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Visceral adiposity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471595/circulating-piiinp-levels-identify-adipose-tissue-associated-inflammation-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-and-without-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
I Barchetta, F A Cimini, R De Gioannis, G Ciccarelli, L Bertoccini, A Lenzi, M G Baroni, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Procollagen-III peptide (PIIINP) is a marker of fibrosis associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk and progression of chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH); its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been elucidated yet. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating PIIINP levels, metabolic traits and body fat distribution in subjects with T2DM with or without NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from sixty-two T2DM subjects recruited in our Diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, were analysed...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467799/exposure-to-maternal-cafeteria-diets-during-the-suckling-period-has-greater-effects-on-fat-deposition-and-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-srebp-1c-gene-expression-in-rodent-offspring-compared-to-exposure-before-birth
#2
M A Vithayathil, J R Gugusheff, Z Y Ong, S C Langley-Evans, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
Background: While the adverse metabolic effects of exposure to obesogenic diets during both the prenatal and early postnatal period are well established, the relative impact of exposure during these separate developmental windows remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relative contribution of exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in the offspring. Methods: Wistar rats were fed either a control chow (Control, n  = 14) or obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF, n  = 12) during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467670/zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-people-and-hfd-induced-obese-mice
#3
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467502/cdh13-abundance-interferes-with-adipocyte-differentiation-and-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-adipose-tissue-health
#4
Simon Göddeke, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Gereon Poschmann, Frederique van de Velde, Tim Benninghoff, Hadi Al-Hasani, Sylvia Jacob, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Bruno Lapauw, Stefan Lehr, D Margriet Ouwens, Jorg Kotzka
BACKGROUND: CDH13, an atypical member of the cadherin superfamily, has been identified in adipocyte secretomes of lean mouse models. CDH13 abundance differs in mouse models according to their susceptibility to develop metabolic disorders, but the role of CDH13 in adipose tissue is unknown. METHODS: Secreted CDH13 protein levels and mRNA levels in visceral adipose tissue were determined in lean and obese mouse models. In vitro studies were performed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the role of CDH13 in adipocyte differentiation...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466957/altered-dna-methylation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissues-derived-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Francisco Barajas-Olmos, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Carlos Zerrweck, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Emilio J Cordova, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Faustino Gálvez, Armando Castillo, Hernán Maydón, Francisco Campos, Diana Gabriela Maldonado-Pintado, Lorena Orozco
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. From these patients, we obtained samples of liver tissue (n = 16), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (n = 30), and peripheral blood (n = 38)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465306/sex-dimorphism-in-the-distribution-of-adipose-tissue-and-its-influence-on-proinflammatory-adipokines-and-cardiometabolic-profiles-in-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Gary J Farkas, Ashraf S Gorgey, David R Dolbow, Arthur S Berg, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the influence of sex on the distribution of adipose tissue, as well as proinflammatory adipokine and cardiometabolic profiles, in chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional and correlational study. SETTING: Academic rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI classified according to sex (males: age 44.0 ± 10...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464285/revisiting-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-emerging-role-of-aquaglyceroporins
#7
REVIEW
Inês Vieira da Silva, Joana S Rodrigues, Irene Rebelo, Joana P G Miranda, Graça Soveral
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field...
February 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461936/quantification-of-trunk-and-android-lean-mass-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-compared-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Kathleen C Rankin, Laura C O'Brien, Ashraf S Gorgey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may accurately quantify trunk lean mass (LM) after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to investigate the relationships between trunk LM, visceral adiposity, trunk fat mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional design and correlational analysis. SETTING: Research setting in a medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two men with motor complete paraplegia (n = 14; T4-T11) and tetraplegia (n = 8; C5-C7) were recruited as part of a clinical trial...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461494/less-waste-on-waist-measurements-determination-of-optimal-waist-circumference-measurement-site-to-predict-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity
#9
Radhika V Seimon, Anthony L Wild-Taylor, Alice A Gibson, Claudia Harper, Sally McClintock, Hamish A Fernando, Michelle S H Hsu, Felipe Q da Luz, Shelley E Keating, Nathan A Johnson, Stuart M Grieve, Tania P Markovic, Ian D Caterson, Nuala M Byrne, Amanda Sainsbury
With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC) measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57...
February 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461416/relationship-between-physiologic-tests-body-composition-changes-and-on-ice-playing-time-in-canadian-collegiate-hockey-players
#10
Patrick Delisle-Houde, Nathan A Chiarlitti, Ryan E R Reid, Ross E Andersen
Hockey player's body composition and physical fitness are suggested to influence coaching decisions regarding on-ice playing time. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between seasonal body composition changes, off-ice pre-season testing and on-ice metrics. Twenty-one Canadian collegiate hockey players (22.70 ± 1.30 years old, 181.0 ± 5.92 cm, 86.52 ± 6.41 kg) underwent off-ice physical testing at the beginning of their season, and had one total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan at the beginning and end of the season...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461239/-secretory-function-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-adipokines-biological-effects-and-clinical-significance-review
#11
O Sulaieva, Y Chereshneva, N Kartashkina, M Ivanova, D Tsomartova
In addition to accumulation and metabolism of triglycerides, white adipose tissue is recognized as the active endocrine organ, whose dysfunction is associated with the development of a wide range of diseases. The secretome of adipocytes is represented by a wide range of adipokines, which vary in depot and sex-specific manner. In addition, adipokines have diverse biological effects, correlations with different metabolic features and functions. In this review, the data on biological effects, origin and the clinical significance of adipokines are discussed...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460378/bone-mineral-density-and-body-composition-in-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#12
Alyssa Halper, Belen Sanchez, James S Hodges, Aaron S Kelly, Donald Dengel, Brandon M Nathan, Anna Petryk, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
BACKGROUND: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to fluctuating cortisol and androgen levels. The effects these hormonal states have on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are not well studied. OBJECTIVE: Compare BMD and body composition, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and Android:Gynoid (A:G) ratio, in children with CAH vs. healthy age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls. METHODS: Forty-two cases with CAH (average age 12...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459506/quantitative-analysis-of-the-accumulation-of-marine-derived-tocopherol-in-the-tissue-of-mice-fed-with-salmon-roe-oil-using-hplc-fluorescence
#13
Fumiaki Beppu, Hitomi Kondo, Satoshi Kasatani, Yoshinori Aoki, Naohiro Gotoh
In this study, we measured the quantity of marine-derived tocopherol (MDT), a monounsaturated vitamin E (VE), stored in the body tissue of mice fed with a diet containing a VE-rich fraction extracted from salmon roe. We first prepared the calibration curves for the MDT concentration using an HPLC-fluorescence system. Ranging from 0.016 to 50 μg/mL, the slope was expressed as first-order equations, with R2 values = 0.99. The mice were fed with an AIN-93 based diet containing MDT in doses of 21.4 mg/kg for 4 weeks, and the storage in the heart, lung, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, pancreas, spleen, testis, skeletal muscle, visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), subcutaneous WAT and brain was quantified...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459348/effects-of-smoking-and-alcohol-consumption-on-lipid-profile-in-male-adults-in-northwest-rural-china
#14
X X Li, Y Zhao, L X Huang, H X Xu, X Y Liu, J J Yang, P J Zhang, Y H Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected...
February 16, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459295/the-link-between-insulin-resistance-parameters-and-serum-uric-acid-is-mediated-by-adiposity
#15
Mohsen Mazidi, Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conflicting results suggest a link between serum uric acid (SUA), inflammation and glucose/insulin homeostasis; however, the role of adiposity in this relationship is not clear. Therefore, we evaluated the role of different adiposity factors, including central body mass index (BMI), peripheral waist circumference (WC), and visceral adiposity [visceral adipose tissue (apVAT)], on the association between SUA, inflammation and glucose/insulin homeostasis among US adults...
December 26, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458121/the-paradox-of-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Pouneh K Fazeli, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inappropriate nutrient intake resulting in low body weight. Multiple hormonal adaptations facilitate decreased energy expenditure in this state of caloric deprivation including non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth hormone resistance, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Although these hormonal adaptations confer a survival advantage during periods of negative energy balance, they contribute to the long-term medical complications associated with AN, the most common of which is significant bone loss and an increased risk of fracture...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456813/evaluation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-mrnas-expressions-in-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-of-polycystic-ovarian-rats-and-effects-of-resveratrol
#17
Mahnaz Ghowsi, Homayoun Khazali, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
Objectives: Some studies suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study assessed possible involvement of alteration in expression of two pro-inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in adipose tissues of PCOS rats in the impairment of insulin actions. Also, effects of resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory agent were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (21 days old) were divided into three groups (n=5): I) Control, II) PCO-model-saline: served as PCOS rats and to induce PCOS, received subcutaneously testosterone enanthate 1 mg/100 g body weight subcutaneously for 35 days, III) PCO-model-resveratrol, after receiving testosterone, received resveratrol 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 28 days...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454330/comparison-of-visceral-body-fat-indices-and-anthropometric-measures-in-relation-to-chronic-kidney-disease-among-chinese-adults-from-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study
#18
Ying Dong, Zengwu Wang, Zuo Chen, Xin Wang, Linfeng Zhang, Jingyu Nie, Congyi Zheng, Jiali Wang, Lan Shao, Ye Tian, Runlin Gao
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity in predicting CKD among Chinese adults, distinguishing between 5 different adiposity indices: visceral fat index (VFI), percentage body fat (PBF), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). METHODS: A total of 29,516 participants aged 35 years or above were selected using a stratified multistage random sampling method across China during 2012-2015...
February 17, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454318/points-based-physical-activity-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-changes-in-body-composition-in-inactive-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#19
Adrian Holliday, Alice Burgin, Elyzabeth Vargas Fernandez, Sally A M Fenton, Frank Thielecke, Andrew K Blannin
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) interventions for the promotion of weight-management may benefit from increased choice and flexibility to overcome commonly-perceived barriers to PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel "points-based" approach to PA on body composition in inactive women, who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Seventy-six overweight or obese, inactive women were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 'Points-based' PA (PBPA; 30 "PA points"•week- 1 ), Structured exercise (StructEx; 150 min moderate-intensity exercise•week- 1 ) or control (CONT; continue habitual inactive lifestyle) for a 24-week intervention...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453913/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-induces-lipid-accumulation-but-does-not-alter-the-expression-of-pref-1-in-rat-adipose-tissue
#20
László-István Bába, Zsolt Gáll, István Lóránt Bíró, Tibor Mezei, Imre Zoltán Kun, Melinda Kolcsár
This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
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