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Visceral adiposity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040389/the-anti-epileptic-ketogenic-diet-alters-hippocampal-transporter-levels-and-reduces-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#1
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail Ph D, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034440/risperidone-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-is-attenuated-by-curcuma-longa-extract-administration-in-mice
#2
Florent Auger, Françoise Martin, Olivier Pétrault, Jennifer Samaillie, Thierry Hennebelle, Mohamed-Sami Trabelsi, François Bailleul, Bart Staels, Régis Bordet, Patrick Duriez
Antipsychotics, such as risperidone, increase food intake and induce alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism concomitantly with overweight and body fat increase, these biological abnormalities belong to the metabolic syndrome definition (high visceral adiposity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high blood pressure). Curcumin is a major component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa) which has been reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism and to decrease weight in obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034006/canagliflozin-reduces-epicardial-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Shusuke Yagi, Yukina Hirata, Takayuki Ise, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Daiju Fukuda, Hotimah Masdan Salim, Gulinu Maimaituxun, Susumu Nishio, Yuriko Takagawa, Saori Hama, Tomomi Matsuura, Koji Yamaguchi, Takeshi Tobiume, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Masashi Akaike, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness, which is associated with insulin resistance and is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We administered 100 mg of canagliflozin for 6 months to 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated glycemic control, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, and skeletal muscle mass by using impedance methods, and EAT thickness by using echocardiography...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031905/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-decreases-after-liver-fat-reduction-via-growth-hormone-augmentation
#4
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Martin Torriani, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates steatohepatitis but is increased in humans with fatty liver, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms and/or FGF21 resistance. Further, animal models suggest that GH increases serum FGF21. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone releasing hormone agonist, reduces liver fat in HIV-infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in FGF21 during tesamorelin treatment, to elucide the interplay between FGF21, GH augmentation, and liver fat reduction in humans...
October 7, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#5
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030493/intrinsic-aerobic-capacity-governs-the-associations-between-gut-microbiota-composition-and-fat-metabolism-age-dependently-in-rat-siblings
#6
Satu Pekkala, Sanna Lensu, Miriam Nokia, Sanja Vanhatalo, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Heikki Kainulainen
Host genetic factors affecting the gut microbiome play an important role in obesity. Yet limited attention has been paid on the host genetic factors linked to physical fitness in modifying the microbiome. This study determined whether sibling-matched pairs of rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity differ in their microbiome age-dependently and which taxa associate with differential in metabolism. Several taxa in young adult rats (hereafter young) linked to inherited aerobic capacity while in older adult (hereafter old) rats most of the differences between the lines associated with body weight...
October 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030265/associations-of-active-commuting-with-body-fat-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-in-the-uk
#7
Oliver T Mytton, David Ogilvie, Simon Griffin, Soren Brage, Nick Wareham, Jenna Panter
The promotion of active travel (walking and cycling) is one promising approach to prevent the development of obesity and related cardio-metabolic disease. However the associations between active travel and adiposity remain uncertain. We used the Fenland study (a population based-cohort study; Cambridgeshire, UK, 2005-15) to describe the association of commuting means with DEXA measured body fat and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among commuters (aged 29-65years; n=7680). We stratified our sample into those living near (within five miles) and far (five miles or further) from work, and categorised commuting means differently for each group reflecting their different travel options...
October 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029184/low-plasma-adiponectin-concentrations-predict-increases-in-visceral-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#8
Seung Jin Han, Edward J Boyko, Wilfred Y Fujimoto, Steven E Kahn, Donna L Leonetti
Context: Plasma adiponectin concentration has been shown to be inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance in cross-sectional research. However, it is unclear whether adiponectin predicts future body composition and insulin resistance. Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between adiponectin concentration and future regional body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Design and Setting: Community-based prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029113/estrogen-metabolism-in-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-postmenopausal-women
#9
Natalia Hetemäki, Hanna Savolainen-Peltonen, Matti J Tikkanen, Feng Wang, Hanna Paatela, Esa Hämäläinen, Ursula Turpeinen, Mikko Haanpää, Veera Vihma, Tomi S Mikkola
CONTEXT: In postmenopausal women, adipose tissue (AT) levels of estrogens exceed circulating concentrations. While increased visceral AT after menopause is related to metabolic diseases, little is known about differences in estrogen metabolism between different AT depots. OBJECTIVE: We compared concentrations of and metabolic pathways producing estrone and estradiol in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral AT in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: AT and serum samples were obtained from 37 postmenopausal women undergoing surgery for non-malignant gynecological reasons...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025708/intermuscular-adipose-tissue-and-subclinical-coronary-artery-calcification-in-midlife-the-cardia-study-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults
#10
James G Terry, Christina M Shay, Pamela J Schreiner, David R Jacobs, Otto A Sanchez, Jared P Reis, David C Goff, Samuel S Gidding, Lyn M Steffen, John Jeffrey Carr
OBJECTIVE: Excess deposition of fat within and around vital organs and nonadipose tissues is hypothesized to contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of abdominal intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume with coronary artery calcification in CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured IMAT in the abdominal muscles, visceral adipose tissue and pericardial adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification using computed tomography in 3051 CARDIA participants (56% women) at the CARDIA year 25 examination (2010-2011)...
October 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024521/role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-in-metabolic-disorders-in-sga-with-catch-up-growth
#11
Qiong-Xia Lian, Hong-Zhu Deng, Kai-Yun Chen, Hong Deng
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal fat metabolism is a major disorder in adults who were small for gestational age (SGA). Peroxisome prolferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) participates in adipocyte differentiation and the regulation of lipid metabolism. This study explored the role of PPARγ in the regulation of fat catch-up growth (CUG) and the lipid metabolism of SGA individuals. METHODS: The CUG-SGA rats were treated with pioglitazone. The weight of the visceral adipose tissue, serum lipid levels, and PPARγ expression in the visceral adipose tissue were detected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of age...
October 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023899/visceral-adiposity-increases-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-male-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-recurrence-after-liver-transplant
#12
Aldo J Montano-Loza, Vera C Mazurak, Maryam Ebadi, Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B Sawyer, Vickie E Baracos, Norman Kneteman
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a metabolically active organ, associated with higher risk of malignancies. We aimed to evaluate if VAT is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients presenting with cirrhosis as well as HCC recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Cirrhotic patients (n=678; 457 males) who were assessed for LT (289 with HCC) were evaluated for body composition analysis. Patients who underwent LT (n=247, 168 males) were subsequently evaluated for body composition, and 96 of these patients (78 males) had HCC...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023455/association-between-anthropometric-indicators-of-adiposity-and-hypertension-in-a-brazilian-population-baependi-heart-study
#13
Camila Maciel de Oliveira, Anderson Zampier Ulbrich, Felipe Silva Neves, Fernando Augusto Lavezzo Dias, Andréa Roseli Vançan Russo Horimoto, José Eduardo Krieger, Rafael de Oliveira Alvim, Alexandre da Costa Pereira
BACKGROUND: Recently, some studies have evaluated the role of adiposity measures in the prediction of hypertension risk, but the results are conflicting. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare which of the four indicators of adiposity (waist circumference-WC, body mass index-BMI, body adiposity index-BAI, and visceral adiposity index-VAI) were better associated with hypertension in a Brazilian population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this study, were selected 1627 individuals (both genders, and aged over 18 years) resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the Southeast of Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022978/freeze-dried-strawberry-and-blueberry-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-rats-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis
#14
Paula Aranaz, Ana Romo-Hualde, María Zabala, David Navarro-Herrera, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Ana Gloria Gil, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermín I Milagro, Carlos J González-Navarro
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, reiterating the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6% w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5 : 1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects on Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and an insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017799/automated-segmentation-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-obese-adolescent-in-mri
#15
Steve C N Hui, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Chei-Bing Ip, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and reproducible automatic technique to segment and measure SAT and VAT based on MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat MRI were taken on twelve obese adolescents (mean age: 16.1±0.6, BMI: 31.3±2.3) recruited under the health monitoring program. The segmentation applied a spoke template created using Midpoint Circle algorithm followed by Bresenham's Line algorithm to detect narrow connecting regions between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues...
October 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017419/effect-of-normal-pregnancy-followed-by-lactation-on-long-term-maternal-health-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Egle Bytautiene Prewit, Talar Kechichian, Deborah Okunade, Huaizhi Yin, Alison M Stuebe
Although it has been widely accepted that pregnancies with complications are associated with increased maternal cardiovascular risk later in life, there is no consensus if noncomplicated pregnancy followed by lactation plays a protective role or is a risk factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of normal pregnancy and lactation on long-term maternal health in a mouse model. CD-1 mice were allocated to breeding (primigravid [PG]) and nonbreeding (nulligravid [NG]) groups. The PG group proceeded through normal pregnancy and delivery...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017016/participation-in-moderate-to-vigorous-leisure-time-physical-activity-is-related-to-decreased-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-adults-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Chelsea A Pelletier, Maryam Omidvar, Masae Miyatani, Lora Giangregorio, B Catharine Craven
Increased visceral adiposity place individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to identify if people with chronic SCI who participate in any moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area compared to those who report none. Participants included 136 adult men (n = 100) and women (n = 36) with chronic [mean (±SD) 15.6±11.3 years post injury] tetraplegia (n = 66) or paraplegia (n = 70) recruited from a tertiary rehabilitation hospital...
October 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016472/longitudinal-changes-in-body-composition-throughout-successive-seasonal-phases-among-canadian-university-football-players
#18
Justin Kim, Patrick Delisle-Houde, Ryan Er Reid, Ross E Andersen
The purpose of this study was to assess changes in body composition during seasonal phases of the training year among Canadian Inter-University Sport (CIS) football players. Forty university football players were assessed for anthropometry, total body composition, regional body composition and central adiposity over a 7-month period including the summer-off-season and the in-season. Baseline testing occurred in April, prior to the summer-off-season, and follow-ups were completed prior to training camp, at the beginning of August, and following the in-season, at the beginning of November...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994775/assessment-of-human-adipose-tissue-microvascular-function-using-videomicroscopy
#19
Melissa G Farb, Song-Young Park, Shakun Karki, Noyan Gokce
While obesity is closely linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, little is known about mechanisms that govern these processes. It is hypothesized that pro-atherogenic mediators released from fat tissues particularly in association with central/visceral adiposity may promote pathogenic vascular changes locally and systemically, and the notion that cardiovascular disease may be the consequence of adipose tissue dysfunction continues to evolve. Here, we describe a unique method of videomicroscopy that involves analysis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor responses of intact small human arterioles removed from the adipose depot of living human subjects...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993755/extracranial-internal-carotid-artery-tortuosity-and-body-mass-index
#20
Hai-Feng Wang, Da-Ming Wang, Jun-Jie Wang, Li-Jun Wang, Jun Lu, Peng Qi, Shen Hu, Xi-Meng Yang, Kun-Peng Chen
BACKGROUND: Extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) tortuosity may trigger cerebral ischemia, and body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body mass based on height and weight. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of BMI on the tortuosity of eICA. METHODS: A total of 926 carotid artery angiograms were performed in 513 patients, of which 116 cases and matched controls were selected. Arterial tortuosity was defined as simple tortuosity, kinking, or coiling...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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