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Visceral adiposity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243339/causes-and-mechanisms-of-adipocyte-enlargement-and-adipose-expansion
#1
REVIEW
F Haczeyni, K S Bell-Anderson, G C Farrell
Adipose tissue plays a significant role in whole body energy homeostasis. Obesity-associated diabetes, fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are closely linked to adipose stress and dysfunction. Genetic predisposition, overeating and physical inactivity influence the expansion of adipose tissues. Under conditions of constant energy surplus, adipocytes become hypertrophic and adipose tissues undergo hyperplasia so as to increase their lipid storage capacity, thereby keeping circulating blood glucose and fatty acids below toxic levels...
December 15, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242055/late-disseminated-lyme-disease-associated-pathology-and-spirochete-persistence-post-treatment-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Nicholas A Crossland, Xavier Alvarez, Monica E Embers
Non-human primates currently serve as the best experimental model for Lyme disease due to their close genetic homology with humans and demonstration of all three phases of disease following infection with Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi (Bb). We investigated the pathology associated with late disseminated Lyme disease (12 to 13 months following tick inoculation) in doxycycline-treated (28 days; 5mg/kg, oral, 2x/day) and untreated rhesus macaques (Rm). Minimal to moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, with a predilection for perivascular spaces and collagenous tissues, was observed in multiple tissues including the cerebral leptomeninges, brainstem, peripheral nerves from both fore and hind limbs, stifle synovium and perisynovial adipose tissue, urinary bladder, skeletal muscle, myocardium, and visceral pericardium...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240812/effects-of-vaspin-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-secretion-via-pi3k-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#3
Shiwei Liu, Xin Li, Yaru Wu, Ruixue Duan, Jiaxin Zhang, Fang Du, Qi Zhang, Yuanbin Li, Naishi Li
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been implicated in diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders. However, the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and related mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and the potential underlying mechanisms. Both in vitro (rat insulinoma cells, INS-1) and in vivo (high fat diet fed rats) experiments were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237348/developmental-programming-impact-of-prenatal-testosterone-excess-on-steroidal-machinery-and-cell-differentiation-markers-in-visceral-adipocytes-of-female-sheep
#4
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Chunxia Lu, Jacob D Martin, Gregorio Chazenbalk, Daniel Dumesic, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated female sheep manifest reduced adipocyte size and peripheral insulin resistance. The small adipocyte phenotype may reflect defects in adipogenesis and its steroidal machinery. To test whether prenatal T treatment from gestational days 30 to 90 alters the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) steroidal machinery and reduces adipocyte differentiation, we examined expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and adipocyte differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal ages 10 and 21 months...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234897/potential-influence-of-the-phthalates-on-normal-liver-function-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-males
#5
Nataša Milošević, Nataša Milić, Dragana Živanović Bosić, Ivana Bajkin, Ivanka Perčić, Ludovico Abenavoli, Milica Medić Stojanoska
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, massively used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics, which may impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, obesity, and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the liver function and cardiometabolic risk factors in males. In this research, 102 male participants (51 normal weight and 51 overweight/obese) were enrolled and examined for phthalate metabolites exposure in urine samples after 12 h of fasting...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230694/anthropometric-changes-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-undergoing-preoperative-therapy-and-pancreatoduodenectomy
#6
Jordan M Cloyd, Graciela M Nogueras-González, Laura R Prakash, Maria Q B Petzel, Nathan H Parker, An T Ngo-Huang, David Fogelman, Jason W Denbo, Naveen Garg, Michael P Kim, Jeffrey E Lee, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Jason B Fleming, Matthew H G Katz
BACKGROUND: The changes in body composition that occur in response to therapy for localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and during the early survivorship period, as well as their clinical significance, are poorly understood. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven consecutive patients with PDAC who received preoperative therapy followed by pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) at a single institution between 2009 and 2012 were longitudinally evaluated. Changes in skeletal muscle (SKM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured on serial computed tomography images obtained upon presentation, prior to pancreatectomy, and approximately 3 and 12 months after surgery...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229927/activation-of-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-human-visceral-adipose-tissue-contributes-to-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#7
María A Zuriaga, José J Fuster, Melissa G Farb, Susan MacLauchlan, Rosa Bretón-Romero, Shakun Karki, Donald T Hess, Caroline M Apovian, Naomi M Hamburg, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
The accumulation of visceral adiposity is strongly associated with systemic inflammation and increased cardiometabolic risk. WNT5A, a non-canonical WNT ligand, has been shown to promote adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in animal studies. Among other non-canonical pathways, WNT5A activates planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. The current study investigated the potential contribution of non-canonical WNT5A/PCP signaling to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and associated metabolic dysfunction in individuals with obesity...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228058/altered-intragenic-dna-methylation-of-hook2-gene-in-adipose-tissue-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#9
Sandra Rodríguez-Rodero, Edelmiro Menéndez-Torre, Gustavo Fernández-Bayón, Paula Morales-Sánchez, Lourdes Sanz, Estrella Turienzo, Juan José González, Ceferino Martinez-Faedo, Lorena Suarez-Gutiérrez, Jessica Ares, Lucia Díaz-Naya, Alicia Martin-Nieto, Juan L Fernández-Morera, Mario F Fraga, Elías Delgado-Álvarez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Failure in glucose response to insulin is a common pathology associated with obesity. In this study, we analyzed the genome wide DNA methylation profile of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples in a population of individuals with obesity and assessed whether differential methylation profiles are associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: More than 485,000 CpG genome sites from VAT samples from women with obesity undergoing gastric bypass (n = 18), and classified as suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) or not (no type 2 diabetes, NT2D), were analyzed using DNA methylation arrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#10
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225114/fructose-induced-inflammation-and-increased-cortisol-a-new-mechanism-for-how-sugar-induces-visceral-adiposity
#11
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, Varshil Mehta, Neema Onkaramurthy, James H O'Keefe
Traditionally, the leading hypothesis regarding the development of obesity involves caloric imbalance, whereby the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of calories burned which causes obesity. Another hypothesis for why we get fat has surfaced in the last decade which is the idea that the overconsumption of added sugars and refined carbohydrates induce insulin resistance and high insulin levels causing obesity. While insulin is a fat-storing hormone, this hypothesis does not explain visceral adiposity, or why certain people are found to have fat stored in and around their organs...
December 7, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224112/the-role-of-androgen-excess-in-metabolic-dysfunction-in-women-androgen-excess-and-female-metabolic-dysfunction
#12
Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222412/ancestral-perinatal-obesogen-exposure-results-in-a-transgenerational-thrifty-phenotype-in-mice
#13
Raquel Chamorro-Garcia, Carlos Diaz-Castillo, Bassem M Shoucri, Heidi Käch, Ron Leavitt, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Ancestral environmental exposures to non-mutagenic agents can exert effects in unexposed descendants. This transgenerational inheritance has significant implications for understanding disease etiology. Here we show that exposure of F0 mice to the obesogen tributyltin (TBT) throughout pregnancy and lactation predisposes unexposed F4 male descendants to obesity when dietary fat is increased. Analyses of body fat, plasma hormone levels, and visceral white adipose tissue DNA methylome and transcriptome collectively indicate that the F4 obesity is consistent with a leptin resistant, thrifty phenotype...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213336/adiponectin-resistin-interplay-in-serum-and-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-and-normal-weight-individuals
#15
Marta Izabela Jonas, Alina Kurylowicz, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Wojciech Lisik, Maurycy Jonas, Justyna Domienik-Karlowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
Background: The interplay between adiponectin and resistin, the two adipokines of opposite effects, may determine the metabolic profile of obese individuals and development of obesity-related complications. The current study was conducted to assess how adiponectin/resistin interplay in sera and adipose tissues may influence the metabolic profile of obese and normal-weight subjects. Methods: Concentrations of adiponectin and resistin were measured on protein level by immunoassay in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from 50 obese (body mass index > 40 kg/m2) and 28 normal-weight (body mass index 20-24...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210836/abdominal-fat-depots-and-subclinical-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-in-women-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#16
Marshall J Glesby, David B Hanna, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Michael T Yin, Robert Kaplan, Phyllis C Tien, Mardge Cohen, Kathryn Anastos, Anjali Sharma
BACKGROUND: Data on associations between abdominal fat depot mass and subclinical atherosclerosis are limited, especially in women with HIV. METHODS: We assessed cross-sectional associations of dual X-ray absorptiometry scan-derived estimates of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with 3 measures of subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis-- carotid artery stiffness (Young's modulus of elasticity), presence of carotid artery lesions, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT)-- in a subsample of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210119/diets-rich-in-saturated-fat-and-fructose-induce-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviours-in-the-rat-is-there-a-role-for-lipid-peroxidation
#17
Silvia Gancheva, Bistra Galunska, Maria Zhelyazkova-Savova
Epidemiological studies reveal associations between obesity/metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. We assessed behavioural changes in rats fed diets enriched in fat and fructose in different proportions and correlated the observed alterations with biochemical changes induced by the diets. Three groups of rats were used as follows: control (C) animals fed regular rat chow, rats fed high-fat diet (HF) and rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFHF). HF and HFHF animals were also given a 10% fructose solution as drinking water...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206648/relationship-between-plasma-protein-s-levels-and-apolipoprotein-c-ii-in-japanese-middle-aged-obese-women-and-young-nonobese-women
#18
Yukiko Otsuka, Maiko Ueda, Eri Nakazono, Tomohide Tsuda, Xiuri Jin, Kenta Noguchi, Shihoko Sata, Hitomi Miyazaki, Shimako Abe, Katsumi Imai, Masako Iwamoto, Takashi Masuda, Ririko Moriguchi, Shuji Nakano, Hiroko Tsuda
: Protein S, a nonenzymatic cofactor to activated protein C, presents in two forms in plasma, free form and in a complex with C4b-binding protein. The aim of this study was to determine the association of plasma protein S levels with the variables related to cardiovascular disease risk. The relationships between plasma protein S levels with lipids, inflammation markers, and adiposity were first examined on middle-aged obese women (n = 62), then on young nonobese women (n = 160) to verify the findings in the obese women...
December 4, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203860/adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-capacity-associates-with-long-term-weight-loss-success
#19
R Jokinen, R Rinnankoski-Tuikka, S Kaye, L Saarinen, S Heinonen, M Myöhänen, E Rappou, S Jukarainen, A Rissanen, A Pessia, V Velagapudi, K A Virtanen, E Pirinen, K H Pietiläinen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether (1) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mitochondrial capacity predicts weight loss success and (2) weight loss ameliorates obesity-related SAT mitochondrial abnormalities. METHODS: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (BMI 34.6±2.7 kg/m2) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 months) and from 19 lean reference subjects (BMI 22.7±1.1 kg/m2) at baseline. Based on one-year weight loss outcome, the subjects were divided into two groups: continuous weight losers (WL, n=6) and weight regainers (WR, n=13)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202488/acute-tadalafil-administration-increases-plasma-fatty-acids-without-changes-in-the-inflammatory-response-in-healthy-men
#20
Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Sgrò, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi
PURPOSE: Tadalafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I), has been shown to reduce visceral adipose tissue in rabbit and to improve lean mass content in non-obese men. In order to clarify this effect in humans, in the present study we determined the impact of an acute oral tadalafil administration on lipolysis by evaluating plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol. FFAs are potential modulator of inflammation response that we evaluated through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 8 (IL8) and interleukin 10 (IL10) plasma levels...
December 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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