum or the biopsy of infected tissue. Detection of mycobacterial products in serum, as biomarkers of diagnosis or disease status would provide an improvement over current methods. Due to the low-abundance of mycobacterial products in serum, we have explored exosome enrichment to improve sensitivity...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542614/evaluation-of-the-sepsis-flow-chip-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-blood-infections
#11
Antonio Galiana, Javier Coy, Adelina Gimeno, Noemi Marco Guzman, Francisco Rosales, Esperanza Merino, Gloria Royo, Juan Carlos Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients. METHODS: In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514306/unusual-case-of-rapid-growing-intraabdominal-abscess-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-after-laparoscopic-appendectomy-due-to-perforated-appendicitis-a-case-report
#12
Dae Ro Lim, Jung Cheol Kuk, Taehyung Kim, Eung Jin Shin
INTRODUCTION: An intraabdominal abscess due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S maltophilia) infection is a very rare clinical manifestation. S maltophilia is a glucose nonfermentative, aerobic, gram-negative, mobile, and biofilm-forming bacterium. It is an opportunistic pathogen and uncommon cause of infection. Respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) and bloodstream infections (bacteremia) are the most common clinical manifestations of S maltophilia infection. CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes an unusual case of a rapidly growing, extremely large intraabdominal abscess (within 1 week during antibiotic therapy), which was detected 2 weeks after a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed for perforated appendicitis and was caused by multidrug-resistant S maltophilia infection...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506673/high-frequency-of-silver-resistance-genes-in-invasive-isolates-of-enterobacter-and-klebsiella-species
#13
S Sütterlin, M Dahlö, C Tellgren-Roth, W Schaal, Å Melhus
BACKGROUND: Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. AIM: To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested...
July 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#14
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498997/initiation-of-gametocytogenesis-at-very-low-parasite-density-in-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#15
Ryan Farid, Matthew W Dixon, Leann Tilley, James S McCarthy
The recent focus on the elimination of malaria has led to an increased interest in the role of sexual stages in its transmission. We introduce Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte exported protein-5 (PfGEXP5) transcript analysis as an important tool for evaluating the earliest (ring) stage sexual gametocytes in the blood of infected individuals. We show that gametocyte rings are detected in the peripheral blood immediately following establishment of asexual infections-without the need for triggers such as high-density asexual parasitemia or drug treatment...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490008/an-uncommon-st1224-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-the-bloodstream-of-a-leukemia-patient-in-china
#16
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jia Du, Cui Zhou, Jianming Cao, Hong Lu, Haiyang Liu, Wenzi Bi, Tieli Zhou
AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the clinical data and characteristics of an NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was used for the clinical data of the patient. The modified Hodge test (MHT) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-disk synergy test were used for detecting metallo-β-lactamase. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the agar dilution method...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481153/von-willebrand-factor-as-a-novel-player-in-valvular-heart-disease-from-bench-to-valve-replacement
#17
Felice Gragnano, Mario Crisci, Maurizio Cappelli Bigazzi, Renatomaria Bianchi, Simona Sperlongano, Francesco Natale, Fabio Fimiani, Claudia Concilio, Arturo Cesaro, Ivana Pariggiano, Vincenzo Diana, Giuseppe Limongelli, Plinio Cirillo, Mariagiovanna Russo, Enrica Golia, Paolo Calabrò
von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is a well-known mediator of hemostasis and vascular inflammation. Its dynamic modulation in the bloodstream, according to hemodynamic conditions, makes it an appealing biomarker in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Recent studies highlight the close connection between vWF and VHD, with possible implications in the pathogenesis of VHD, promoting valve aging and calcification or favoring the development of infective endocarditis. Moreover, vWF has been recently proposed as a new diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients with valve stenosis or regurgitation, showing a strict correlation with severity of valve disease, outcome, and bleeding (Heyde syndrome)...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472260/whole-genome-sequencing-accurately-identifies-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-for-major-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens
#18
Samuel A Shelburne, Jiwoong Kim, Jose M Munita, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Ryan K Shields, Ellen G Press, Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Brandi Cantarel, Ying Jiang, Min S Kim, Samuel L Aitken, David E Greenberg
Background: There is marked interest in using DNA based methods to detect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches increasingly being incorporated into clinical care. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) could offer significant advantages over targeted PCR for AMR detection, particularly for species where mutations are major drivers of AMR. Methods: Illumina MiSeq WGS and broth microdilution (BMD) assays were performed on 90 bloodstream isolates of the four most common gram-negative bacteria causing bloodstream infections in neutropenic patients...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449732/three-cases-of-mcr-1-positive-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-bloodstream-infections-in-italy-august-2016-to-january-2017
#19
Marta Corbella, Bianca Mariani, Carolina Ferrari, Francesco Comandatore, Erika Scaltriti, Piero Marone, Patrizia Cambieri
We describe three cases of bloodstream infection caused by colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in patients in a tertiary hospital in Italy, between August 2016 and January 2017. Whole genome sequencing detected the mcr-1 gene in three isolated strains belonging to different sequence types (STs). This occurrence of three cases with mcr-1-positive E. coli belonging to different STs in six months suggests a widespread problem in settings where high multidrug resistance is endemic such as in Italy.
April 20, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448786/microbiological-features-and-clinical-impact-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-t6ss-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-causing-bacteremia
#20
Jungok Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Haejeong Lee, Ji Young Choi, Dae Hun Kim, Yu Mi Wi, Kyong Ran Peck, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and 62 A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
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