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Visceral adiposity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665813/neck-circumference-as-an-independent-indicator-of-visceral-obesity-in-a-chinese-population
#1
Li Zhao, Guolan Huang, Fangzhen Xia, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yi Chen, Chi Chen, Dongping Lin, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. METHODS: Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662648/visceral-abdominal-fat-measured-by-computer-tomography-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-gynecological-malignancies
#2
Johanna Nattenmüller, Joachim Rom, Tom Buckner, Jalal Arvin, Benedikt Bau, Christof Sohn, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Sarah Schott
Introduction: Obesity is associated with increased incidence of ovarian (OC), cervical (CC) and endometrium cancer (EC). However, the impact of body composition (BC) on overall survival (OS), especially of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not yet understood. Methods: In 189 women with gynecological malignancies (31 OC, 104 CC, 54 EC, mean age 62.9y; mean BMI 26.8 kg/m2 ; median follow-up 30.7months) with routine staging CT-scans at baseline (mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TAT), visceral, and subcutaneous-fat-area (SAT), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed to analyze the impact of BC on survival...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659888/randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-effects-of-eplerenone-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-indices-in-hiv
#3
Suman Srinivasa, Kathleen V Fitch, Kimberly Wong, Timothy K O'Malley, Patrick Maehler, Karen L Branch, Sara E Looby, Tricia H Burdo, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Shannon H Lyons, Julian Weiss, Meghan Feldpausch, Takara L Stanley, Gail K Adler, Steven K Grinspoon
Context: HIV-infected individuals demonstrate unique RAAS physiology, with increased RAAS activation in association with visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. A physiologically-based treatment approach targeting mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade may improve metabolic and inflammatory indices in HIV. Objective: To investigate effects of eplerenone on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory indices and other metabolic parameters in HIV. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658780/inter-and-intraobserver-variability-of-an-anatomical-landmark-based-manual-segmentation-method-by-mri-for-the-assessment-of-skeletal-muscle-fat-content-and-area-in-subjects-from-the-general-population
#4
Lena Sophie Kiefer, Jana Fabian, Roberto Lorbeer, Jürgen Machann, Corinna Storz, Mareen Sarah Kraus, Elke Wintermeyer, Christopher L Schlett, Frank Roemer, Konstantin Nikolaou, Annette Peters, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: Changes in skeletal muscle composition, such as fat content and mass, may exert unique metabolic and musculoskeletal risks; however, the reproducibility of their assessment is unknown. We determined the variability of the assessment of skeletal muscle fat content and area by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a population-based sample. METHODS: A random sample from a prospective, community-based cohort study (KORA-FF4) was included. Skeletal muscle fat content was quantified as proton-density fat-fraction (PDFF) and area as cross-sectional area (CSA) in multi-echo Dixon sequences (TR 8...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658059/visceral-fat-area-not-body-mass-index-predicts-postoperative-30-day-morbidity-in-patients-undergoing-colon-resection-for-cancer
#5
Benjamin A Kuritzkes, Emmanouil P Pappou, Ravi P Kiran, Onur Baser, Liqiong Fan, Xiaotao Guo, Binsheng Zhao, Stuart Bentley-Hibbert
PURPOSE: Colectomy for cancer in obese patients is technically challenging and may be associated with worse outcomes. Whether visceral obesity, as measured on computed tomography, is a better predictor of complication than body mass index (BMI) or determines long-term oncologic outcomes has not been well characterized. This study examines the association between derived anthropometrics and postoperative complication and long-term oncologic outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients undergoing elective colectomy for cancer at a single tertiary-care center from 2010 to 2016...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656048/trunk-muscle-quality-assessed-by-computed-tomography-association-with-adiposity-indices-and-glucose-tolerance-in-men
#6
Alexandre Maltais, Natalie Alméras, Isabelle Lemieux, Angelo Tremblay, Jean Bergeron, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L4 -L5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk...
April 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655664/a-retrospective-investigation-of-abdominal-visceral-fat-body-mass-index-bmi-and-active-smoking-as-risk-factors-for-donor-site-wound-healing-complications-after-free-diep-flap-breast-reconstructions
#7
Floyd W Timmermans, Pèdrou B Westland, Stefan Hummelink, Joep Schreurs, Marijn Hameeteman, Dietmar J O Ulrich, Nicholas J Slater
BACKGROUND: The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap is one of the most common techniques for breast reconstruction. Body mass index (BMI) is considered as an important predictor of donor site healing complications such as wound dehiscence. The use of computed tomography (CT) proved to be a precise and objective method to assess visceral adipose tissue. It remains unclear whether quantification of visceral fat provides more accurate predictions of abdominal wound healing complications than BMI...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653102/visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor-accelerates-cholesterol-efflux-by-up-regulating-abca1-expression-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mir-33a-pathway-in-thp-1-macropahge-derived-foam-cells
#8
Jia-Hui Gao, Meng-Ya Zeng, Xiao-Hua Yu, Gao-Feng Zeng, Lin-Hao He, Xi-Long Zheng, Da-Wei Zhang, Xin-Ping Ouyang, Chao-Ke Tang
Atherosclerosis is a dyslipidemia disease characterized by foam cell formation driven by the accumulation of lipids. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is known to suppress the development of atherosclerosis via its anti-inflammatory properties, but it is not yet known whether vaspin affects cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Here, we investigated the effects of vaspin on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux, and further explored the underlying mechanism...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#9
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645064/adiponectin-expression-in-visceral-adiposity-is-an-important-determinant-of-insulin-resistance-in-morbid-obesity
#10
Anca Elena Sirbu, Laura Buburuzan, Steliana Kevorkian, Sorina Martin, Carmen Barbu, Catalin Copaescu, Bogdan Smeu, Simona Fica
INTRODUCTION: Visceral adiposity is associated with decreased serum adiponectin levels, peripheral resistance to insulin and an increased risk of cardio-metabolic complications. However, the link between adiponectin expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), its serum levels and metabolic protection is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adiponectin gene expression in VAT and clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with severe obesity...
April 12, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644791/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-dietary-fiber-intake-in-african-american-adolescents
#11
Li Chen, Yanbin Dong, Xiaoling Wang, Guang Hao, Ying Huang, Bernard Gutin, Haidong Zhu
SCOPE: Low fiber intake is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We tested two hypotheses: 1) dietary fiber would be associated with DNA methylation levels; 2) those DNA methylation changes would be associated with visceral adiposity and inflammation. We also explored the possibility that the associations between fiber and DNA methylation levels might be confounded with folic acid intake as sensitivity analysis...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628462/-long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#12
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, however whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) in mice. To this end, we prepared a low nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low nitrite/nitrate chow in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein, and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626513/effects-of-exercise-training-on-adipose-tissue-apelin-expression-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Fahimeh Kazemi, Saleh Zahediasl
Apelin is an adipocyte-derived peptide that plays an important role in regulation of energy homoeostasis and decrease of insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of exercise training on adipose tissue apelin expression in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 38 male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, sedentary non-diabetic and trained non-diabetic. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide in adult rats...
April 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624091/excess-visceral-adiposity-is-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy-in-a-multiethnic-asian-cohort-with-longstanding-type-2-diabetes
#14
Angela Moh, Kumari Neelam, Xiao Zhang, Chee Fang Sum, Subramaniam Tavintharan, Keven Ang, Simon Biing Ming Lee, Wern Ee Tang, Su Chi Lim
Purpose/Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic microvascular complication, and it typically develops after 10 years of diabetes diagnosis. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adiposity and DR susceptibility among individuals with longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, DR was assessed by fundus photography in 953 T2D subjects. DR prevalence by categories of T2D duration was evaluated...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621328/differences-in-prevalence-of-hypertension-and-associated-risk-factors-in-urban-and-rural-residents-of-the-northeastern-region-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Junnan Wang, Wei Sun, George A Wells, Zhibo Li, Tianyi Li, Junduo Wu, Yangyu Zhang, Yingyu Liu, Longbo Li, Yunpeng Yu, Yihang Liu, Chao Qi, Yang Lu, Ning Liu, Youyou Yan, Lulu Liu, Gang Hui, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a significant global public health problem and recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess the current prevalence of hypertension and to explore risk factors associated with hypertension by urban and rural status to guide the prevention and control of hypertension in Jilin province. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was used to obtain data on hypertension, which was investigated by physical examination and face-to-face questionnaire in July 2014-December 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619756/tissue-specific-phenotype-and-activation-of-inkt-cells-in-morbidly-obese-subjects-interaction-with-adipocytes-and-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#16
Soledad López, Sara García-Serrano, Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Francisca Rodríguez-Pacheco, Ailec Ho-Plagaro, Concepción Santiago-Fernandez, Gonzalo Alba, Marta Cejudo-Guillen, Alberto Rodríguez-Cañete, Sergio Valdes, Lourdes Garrido-Sanchez, David Pozo, Eduardo García-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: The immune response of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obesity, in particular the role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, has not yet been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize iNKT cells and its activation status in VAT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in morbidly obese subjects (MO), and to analyze their association with metabolic parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty non-obese and 20 MO subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and were studied before and 6 months after RYGB...
April 4, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619063/bushenkangshuai-tablet-reduces-atherosclerotic-lesion-by-improving-blood-lipids-metabolism-and-inhibiting-inflammatory-response-via-tlr4-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-signaling-pathway
#17
Shu-Chao Pang, Li Peng, Jun-Ping Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Hui-Yun Jia, Li-Yuan Bi, Mei-Ling Chen
Bushenkangshuai tablet (BSKS) is a Chinese herbal compound which has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China for decades. This study intends to explore the molecular mechanism of BSKS against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. ApoE-/- mice were fed with western-type diet for 6 weeks and then were given BSKS for 6 weeks. The results showed that BSKS attenuated the size of the atherosclerotic lesion, reduced visceral adipose content, and decreased blood lipids. We also found that BSKS promoted the expression of adiponectin and its receptors, inhibited the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, decreased the levels of interleukin-1 beta, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and adiponectin...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618983/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-a-relevant-fat-depot-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617909/maternal-nicotine-exposure-mne-leads-to-augmented-expression-of-the-anti-oxidant-adipose-tissue-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-long-term-in-the-white-adipose-of-female-rat-offspring
#19
Nicole G Barra, Taylor VanDuzer, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy
Globally, approximately 10-25% of women smoke during pregnancy. Since nicotine is highly addictive, women may use nicotine containing products like nicotine replacement therapies for smoking cessation, but the long-term consequences of early life exposure to nicotine remain poorly defined. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that maternal nicotine exposed (MNE) rat offspring exhibit hypertriglyceridemia due to increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia may also be attributed to impaired white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid storage; however, the effects of MNE on WAT are not completely understood...
March 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617296/macrophage-populations-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-pregnant-women-potential-role-of-obesity-in-maternal-inflammation
#20
Eyerahi Bravo-Flores, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Marco Ortiz-Ramirez, Verónica Flores-Rueda, Francisco Ibargüengoitia-Ochoa, Carlos A Ibañez, Elena Zambrano, Mario Solis-Paredes, Otilia Perichart-Perera, Maribel Sanchez-Martinez, Diana Medina-Bastidas, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
Obesity is associated with inflammatory changes and accumulation and phenotype polarization of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Obese pregnant women have alterations in adipose tissue composition, but a detailed description of macrophage population is not available. In this study, we characterized macrophage populations in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from pregnant women with normal, overweight, and obese pregestational weight. Immunophenotyping of macrophages from VAT biopsies was performed by flow cytometry using CD45 and CD14 as markers of hematopoietic and monocyte linage, respectively, while HLA-DR, CD11c, CD163, and CD206 were used as pro- and anti-inflammatory markers...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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