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Bloodstream infection detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227744/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-causing-bloodstream-infections-in-adults
#1
Meritxell Cubero, Imma Grau, Fe Tubau, Román Pallarés, M Ángeles Domínguez, Josefina Liñares, Carmen Ardanuy
Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremic strains allows for a better understanding of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of 348 K. pneumoniae bacteremia cases (2007-2009) were retrospectively characterized by multilocus sequence typing and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production. Overall, 223 (64.08%) cases were nosocomial (NA), 58 (16.67%) healthcare associated, and 67 (19.25%) community acquired. The main infection origins were urinary tract (16...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224313/-incidence-of-blood-stream-infections-of-1265-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-analysis-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#2
Q Z Han, Y Chen, H Yang, X F Zhang, J Chen, D P Wu, S N Chen, H Y Qiu
Objective: To analyze the incidence and microbiological features of blood stream infections (BSI) of patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to provide laboratory data for empirical use of antibiotic for the HSCT patients with BSI. Methods: The incidence of bloodstream infection, the positive rate of blood culture, bacterial spectrum and drug resistance were analyzed in 1 265 HSCT recipients during 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Results: Of 1265 patients undergoing HSCT, 1 422 cases of suspected BSI occurred in 784 patients (61...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208056/importation-mitigation-and-genomic-epidemiology-of-candida-auris-at-a-large-teaching-hospital
#3
Emil P Lesho, Melissa Z Bronstein, Patrick McGann, Jason Stam, Yoon Kwak, Rosslyn Maybank, Jodi McNamara, Megan Callahan, Jean Campbell, Mary K Hinkle, Edward E Walsh
OBJECTIVE Candida auris (CA) is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with increased mortality. The environment may play a role, but transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. We sought to limit environmental and patient CA contamination following a sustained unsuspected exposure. DESIGN Quasi-experimental observation. SETTING A 528-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS The index case patient and 17 collocated ward mates. INTERVENTION Immediately after confirmation of CA in the bloodstream and urine of a patient admitted 6 days previously, active surveillance, enhanced transmission-based precautions, environmental cleaning with peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light, and patient relocation were undertaken...
December 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201229/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-cvfb-sek-and-seq-genes-among-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#4
Bing-Shao Liang, Yan-Mei Huang, Yin-Shuang Chen, Hui Dong, Jia-Liang Mai, Yong-Qiang Xie, Hua-Min Zhong, Qiu-Lian Deng, Yan Long, Yi-Yu Yang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhen-Wen Zhou
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182627/human-papillomavirus-dna-detection-in-plasma-and-cervical-samples-of-women-with-a-recent-history-of-low-grade-or-precancerous-cervical-dysplasia
#5
Clementina Elvezia Cocuzza, Marianna Martinelli, Federica Sina, Andrea Piana, Giovanni Sotgiu, Tiziana Dell'Anna, Rosario Musumeci
Circulating HPV DNA has been previously described in women with advanced stages of cervical cancer and has been suggested to be a prognostic marker of disease recurrences and metastases. Only a few studies have reported the presence of HPV DNA in bloodstream of patients with low grade or precancerous cervical lesions. This study aimed to define if HPV DNA could be detected in plasma samples of 120 women referred for a recent history of cervical dysplasia who presented with lesions ranging from High Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (H-SIL) to regressed normal cytology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181727/hospital-acquired-infection-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-control-study-in-a-southern-chinese-population
#6
Zhongping Zhan, Minxi Lao, Fan Su, Dongying Chen, Liuqin Liang, Xiuyan Yang
The objective of this study is to investigate the current situation of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in lupus patients from a southern Chinese population. A case-control study was performed. Data from Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2017 were collected. Each lupus patient with HAI was compared with two control individuals without infection selected from the same period of time. Three hundred and sixty episodes of HAI were analyzed. The average Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score at admission was 13...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178839/effects-of-ifn-%C3%AE-coding-plasmid-supplementation-in-the-immune-response-and-protection-elicited-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-attenuated-parasites
#7
Cecilia Pérez Brandán, Andrea C Mesías, Cecilia Parodi, Rubén O Cimino, Carolina Pérez Brandán, Patricio Diosque, Miguel Ángel Basombrío
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that a naturally attenuated strain from Trypanosoma cruzi triggers an immune response mainly related to a Th2-type profile. Albeit this, a strong protection against virulent challenge was obtained after priming mice with this attenuated strain. However, this protection is not enough to completely clear parasites from the host. In T. cruzi infection, early Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is critical to lead type 1 responses able to control intracellular parasites...
November 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168382/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-in-trypanosomes
#8
Nilmar Silvio Moretti, Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Ken Stuart, Sergio Schenkman
Protein acetylation is a post-translational modification regulating diverse cellular processes. By using proteomic approaches we identified N-terminal and ε-lysine acetylated proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, which are protozoan parasites that cause significant human and animal diseases. We detected 288 lysine acetylation sites in 210 proteins of procyclic form, an insect stage of T. brucei, and 380 acetylation sites in 285 proteins in the form of the parasite that replicates in mammalian bloodstream...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158893/evaluation-of-a-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-cluster-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#9
Stefanie Kampmeier, Mike H Pillukat, Aleksandra Pettke, Annelene Kossow, Evgeny A Idelevich, Alexander Mellmann
Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ubiquitously occurs in the hospital environment. This opportunistic pathogen can cause severe infections in immunocompromised hosts such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Between February and July 2016, a cluster of four patients on the HSCT unit suffered from S. maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI). Methods: For epidemiological investigation we retrospectively identified the colonization status of patients admitted to the ward during this time period and performed environmental monitoring of shower heads, shower outlets, washbasins and toilets in patient rooms...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151282/epidemiology-and-impact-of-bloodstream-infections-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-single-center-experience
#10
Ali M Shendi, Gabriel Wallis, Helena Painter, Mark Harber, Sophie Collier
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) represent an important source of morbidity and mortality, as well as an increasing therapeutic challenge, among solid organ transplant recipients. Understanding the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of BSI following renal transplantation is paramount to the implementation of appropriate preventative and therapeutic measures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all BSI episodes occurring between July 2009 and April 2016 in adult patients, who received a renal transplant at Royal Free London hospital...
November 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150371/emergence-of-polymyxin-b-resistance-in-a-polymyxin-b-susceptible-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neutropenic-patient-during-polymyxin-b-therapy
#11
Alexandre P Zavascki, Raquel Girardello, Cibele M Magagnin, Laura C Antochevis, Rafael A Maciel, Jussara K Palmeiro, Ana C Gales
The emergence of resistance to polymyxins in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates has been a major clinical problem. This study evaluated the molecular mechanisms associated with polymyxin B (PMB) resistance that emerged in a previously PMB-susceptible KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae during PMB therapy for a bloodstream infection in a neutropenic patient. The first isolate (PMB-susceptible) was obtained while the patient was receiving meropenem and other isolates were recovered from 2 sets of blood cultures in different dates while the patient was receiving PMB therapy (4 of 6 blood cultures bottles yielded isolates with full PMB resistance)...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143662/heat-treatment-and-false-positive-heartworm-antigen-testing-in-ex-vivo-parasites-and-dogs-naturally-infected-by-dirofilaria-repens-and-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#12
Luigi Venco, Simone Manzocchi, Marco Genchi, Laura H Kramer
BACKGROUND: Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142077/syndromic-panel-based-testing-in-clinical-microbiology
#13
REVIEW
Poornima Ramanan, Alexandra L Bryson, Matthew J Binnicker, Bobbi S Pritt, Robin Patel
The recent development of commercial panel-based molecular diagnostics for the rapid detection of pathogens in positive blood culture bottles, respiratory specimens, stool, and cerebrospinal fluid has resulted in a paradigm shift in clinical microbiology and clinical practice. This review focuses on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared multiplex molecular panels with more than five targets designed to assist in the diagnosis of bloodstream, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, or central nervous system infections...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118168/use-of-accelerate-pheno%C3%A2-system-for-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-id-ast-of-pathogens-in-positive-blood-cultures-and-impact-on-time-to-results-and-workflow
#14
Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Vera Tesic, Nedra Love, Brandy Hill, Cindy Bethel, Sue Boonlayangoor, Kathleen G Beavis
The Accelerate Pheno™ system uses automated fluorescence in situ hybridization technology with morphokinetic cellular analysis to provide rapid species identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results for the most commonly identified organisms in bloodstream infections.Objective was to evaluate the accuracy and workflow of bacterial and yeast ID, and bacterial AST using the Accelerate Pheno™ system in the clinical microbiology laboratory.Consecutive fresh blood cultures received in the laboratory were analyzed by the Accelerate Pheno™ system within 0 - 8 h of growth detection...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095722/pcr-based-tests-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-sepsis-where-do-we-stand
#15
Andrew N Ginn, Catriona L Halliday, Abby P Douglas, Sharon C-A Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bloodstream infections are a major cause of hospital and ICU admission with high morbidity and mortality; however, early and targeted antimicrobial therapy reduces mortality in high-risk patients. This article focuses on the diagnosis of bloodstream infections by PCR-based approaches at an early stage to enable prompt treatment and prevent organ dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: PCR systems offering highly multiplexed targeting of bacterial and/or fungal pathogens (in whole blood) offer the best opportunity for clinical impact, as informed decisions can be made within 4-8 h of the blood draw...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095200/emerging-multidrug-resistant-candida-species
#16
Arnaldo L Colombo, João N de Almeida Júnior, Jesus Guinea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida spp. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing numbers of reports describing invasive infections by MDR Candida auris and Candida glabrata has been reported in medical centers worldwide. SUMMARY: We checked all papers published along the last 10 years describing epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of infections by MDR Candida spp...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079115/molecular-characterization-of-glycopeptide-and-macrolide-resistance-genes-among-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-strains
#17
Asieh Taji, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari
BACKGROUND: Multiple-drug-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major cause of healthcare associated infections due to their antibiotic resistance traits. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: A total of 51 E. faecalis strains were isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs), bloodstream infections, respiratory tract infections, abdominal infections, and eye infection...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063880/discriminatory-power-of-three-typing-techniques-in-determining-relatedness-of-nosocomial-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-india
#18
Swathi Purighalla, Sarita Esakimuthu, Mallika Reddy, George K Varghese, Vijay S Richard, Vasan K Sambandamurthy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of two DNA-based technique and a protein-based technique for the typing of nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A second objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and characterise the presence of genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in India between December 2014 and December 2015 were studied...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038276/reduced-chlorhexidine-and-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-after-serial-chlorhexidine-exposure
#19
Pooja Bhardwaj, Amrita Hans, Kinnari Ruikar, Ziqiang Guan, Kelli L Palmer
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are critical public health concerns because they are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a bisbiguanide cationic antiseptic that is routinely used for patient bathing and other infection control practices. VREfm are likely frequently exposed to CHX; however, the long-term effects of CHX exposure have not been studied in enterococci. In this study, we serially exposed VREfm to increasing concentrations of CHX for a period of 21 days in two independent experimental evolution trials...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038267/a-retrospective-analysis-of-treatment-and-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-with-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-isolates-possessing-detectable-meca-by-a-commercial-pcr-assay-compared-to-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus
#20
Dylan Jones, Ramy H Elshaboury, Erik Munson, Thomas J Dilworth
mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates phenotypically susceptible to cefoxitin (mecA-MSSA) have been identified. We describe treatment and outcomes among patients with mecA-MSSA bloodstream infections (BSI) and MRSA BSI patients matched 1:1 on age, BSI origin and BSI type (n=17 per group). Compared to MRSA BSI patients, mecA-MSSA BSI patients more often experienced clinical failure (58.8% and 11.8%, p=0.010), driven largely by persistent bacteremia (35.3% and 11.8%). mecA-MSSA BSI patients may be at higher risk for poor clinical outcomes...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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