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Visceral adiposity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087813/ethnic-differences-in-anthropometric-measures-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-a-cross-sectional-pooled-study-in-inuit-africans-and-europeans
#1
Pernille F Rønn, Gregers S Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Dirk L Christensen, Mette Aadahl, Bendix Carstensen, Marit E Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087595/is-epicardial-fat-depot-associated-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Maddalena Gaeta, Francesco Bandera, Federico Tassinari, Capasso Lorenzo, Miriam Cargnelutti, Gabriele Pelissero, Alexis Elias Malavazos, Cristian Ricci
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading rhythm disorder in western countries. A direct relationship between left atrium (LA) enlargement and electromechanical remodelling has been established. A causative link between epicardial fat (EF), visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart, and AF has been hypothesized. Several reports suggested the association between EF and the presence of AF. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between AF and EF depot, performing a meta-analysis of observational case series studies...
January 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#3
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075222/expression-of-myd88-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-people-is-there-some-role-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Ada M Cuevas, Mariana Lazo, Isabel Zuñiga, Fernando Carrasco, Jim J Potter, Veronica Alvarez, Marcos Berry, Fernando Maluenda, Mario Ferrario, Jeanne M Clark
BACKGROUND: The mechanism leading to the development of metabolic complications in obese individuals is not fully understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine differences in insulin resistance, inflammation, cytokine and adipokine levels, and expression of selected genes across obese individuals with different number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. METHODS: Forty obese individuals who underwent bariatric surgery, divided in three groups based on the number of components of MetS, in addition to abdominal obesity (0, 1, and 2-3 additional components), were studied...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073639/association-between-volume-and-glucose-metabolism-of-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-healthy-population
#5
Hyun Woo Kwon, Sang Mi Lee, Jeong Won Lee, Jung-Eun Oh, Se-Whan Lee, Shin Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of adipose tissue volume and metabolic activity with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: 232 healthy subjects (43.23±4.09y) having (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) results were included. Clinical information, anthropometry and laboratory results were obtained. Volume and metabolic activity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from FDG PET/CT...
January 7, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071854/serum-chemerin-is-associated-with-inflammatory-and-metabolic-parameters-results-of-a-population-based-study
#6
Stephanie Zylla, Maik Pietzner, Jens-Peter Kühn, Henry Völzke, Marcus Dörr, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to confirm existing assumptions about the associations of circulating chemerin with inflammatory and metabolic parameters in a large population-based study. METHODS: Data of 3,986 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania were analyzed. Residual method was used to investigate the different associations of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with serum chemerin levels. Multivariable regression models were applied to examine the association of chemerin with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
January 10, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071718/reproducibility-and-repeatability-of-computer-tomography-based-measurement-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#7
Yuan-Hao Lee, Hsing-Fen Hsiao, Hou-Ting Yang, Shih-Yi Huang, Wing P Chan
Excessive accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue is a widely recognized as a major feature of obesity, and it can be quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, in a phantom study, the inter- and intra-instrument reliability of DXA remains unpredictable. Thus, we attempted to determine the precision of estimates from computer tomography-based measurements and analysis with AZE Virtual Place software. To determine the inter-rater reproducibility and intra-rater repeatability of adipose tissue area estimates, we used the automatic boundary-tracing function of the AZE Virtual Place to generate cross-sectional areas of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from the abdomen of reconstructed CT images...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070709/influence-of-resveratrol-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-expression-of-adipokines-in-adipose-tissues-adipocytes-induced-by-high-calorie-diet-or-palmitic-acid
#8
Li Chen, Ting Wang, Guanjun Chen, Nuojin Wang, Li Gui, Fang Dai, Zhaohui Fang, Qiu Zhang, Yunxia Lu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. METHODS: 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed...
January 9, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070205/plasticity-of-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-male-mice
#9
Hao-Neng Tang, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Shu-Wen Tan, Yue Guo, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Hou-De Zhou
BACKGROUND: Fasting is the most widely prescribed and self-imposed strategy for treating excessive weight gain and obesity, and has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the exact role of fasting and subsequent refeeding on fat distribution in mice. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice fasted for 24 to 72 h and were then subjected to refeeding for 72 h. At 24, 48 and 72 h of fasting, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of refeeding, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and various adipose tissues were collected...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067890/validity-of-visceral-adiposity-estimates-from-dxa-against-mri-in-kuwaiti-men-and-women
#10
A Mohammad, E De Lucia Rolfe, A Sleigh, T Kivisild, K Behbehani, N J Wareham, S Brage, T Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of DXA-derived VAT in a Middle Eastern population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the criterion measure...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063601/bone-marrow-fat-content-is-correlated-with-hepatic-fat-content-in-paediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
N Y Yu, T Wolfson, M S Middleton, G Hamilton, A Gamst, J E Angeles, J B Schwimmer, C B Sirlin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between bone marrow fat content and hepatic fat content in children with known or suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, cross-sectional, prospective analysis of data collected between October 2010 to March 2013 in 125 children with known or suspected NAFLD. Written informed consent was obtained for same-day research magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, liver, and abdominal adiposity...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063476/short-communication-immunohistochemical-localization-of-the-immune-cell-marker-cd68-in-bovine-adipose-tissue-impact-of-tissue-alterations-and-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-dairy-cows
#12
S Häussler, D Germeroth, L Laubenthal, L F Ruda, J Rehage, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein
With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062546/the-clinical-importance-of-quantifying-fat-distribution-during-androgen-deprivation
#14
Stephen John Foulkes, Robin M Daly, Steve Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is now considered a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Despite well-established benefits of ADT in relation to overall survival, this treatment has been associated with a number of adverse effects, particularly with regard to key cardiometabolic risk factors including the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and increases in total and regional fat mass. In non-ADT populations, increased levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are thought to be a key mediator of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with weight gain, but this has received limited attention in men treated with ADT...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062507/brown-adipose-tissue-regulates-small-artery-function-through-nadph-oxidase-4-derived-hydrogen-peroxide-and-redox-sensitive-protein-kinase-g-1%C3%AE
#15
Malou Friederich-Persson, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Patrik Persson, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased since the discovery of functionally active BAT in adult humans. Although white adipose tissue (WAT) influences vascular function, vascular effects of BAT are elusive. Thus, we investigated the regulatory role and putative vasoprotective effects of BAT, focusing on hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), and redox-sensitive signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Vascular reactivity was assessed in wild-type and Nox4-knockout mice (Nox4(-/-)) by wire myography in the absence and presence of perivascular adipose tissue of different phenotypes from various adipose depots: (1) mixed WAT/BAT (inguinal adipose tissue) and (2) WAT (epididymal visceral fat) and BAT (intrascapular fat)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060856/hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-fatty-infiltration-of-the-thigh-muscle-with-aging-independent-of-fat-distribution
#16
Javzandulam Natsag, Kristine M Erlandson, Deborah E Sellmeyer, Sabina A Haberlen, Joseph Margolick, Lisa P Jacobson, Frank J Palella, Susan L Koletar, Jordan E Lake, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058732/bromocriptine-treatment-at-the-end-of-lactation-prevents-hyperphagia-higher-visceral-fat-and-liver-triglycerides-in-early-weaned-rats-at-adulthood
#17
Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Egberto G Moura, Janaine C Carvalho, Jéssica L Nobre, Fernanda T Quitete, Cintia R Pinheiro, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Elaine de Oliveira, Patricia C Lisboa
Non-pharmacological early weaning (NPEW) leads offspring to obesity, higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adulthood. Pharmacological EW (PEW) by maternal treatment with bromocriptine (BRO) causes obesity in the adult progeny but precludes hepatic injury. To test the hypothesis that BRO prevents the deleterious changes of NPEW, we injected BRO into the pups from the NPEW model on late lactation. Lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: dams with an adhesive bandage around the body to prevent breastfeeding on the last 3 days of lactation and dams whose pups had free suckling (C)...
January 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053001/cancer-cachexia-differentially-regulates-visceral-adipose-tissue-turnover
#18
Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo X Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, Miguel Luiz Batista Júnior
Cancer cachexia (CC) is a progressive metabolic syndrome that is marked by severe body weight loss. Metabolic disarrangement of fat tissues is a very early event in CC, followed by adipose tissue (AT) atrophy and remodelling. However, there is little information regarding the possible involvement of cellular turnover in this process. Thus, we evaluated the effect of CC on AT turnover of mesenteric (ME) and retroperitoneal (RP) AT depots as possible factors that contribute to AT atrophy. CC was induced by a subcutaneous injection of Walker tumour cells (2x10(7)) in Wistar rats...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052251/interplay-between-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-cgmp-signaling-in-white-adipose-tissue
#19
Abhishek Sanyal, Jennifer Naumann, Linda Sarah Hoffmann, Agnieszka Chabowska-Kita, Anna Ehrlund, Andreas Schlitzer, Peter Arner, Matthias Blüher, Alexander Pfeifer
Current worldwide figures suggest that obesity is pandemic. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms would help develop viable anti-obesity therapies. Here, we assess the influence of obesity-induced inflammation on white adipocyte cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling, which is beneficial for adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. We find that murine gonadal and not inguinal fat is prone to obesity-induced inflammation. Correspondingly, the cGMP cascade is dysregulated in gonadal but not in inguinal fat of obese mice...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049736/glp-1-analogue-induced-weight-loss-does-not-improve-obesity-induced-at-dysfunction
#20
Emilie Pastel, Laura J McCulloch, Rebecca Ward, Shivam Joshi, Kim M Gooding, Angela C Shore, Katarina Kos
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues aid weight loss which improves obesity-associated adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. GLP-1 treatment may however also directly influence AT which expresses GLP-1 receptors. This study aimed to assess the impact of GLP-1 analogue treatment on subcutaneous AT inflammatory and fibrotic responses, compared to weight loss by calorie reduction (control). Among the 39 participants with type 2 diabetes recruited, 30 age-matched participants were randomised to 4 months treatment with Liraglutide (n=22) or calorie restriction-based on dietetic counselling (n=8)...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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