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Bloodstream infection detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038276/reduced-chlorhexidine-and-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-after-serial-chlorhexidine-exposure
#1
Pooja Bhardwaj, Amrita Hans, Kinnari Ruikar, Ziqiang Guan, Kelli L Palmer
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are critical public health concerns because they are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a bisbiguanide cationic antiseptic that is routinely used for patient bathing and other infection control practices. VREfm are likely frequently exposed to CHX; however, the long-term effects of CHX exposure have not been studied in enterococci. In this study, we serially exposed VREfm to increasing concentrations of CHX for a period of 21 days in two independent experimental evolution trials...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038267/a-retrospective-analysis-of-treatment-and-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-with-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-isolates-possessing-detectable-meca-by-a-commercial-pcr-assay-compared-to-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus
#2
Dylan Jones, Ramy H Elshaboury, Erik Munson, Thomas J Dilworth
mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates phenotypically susceptible to cefoxitin (mecA-MSSA) have been identified. We describe treatment and outcomes among patients with mecA-MSSA bloodstream infections (BSI) and MRSA BSI patients matched 1:1 on age, BSI origin and BSI type (n=17 per group). Compared to MRSA BSI patients, mecA-MSSA BSI patients more often experienced clinical failure (58.8% and 11.8%, p=0.010), driven largely by persistent bacteremia (35.3% and 11.8%). mecA-MSSA BSI patients may be at higher risk for poor clinical outcomes...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032055/microbiological-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-causing-bloodstream-infection-from-five-tertiary-hospitals-in-beijing-china
#3
Yanning Ma, Chunmei Bao, Jie Liu, Xiuhong Hao, Jingui Cao, Liyan Ye, Jiyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibits prevalence in China. Little is known about the microbiological characterization of clinical K. pneumoniae isolates causing bloodstream infections (BSIs). METHODS: BSI-causing K. pneumoniae (BSIKpn) isolates were collected from five tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing, China. Their genetic relatedness was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution method, and sequence type (ST) was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031863/validation-of-healthcare-associated-infection-surveillance-in-smaller-australian-hospitals
#4
A Hoskins, L J Worth, N Imam, S A Johnson, A Bull, M J Richards, N Bennett
A validation study was conducted in smaller (<100 acute beds) Victorian hospitals to evaluate case-detection for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream (SAB), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections. Overall, 142 infections were identified in 20 hospitals. For routine surveillance of SAB events sensitivity was 74.4% and specificity was 100.0%. For MRSA infections, sensitivity was 47.5% and specificity was 90.9%. All confirmed VRE infections were correctly reported...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026535/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
Xia Zheng, Jian-Feng Wang, Wang-Lan Xu, Jun Xu, Juan Hu
BACKGROUND: To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) and carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKp) bloodstream infections (BSIs), and to study the risk factors for development of CRKp BSI and K. pneumoniae BSI-related mortality. METHODS: A retrospective case control study of patients with K. pneumoniae BSI was conducted in the intensive care unit of the First Affiliated Hospital, Medical of College, Zhejiang University from January 2013 to December 2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020294/predicting-resistance-to-piperacillin-tazobactam-cefepime-and-meropenem-in-septic-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-due-to-gram-negative-bacteria
#6
M Cristina Vazquez-Guillamet, Rodrigo Vazquez, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
Background: Predicting antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) could balance the need for administering appropriate empiric antibiotics while also minimizing the use of clinically unwarranted broad-spectrum agents. Our objective was to develop a practical prediction rule able to identify patients with GNB infection at low risk for resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam (PT), cefepime (CE), and meropenem (ME). Methods: The study included adult patients with sepsis or septic shock due to bloodstream infections caused by GNB admitted between 2008 and 2015 from Barnes-Jewish Hospital...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992058/species-distribution-virulence-factors-and-antifungal-susceptibility-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-from-clinical-specimens-at-siriraj-hospital-thailand-from-2011-to-2015
#7
Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
The Candida parapsilosis complex has been described as the second or third most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections worldwide. This complex consists of three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. The distribution of species in this complex has never been studied in Thailand. Here we investigated the molecular epidemiology, in vitro on virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates of these three species collected from patients in Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, from 2011 to 2015...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991406/burden-of-influenza-among-hospitalized-febrile-children-in-ghana
#8
Benedikt Hogan, Luise Ammer, Marlow Zimmermann, Tabea Binger, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Theresa Rettig, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Lisa Reigl, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach
BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance data from Africa indicate a substantial disease burden with high mortality. However local influenza data from district hospitals with limited laboratory facilities are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency and seasonal distribution of influenza among hospitalized febrile children in a rural hospital in Ghana and to describe differential diagnoses to other severe febrile infections. METHODS: Between January 2014 and April 2015 all children with a temperature of ≥38°C admitted to a district hospital in Ghana were screened for influenza A and B by RT-PCR and differentiated to subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974929/cost-effectiveness-of-pediatric-central-venous-catheters-in-the-uk-a-secondary-publication-from-the-catch-clinical-trial
#9
Colin H Ridyard, Catrin O Plumpton, Ruth E Gilbert, Dyfrig A Hughes
Background: Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) reduce the risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients treated in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). However, it is unclear if they are cost-effective from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. Methods: Economic evaluation alongside the CATCH trial (ISRCTN34884569) to estimate the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of antibiotic-impregnated (rifampicin and minocycline), heparin-bonded and standard polyurethane CVCs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962996/low-incidence-of-subsequent-bacteremia-or-fungemia-after-removal-of-a-colonized-intravascular-catheter-tip
#10
Niccolò Buetti, Elia Lo Priore, Andrew Atkinson, Andreas Kronenberg, Jonas Marschall
OBJECTIVES: We determined the frequency of subsequent bloodstream infection >2 days after removal of a catheter with positive tip cultures. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, observational study on intravascular catheter (IVC) tip cultures in Switzerland from 2008 to 2015 using data from the Swiss Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (ANRESIS). An IVC tip culture was included in the analysis if ≥1 microorganism could be cultivated from it. We excluded all data from patients with concurrent bacteremia with the same microorganism identified 7 days before to 2 days after IVC removal...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952968/comprehensive-volatile-metabolic-fingerprinting-of-bacterial-and-fungal-pathogen-groups
#11
Christiaan Rees, Alison Burklund, Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Joseph D Schwartzman, Jane E Hill
The identification of pathogen-specific volatile metabolic "fingerprints" could lead to the rapid identification of disease-causing organisms either directly from <i>ex vivo</i> patient bio-specimens or from <i>in vitro</i> cultures. In the present study, we have evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by 100 clinical isolates belonging to ten distinct pathogen groups that, in aggregate, account for 90 % of bloodstream infections, 90 % of urinary tract infections, and 80 % of infections encountered in the intensive care unit setting...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929959/-in-vitro-effect-of-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-on-biofilm-formation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#12
Duygu Nilüfer Öcal, İştar Dolapçı, Zeynep Gençtürk, Alper Tekeli
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are one of the primer agents of blood stream infections (BSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) which are associated mostly with the usage of central venous catheters and, important causes of morbidity and mortality despite the usage of antibacterial and supportive treatment. It is important to determine the properties of these causative microorganisms in order to make appropriate treatment of such infections. The aims of our study were to evaluate the biofilm formation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) which were causative agents of bloodstream (BSI) and catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic forms and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of sessile forms for vancomycin and daptomycin and to evaluate the efficacy of these antibiotics in infections with biofilm-forming isolates in vitro...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927452/vancomycin-heteroresistance-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-blood-stream-infections-from-patients-of-intensive-care-units-in-mansoura-university-hospitals-egypt
#13
Ghada El-Saeed Mashaly, Rasha Hassan El-Mahdy
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin heteroresistance in coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) is a recent health concern especially in serious infections like bloodstream infections as it may lead to failure of therapy. Little information is available about the prevalence vancomycin heteroresistance in CoNS causing bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) patients of Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs). METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 743 blood samples collected from ICUs patients presented with clinical manifestations of bloodstream infections over the period extending from January 2014 to March 2016...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920169/diagnostic-value-of-strem-1-il-8-pct-and-crp-in-febrile-neutropenia-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
C S Michel, D Teschner, E M Wagner, M Theobald, Markus P Radsak
Infections and infectious complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in febrile neutropenic patients after autologous stem cell transplantation. Laboratory biomarkers are helpful for early identification of critically ill patients and optimal therapy management. Several studies in adult non-neutropenic patients proposed sTREM-1 as a superior biomarker for identification of septic patients as well as a predictor for survival in these patients compared with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), or interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
September 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916373/methods-for-computational-disease-surveillance-in-infection-prevention-and-control-statistical-process-control-versus-twitter-s-anomaly-and-breakout-detection-algorithms
#15
Timothy L Wiemken, Stephen P Furmanek, William A Mattingly, Marc-Oliver Wright, Annuradha K Persaud, Brian E Guinn, Ruth M Carrico, Forest W Arnold, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. METHODS: SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911341/rapid-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-related-species-isolated-from-food-environment-cosmetics-a-medical-device-and-clinical-samples-using-the-vitek-ms-microbial-identification-system
#16
Irshad M Sulaiman, Pratik Banerjee, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Nancy Miranda, Steven Simpson, Khalil Kerdahi
Staphylococcus spp. is considered as one of the most common human-pathogenic bacteria, causing illnesses ranging from nonthreatening skin infections to lethal diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and food poisoning. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has increased morbidity and mortality and resulted in a major healthcare burden worldwide. Single and multilocus sequence typing have been extensively used in the identification of Staphylococcus species...
September 15, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882017/utility-of-rapid-microbiological-techniques-for-the-diagnosis-of-severe-infections
#17
REVIEW
E Cercenado
Rapid diagnostic microbiological techniques and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary for early and adequate treatment. The utility of old (Gram stain, antigen detection, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing, chromogenic media) and new techniques (molecular assays, MALDI-TOF) is summarized for the rapid diagnosis of bacteraemia and fungaemia, catheter-related bloodstream infections, pneumonia, meningitis, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infection, Clostridium difficile infection, viral infections, and tuberculosis...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#18
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842712/biochips-for-direct-detection-and-identification-of-bacteria-in-blood-culture-like-conditions
#19
V Templier, T Livache, S Boisset, M Maurin, S Slimani, R Mathey, Y Roupioz
Bloodstream bacterial infections are life-threatening conditions necessitating prompt medical care. Rapid pathogen identification is essential for early setting of the best anti-infectious therapy. However, the bacterial load in blood samples from patients with bacteremia is too low and under the limit of detection of most methods for direct identification of bacteria. Therefore, a preliminary step enabling the bacterial multiplication is required. To do so, blood cultures still remain the gold standard before bacteremia diagnosis...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835055/-patients-of-escherichia-coli-bloodstream-infection-analysis-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-predictors-of-mortality
#20
S J Zhao, Y Q Fu, M X Zhu, H Zhou, M Xu, R L Yan, Y X Shui, J Y Zhou
Objective: To analyze the drug resistance of Escherichia coli (E.coli) from bloodstream infection (BSI) and the predictors of mortality in E. coli bloodstream infection (BSI). Methods: The clinical data of 139 E. coli BSI cases diagnosed from January 2012 to December 2015 in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Lanxi Branch (Lanxi People's Hospital), Zhejiang Province, were retrospectively analyzed. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Vitek 2 system...
August 22, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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