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Bloodstream infection detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital-a-six-year-study
#1
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children all over the world. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children admitted to the Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of the patients with positive blood cultures was collected from March 2011 to September 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721352/detection-of-mcr-1-carrying-escherichia-coli-causing-bloodstream-infection-in-a-new-york-city-hospital-avian-origins-human-concerns
#2
Nenad Macesic, Daniel Green, Zheng Wang, Sean B Sullivan, Kevin Shim, Sarah Park, Susan Whittier, E Yoko Furuya, Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
The spread of mcr-1 in the United States remains poorly defined. mcr-1-producing Escherichia coli that also carried blaSHV-12 was detected in a hospitalized patient. No additional cases were identified during screening of 801 Gram-negative isolates. Genomic sequencing identified an IncX4 mcr-1- harboring plasmid and ST117 clonal background associated with avian pathogenic E coli.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717239/a-novel-pathogen-capturing-device-for-removal-and-detection
#3
Gwangseong Kim, Horatiu Vinerean, Angelo Gaitas
A simple technique that employs an antibody coated polydimethylsiloxane tube is used for effective capturing of bloodborne and foodborne pathogens. By recirculating the entire sample through the antibody coated tube, accumulation of target pathogens is achieved, thereby delivering a higher concentration of pathogens in a small volume. The described method can provide an effective and economical solution to microbiology techniques that rely on enrichment, thereby expediting diagnostics. Using this method 80...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716670/nationwide-study-on-peripheral-venous-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-internal-medicine-departments
#4
María Guembe, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, José Antonio Capdevila, José Barberán, Blanca Pinilla, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: The use of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) has increased outside the intensive care unit, as have rates of peripheral venous catheter associated-bloodstream infection (PVC-BSI). The internal medicine department (IMD) is one of the main wards where PVCs are widely used. However, data on the incidence of PVC-BSI and its characteristics in the IMD are scarce. AIM: Our objective was to assess the incidence of PVC-BSI episodes detected in IMDs in Spain...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713357/extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-china-molecular-investigation-of-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-informing-therapy-and-clinical-outcomes
#5
Wenzi Bi, Haiyang Liu, Rhys A Dunstan, Bin Li, Von Vergel L Torres, Jianming Cao, Lijiang Chen, Jonathan J Wilksch, Richard A Strugnell, Trevor Lithgow, Tieli Zhou
The rise in diversity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae is becoming a serious antibiotic management problem. We sought to investigate the molecular characteristics and clinical implications of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae isolated from different nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) patients from July 2013 to November 2015. Even in combination treatment, meropenem did not protect against mortality of BSIs patients (P = 0.015). In contrast, tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobial agents significantly protected against mortality (P = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708463/epidemiological-trends-observed-from-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-blood-cultures-at-a-japanese-university-hospital-2012-2015
#6
Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Itaru Nakamura, Shinobu Koyama, Kiyoko Tamai, Takashi Okanda, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Despite increasing reports of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Japan, the extent to which these strains cause nosocomial infections remains unknown, and this is especially true for bloodstream infections. In this study, we molecularly characterized MRSA isolates from Japanese blood samples. Among the 151 MRSA isolates collected from 53 medical facilities in 2011, 115 (76%) and 30 (20%) were classified as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types II and IV, respectively, while the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in only two isolates...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705768/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-infections-in-burn-patients-from-the-formosa-fun-coast-dust-explosion
#7
Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Chih-Chien Chiu, Ya-Sung Yang, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bloodstream infection is a leading cause of mortality among burn patients. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors, causative pathogens, and the relationship between bloodstream infections and other infections among burn patients from the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the demographic and clinical characteristics, infection types, causative pathogen(s), and isolates' antibiotic susceptibilities from patients who were hospitalized between June 27 and September 31, 2015...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683646/bloodstream-infections-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-treated-according-to-the-finnish-leukemia-group-aml-2003-protocol-a-prospective-nationwide-study
#8
Aarne Kolonen, Marjatta Sinisalo, Reetta Huttunen, Jaana Syrjänen, Janne Aittoniemi, Heini Huhtala, Marja Sankelo, Hannele Rintala, Riikka Räty, Esa Jantunen, Tapio Nousiainen, Marjaana Säily, Marjut Kauppila, Maija Itälä-Remes, Hanna Ollikainen, Auvo Rauhala, Pirjo Koistinen, Erkki Elonen
BACKGROUND: Infections greatly influence the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, microbial etiology, risk factors and prognosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with AML and compare the results with the previous treatment protocol (AML-92). METHODS: Registery data were gathered prospectively from 357 patients aged 16-65 years recruited on the AML-2003 treatment protocol between November 2003 and November 2011 during different treatment cycles...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679460/serratia-marcescens-bacteremia-nosocomial-cluster-following-narcotic-diversion
#9
Leah M Schuppener, Aurora E Pop-Vicas, Erin G Brooks, Megan N Duster, Christopher J Crnich, Alana K Sterkel, Aaron P Webb, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation and control of a cluster of Serratia marcescens bacteremia in a 505-bed tertiary-care center. METHODS Cluster cases were defined as all patients with S. marcescens bacteremia between March 2 and April 7, 2014, who were found to have identical or related blood isolates determined by molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cases were compared using bivariate analysis with controls admitted at the same time and to the same service as the cases, in a 4:1 ratio...
July 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671944/predominance-of-asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-infections-characterizes-the-plasmodium-gametocyte-reservoir-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#10
Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Juan José Contreras-Mancilla, Roberson Ramirez, Mitchel Guzmán-Guzmán, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz, Dionicia Gamboa, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Malaria transmission requires that Anopheles mosquitoes ingest Plasmodium gametocyte stages circulating in the human bloodstream. In the context of malaria elimination, understanding the epidemiology of gametocytes relative to all Plasmodium infections and the contribution of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic parasite carriers to the gametocyte reservoir is necessary, especially in low endemic settings with predominance of P.vivax. A 13-month longitudinal study was conducted in two communities (n = 1935 individuals) of Loreto Department, Peru, with five active screenings for Plasmodium infections and gametocyte stages by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670975/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-bloodstream-infection-indian-experience
#11
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Chaitra Shankar, Susmitha Karunasree, Shantha Kumari, Raji Ravi, Ravikar Ralph
Increased incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative infection has resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the commonest MDR pathogens causing bacteraemia with limited therapeutic options such as colistin and tigecycline. Present study focused on molecular characterisation of MDR K. pneumoniae from bloodstream infection and their clinical outcome. A total of 115 K. pneumoniae from January 2015 to September 2016 were included in the study which comprised of phenotypically identified ESBL and carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668656/epidemiology-management-and-outcome-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-hospitals-within-the-same-endemic-metropolitan-area
#12
Maria Luisa Cristina, Cristiano Alicino, Marina Sartini, Valeria Faccio, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Valerio Del Bono, Giovanni Cassola, Anna Maria De Mite, Maria Paola Crisalli, Gianluca Ottria, Elisa Schinca, Giuliano Lo Pinto, Luigi Carlo Bottaro, Claudio Viscoli, Andrea Orsi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Giancarlo Icardi
In the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become endemic in several countries, including Italy. In the present study, we assessed the differences in epidemiology, management, and mortality of CR-Kp bloodstream infection (BSI) in the three main adult acute-care hospitals of the metropolitan area of Genoa, Italy. From January 2013 to December 2014, all patients with CR-Kp BSI were identified through the computerized microbiology laboratory databases of the three hospitals. The primary endpoints of the study were incidence and characteristics of CR-Kp BSI in hospitals within the same endemic metropolitan area...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662657/bacteraemia-and-fungaemia-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-febrile-pulmonary-exacerbation-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Joerg Grosse-Onnebrink, Florian Stehling, Eva Tschiedel, Margarete Olivier, Uwe Mellies, Rene Schmidt, Jan Buer, Peter-Micheal Rath, Joerg Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream pathogens can be identified by multiplex PCR (SeptiFast (SF)) or blood culture (BC); whether these pathogens are present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients during febrile pulmonary exacerbations (FPE) has not been sufficiently studied. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, blood from CF patients experiencing FPE was tested with SF and BC before the initiation of antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: After contaminants had been excluded, 9 of 72 blood samples tested positive by BC or SF...
June 29, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647051/longitudinal-nosocomial-outbreak-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-bloodstream-infection-of-2-years-duration-in-a-coronary-care-unit
#14
Yuichiro Oba, Takahiro Nakajima, Chiyo Ogida, Miyuki Kawanami, Mamoru Fujiwara, Ikuko Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of bloodstream infections (BSI) of nonfermenting bacteria are a critical issue and often associated with hospital environments. We experienced a long-lasting outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens BSI limited to a coronary care unit (CCU). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic investigation and a case-control study for Pseudomonas fluorescens BSI from April 2011-July 2014. Environmental sample culture was conducted to detect the specific environmental source of transmission...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642012/evaluation-of-a-device-combining-an-inferior-vena-cava-filter-and-a-central-venous-catheter-for-preventing-pulmonary-embolism-among-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#15
Victor F Tapson, Joshua P Hazelton, John Myers, Claudia Robertson, Ramyar Gilani, Julie A Dunn, Marko Bukur, Martin A Croce, Ann Peick, Sonlee West, Lawrence Lottenberg, Jay Doucet, Preston R Miller, Bruce Crookes, Rajesh R Gandhi, Chasen A Croft, Anthony Manasia, Brian A Hoey, Howard Lieberman, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Victor Novack, Gregory Piazza, Samuel Z Goldhaber
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of a novel device that combines an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and central venous catheter (CVC) for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical trial, the device was inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopy and subsequently retrieved before transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from clinically significant PE or fatal PE 72 hours after device removal or discharge, whichever occurred first...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638594/high-burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-critical-care-unit-of-nepal
#16
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Keshab Parajuli, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) and antimicrobial resistance are principal threats to the patients of intensive care units and are the major determining factors for patient outcome. They are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, excess hospitalization and financial costs. The present study is an attempt to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates involved in healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in the patients of a critical care unit at a tertiary care university hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637912/parallel-evaluation-of-the-maldi-sepsityper-and-verigene-bc-gn-assays-for-rapid-identification-of-gram-negative-bacilli-from-positive-blood-cultures
#17
Miguel A Arroyo, Gerald A Denys
Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures has improved clinical management and antimicrobial stewardship. The advent of the matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has reduced the time to identification of cultured isolates and is now often the definitive method used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The commercial in vitro diagnostic MALDI Sepsityper (Sepsityper) kit has the potential for standardization and clinical routine use for the rapid identification of a broad range of bacteria from positive blood cultures...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631944/clinical-significance-of-repeat-blood-cultures-during-febrile-neutropenia-in-adult-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-undergoing-intensive-chemotherapy
#18
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Masaharu Tamaki, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Tomotaka Ugai, Machiko Kusuda, Kazuaki Kameda, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Shinichi Kako, Aki Tanihara, Yoshinobu Kanda
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical significance of repeat blood cultures in persistent and recurrent fever during neutropenia in adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the chemotherapy cycles at our centre between January 2007 and December 2015. Blood cultures obtained within three days after initial febrile neutropenia (FN) were defined as initial blood cultures and those obtained on or after day 4 were defined as repeat blood cultures...
June 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626833/the-lung-is-a-host-defense-niche-for-immediate-neutrophil-mediated-vascular-protection
#19
Bryan G Yipp, Jung Hwan Kim, Ronald Lima, Lori D Zbytnuik, Björn Petri, Nick Swanlund, May Ho, Vivian G Szeto, Tamar Tak, Leo Koenderman, Peter Pickkers, Anton T J Tool, Taco W Kuijpers, Timo K van den Berg, Mark R Looney, Matthew F Krummel, Paul Kubes
Bloodstream infection is a hallmark of sepsis, a medically emergent condition requiring rapid treatment. However, upregulation of host defense proteins through toll-like receptors and NFκB requires hours after endotoxin detection. Using confocal pulmonary intravital microscopy, we identified that the lung provides a TLR4-Myd88-and abl tyrosine kinase-dependent niche for immediate CD11b-dependent neutrophil responses to endotoxin and Gram-negative bloodstream pathogens. In an in vivo model of bacteremia, neutrophils crawled to and rapidly phagocytosed Escherichia coli sequestered to the lung endothelium...
April 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622982/comparison-of-the-vitek-2-antifungal-susceptibility-system-with-etest-using-clinical-isolates-of-candida-species
#20
Wadha Alfouzan, Tahani Al-Enezi, Ebteehal AlRoomi, Vayalil Sandhya, Rachel Chandy, Zia Uddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. AIMS: To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest...
June 13, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
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