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Gem Mohan, Julius X Scott, Rizwana Nasrin, Latha Sneha, Rakesh Manohar, Lalitha Subramanian, Sowmiya Narayani, Aruna Rajendran
BACKGROUND: The first counseling or the exchange between the physician and the parent(s) of children with cancer is of vital importance as it sets the tone for the rest of the treatment. The goal of our study was to find out the preferences among parents of Indian children with cancer regarding communication and breaking of bad news when fully informed about the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 60 parents who had been counseled within 3 months from diagnosis were interviewed with a prepared questionnaire directed at eliciting their experiences with the physicians who broke the bad news to them and also suggestions to improve the exchange...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Li-Qiang Han, Xia Yuan, Xing-Yu Wu, Ri-Dong Li, Bo Xu, Qing Cheng, Zhen-Ming Liu, Tian-Yan Zhou, Hao-Yun An, Xin Wang, Tie-Ming Cheng, Ze-Mei Ge, Jing-Rong Cui, Run-Tao Li
A novel class of urea-containing peptide boronic acids as proteasome inhibitors was designed by introducing a urea scaffold to replace an amido bond. Compounds were synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated. After two rounds of optimizations, the compound I-14 was found to be a potent proteasome inhibitor. Compared with Bortezomib, I-14 showed higher potency against the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome (IC50 < 1 pM), similar potency against four different cancer cell lines (IC50 < 10 nM), and better pharmacokinetic profile...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Soh Youn Suh, Robert A Clark, Alan Le, Joseph L Demer
Purpose: To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
H Orpana, M Chawla, E Gallagher, E Escaravage
INTRODUCTION: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC) initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Ke Yuan, Sang Soo Lee, Vincent De Andrade, Neil C Sturchio, Paul Fenter
The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb(2)(+) concentration and pH...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Maria Eduarda Assad Duarte, Ricardo Martins Machado, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da Motta, José Nelson Mucha, Alexandre Trindade Motta
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate how different forms of incisal embrasures influence the esthetic perception of the smile, the preferences of each group of evaluators, and the influence of gingival display. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two photographs of a broad male and female smiles were digitally manipulated to remove imperfections and asymmetries. A second manipulation was performed on the four maxillary incisors, creating 3 different forms of incisal embrasures: rounded, semi-rounded and squared...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Iain A Sawyer, David Sturgill, Myong-Hee Sung, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells...
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Inimary T Toby, Mikhail K Levin, Edward A Salinas, Scott Christley, Sanchita Bhattacharya, Felix Breden, Adam Buntzman, Brian Corrie, John Fonner, Namita T Gupta, Uri Hershberg, Nishanth Marthandan, Aaron Rosenfeld, William Rounds, Florian Rubelt, Walter Scarborough, Jamie K Scott, Mohamed Uduman, Jason A Vander Heiden, Richard H Scheuermann, Nancy Monson, Steven H Kleinstein, Lindsay G Cowell
BACKGROUND: The genes that produce antibodies and the immune receptors expressed on lymphocytes are not germline encoded; rather, they are somatically generated in each developing lymphocyte by a process called V(D)J recombination, which assembles specific, independent gene segments into mature composite genes. The full set of composite genes in an individual at a single point in time is referred to as the immune repertoire. V(D)J recombination is the distinguishing feature of adaptive immunity and enables effective immune responses against an essentially infinite array of antigens...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Keishi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Minato, Hitomi Onishi, Yuki Mitani, Jun Kawai
Primary pulmonary neoplasms of the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) are extremely rare and usually occur in adolescents or young adults. Only about 40 cases of pulmonary EFT have been reported in English literature, and no cytological studies have been documented. In this report, we describe the cytopathological findings of a primary pulmonary EFT in an elderly patient. A 70-year-old man sought care because of a progressing cough and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed a circumscribed mass of 6 cm in the left upper lobe...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Fatemeh Mohammad Pour Ghazi, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 is the main causative agent of cholera diseases defined by life threatening rice watery diarrhea. Cholera routine vaccination has failed in controlling epidemics in developing countries because of their hard and expensive production. In this study, our aim was to investigate phage displayed mimotopes that could mimic V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although LPS of Vibrio, as an endotoxin, can stimulate the immune system, thereby making it a suitable candidate for cholera vaccine, its toxicity remains as a main problem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure-a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect (Experiments 1a and 1b) before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes (Experiment 2). We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Nicole Cathcart, Neil Coombs, Ilya Gourevich, Vladimir Kitaev
In this work, we use silver decahedral nanoparticle (AgDeNP) seeds to synthesize pentagonal silver stars (AgStDeNPs) and study the sensing properties of these nanoparticles. The regrowth process of AgStDeNPs is kinetically-controlled, so the purity of the seed NPs is critical to avoid secondary deposition in the highly non-equilibrium reduction. To control the regrowth process, surface blocking with sodium polyacrylate (PANa) was implemented. PANa moderates rough silver nanostructures typically obtained by reduction with ascorbic acid...
October 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Santiago Sánchez Pardo, Javier Duque, Javier Enrique Fajardo
Glomus tumors are uncommon tumors that are originated from smooth muscle cells of the neuromioarterials glomus bodies located in the arteriovenous anastomoses subcutaneous tissue or deep dermis of the extremities, mainly in the palms of the hands, wrists and subungual areas of the fingers. Carcinoid tumor, as the glomus tumor, can show an organoid pattern, increased vascularity, and uniform, round cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, but usually are positive for cytokeratin and always stained with chromogranin and synaptophysin showing negative for smooth muscle markers which is presented in our case...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ilhem Guesmi-Mzoughi, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2 [Table: see text] [Table: see text] ). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Emmanuel A Tzortzakakis, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Nicholas Clarke, Deirdre McNamara, Patricia M Kearney, Colm A O'Morain, Nikki Shearer, Linda Sharp
This study aimed to investigate the effects of sex and deprivation on participation in a population-based faecal immunochemical test (FIT) colorectal cancer screening programme. The study population included 9785 individuals invited to participate in two rounds of a population-based biennial FIT-based screening programme, in a relatively deprived area of Dublin, Ireland. Explanatory variables included in the analysis were sex, deprivation category of area of residence and age (at end of screening). The primary outcome variable modelled was participation status in both rounds combined (with "participation" defined as having taken part in either or both rounds of screening)...
October 17, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
Australopithecus afarensis is the best-known and most dimorphic species in the early hominin fossil record. Here, we present a comparative description of new fossil specimens of Au. afarensis from Nefuraytu, a 3.330-3.207 million-years-old fossil collection area in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. These specimens include NFR-VP-1/29, one of the most complete mandibles assigned to the species thus far and among the largest mandibles attributed to Au. afarensis, likely representing a male individual...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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