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Drug interactions in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521005/using-directed-acyclic-graphs-in-epidemiological-research-in-psychosis-an-analysis-of-the-role-of-bullying-in-psychosis
#1
Giusi Moffa, Gennaro Catone, Jack Kuipers, Elizabeth Kuipers, Daniel Freeman, Steven Marwaha, Belinda R Lennox, Matthew R Broome, Paul Bebbington
Modern psychiatric epidemiology researches complex interactions between multiple variables in large datasets. This creates difficulties for causal inference. We argue for the use of probabilistic models represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). These capture the dependence structure of multiple variables and, used appropriately, allow more robust conclusions about the direction of causation. We analyzed British national survey data to assess putative mediators of the association between bullying victimization and persecutory ideation...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242873/reduction-of-smoking-urges-with-intranasal-insulin-a-randomized-crossover-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
A Hamidovic, M Khafaja, V Brandon, J Anderson, G Ray, A M Allan, M R Burge
Many cigarette smokers express a desire to quit smoking, but ~85% of cessation attempts fail. In our attempt to delineate genetic modulators of smoking persistence, we have earlier shown that a locus within an ~250 kb haplotype block spanning the 5' untranslated region region of insulin-degrading enzyme is associated with serum cotinine levels; the study's measure of smoking quantity. Based on our findings, and coupled with recent preclinical studies showing the importance of multiple neuropeptides in reinstatement of drug use, we formulated intranasal insulin to evaluate its efficacy during acute abstinence from smoking...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236996/-modeling-for-clinical-trial-in-psychiatry-rationale-benefits-and-limitations
#4
N Simon, J-M Azorin, R Belzeaux, M Adida, A Kaladjian
Drug development of new compounds implies to define the dosage as well as the conditions of their use (indication, treatment duration, drug interactions, warnings …). This information requires the identification of the time course response. The decisions made during the clinical phases are now based on mathematical models. These models are continuously described and improved during all phases of the drug development using data collected in healthy volunteers and patients. Their objectives are to describe the most precisely, the link between the compound characteristics (pharmacology), the patient demographics and the effects...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115743/adnp-nap-dramatically-increase-microtubule-end-binding-protein-tau-interaction-a-novel-avenue-for-protection-against-tauopathy
#5
Y Ivashko-Pachima, C Laura Sayas, A Malishkevich, I Gozes
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), vital for brain formation and cognitive function, is mutated in autism and linked to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. An eight-amino-acid peptide snippet of ADNP, NAP (NAPVSIPQ), identified as a smallest active fragment, includes the SxIP microtubule (MT) end-binding protein (EB) association motif, and enhances ADNP-EB3 interaction. Depletion of EB1 or EB3 abolishes NAP protection against zinc intoxication. Furthermore, NAP enhances Tau-MT interaction, and Tau regulates the localization and function of EB1 and EB3 in developing neuronal cells...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#6
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738373/a-prospective-surveillance-of-pharmacovigilance-of-psychotropic-medicines-in-a-developing-country
#7
Jisha Myalil Lucca, Madhan Ramesh, Gurumurthy Parthasarathi, Dushad Ram
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Psychotropic drugs are associated with significant short-term and long-term safety issues which may affect patients' mental health, physical health and cost of care. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: This was a prospective study conducted in psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Study included patients of any age and either sex who presented with psychiatric illness as diagnosed by ICD-10 and were receiving at least one psychotropic agent. The study involved both intensive and spontaneous reporting methods to identify ADRs...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662279/study-329-continuation-phase-safety-and-efficacy-of-paroxetine-and-imipramine-in-extended-treatment-of-adolescent-major-depression
#8
Joanna Le Noury, John M Nardo, David Healy, Jon Jureidini, Melissa Raven, Catalin Tufanaru, Elia Abi-Jaoude
OBJECTIVE: This is an analysis of the unpublished continuation phase of Study 329, the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The objectives of the continuation phase were to assess safety and relapse rates in the longer term. The objective of this publication, under the Restoring Invisible and Abandoned Trials (RIAT) initiative, was to see whether access to and analysis of the previously unpublished dataset from the continuation phase of this randomized controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications for evidence-based medicine...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606422/developmental-neurotoxic-effects-of-percutaneous-drug-delivery-behavior-and-neurochemical-studies-in-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Huali Wu, Junyi Feng, Wenting Lv, Qiaoling Huang, Mengsi Fu, Minxuan Cai, Qiangqiang He, Jing Shang
Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418067/translatable-and-back-translatable-measurement-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-convergent-and-divergent-processes
#10
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Jeffrey W Dalley
Impulsivity and compulsivity have emerged as important dimensional constructs that challenge traditional psychiatric classification systems. Both are present in normal healthy populations where the need to act quickly and repeatedly without hesitation can be highly advantageous. However, when excessively expressed, impulsive and compulsive behavior can lead to adverse consequences and spectrum disorders exemplified by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism, and drug addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362820/-drug-safety-warnings-in-psychiatry-adverse-drug-reactions-signaling-from-2002-to-2014
#11
Vincenzo Prisco, Teresa Iannaccone, Adriano Tusciano, Mariangela Boccardi, Francesco Perris, Annalisa Capuano, Francesco Catapano, Michele Fabrazzo
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring drug-related side effects in psychiatric patients is highly recommended. In fact, frequent exposure to long-term polipharmacotherapy, poor compliance to pharmachological treatment and comorbidity with organic illnesses requiring the prescription of other drugs are causes of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interactions. These vulnerability factors result in a certain increase in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). METHODS: This study performes an analysis of Italian Medicine Agency data, in the section "signal analysis", to attempt an assessment of the safety warnings among the different psychotropic drug classes, belonging to the ATC class: N03 (antiepileptics), N05 (antipsychotics), N06 (psycho-analectic drugs)...
May 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362381/antidepressant-antipsychotic-and-hallucinogen-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-convergence-at-the-serotonin-2a-receptor
#12
Robert H Howland
Antidepressant, atypical antipsychotic, and hallucinogen drugs mediate their actions in part by interactions with the serotonin-2A (5HT2A) receptor. Serotonergic hallucinogen drugs, such as psilocybin, bind most potently as agonists at the 5HT2A receptor, producing profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. Some of these drugs have been or are currently being investigated in small Phase 2 studies for depression, alcoholism, smoking cessation, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, unlike the synergistic effects of combining antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic drugs, the potential therapeutic effects of hallucinogen drugs may be attenuated by the concurrent use of these medications because antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic drugs desensitize and/or down-regulate 5HT2A receptors...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157263/evidences-for-the-anti-panic-actions-of-cannabidiol
#13
REVIEW
Vanessa P Soares, Alline C Campos
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling psychiatry condition that affects approximately 5% of the worldwide population. Currently, long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment for PD; however, the common side-effect profiles and drug interactions may provoke patients to abandon the treatment, leading to PD symptoms relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant with antianxiety properties that has been suggested as an alternative for treating anxiety disorders...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145766/dimensional-psychiatry-mental-disorders-as-dysfunctions-of-basic-learning-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Carolin Wackerhagen
It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084302/lsd-modulates-music-induced-imagery-via-changes-in-parahippocampal-connectivity
#15
Mendel Kaelen, Leor Roseman, Joshua Kahan, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Csaba Orban, Romy Lorenz, Frederick S Barrett, Mark Bolstridge, Tim Williams, Luke Williams, Matthew B Wall, Amanda Feilding, Suresh Muthukumaraswamy, David J Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
Psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were used extensively in psychiatry in the past and their therapeutic potential is beginning to be re-examined today. Psychedelic psychotherapy typically involves a patient lying with their eyes-closed during peak drug effects, while listening to music and being supervised by trained psychotherapists. In this context, music is considered to be a key element in the therapeutic model; working in synergy with the drug to evoke therapeutically meaningful thoughts, emotions and imagery...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043126/relation-of-the-allelic-variants-of-multidrug-resistance-gene-to-agranulocytosis-associated-with-clozapine
#16
A Elif Anıl Yağcioğlu, Gökhan Yoca, Yavuz Ayhan, R Özgür Karaca, Lokman Çevik, Ahmet Müderrisoğlu, Mustafa T Göktaş, Nurhayat Eni, M Kâzım Yazıcı, Atilla Bozkurt, Melih O Babaoğlu
Clozapine use is associated with leukopenia and more rarely agranulocytosis, which may be lethal. The drug and its metabolites are proposed to interact with the multidrug resistance transporter (ABCB1/MDR1) gene product, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Among various P-glycoprotein genetic polymorphisms, nucleotide changes in exons 26 (C3435T), 21 (G2677T), and 12 (C1236T) have been implicated for changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many substrate drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between these specific ABCB1 polymorphisms and clozapine-associated agranulocytosis (CAA)...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986622/pharmacist-medication-reviews-to-improve-safety-monitoring-in-primary-care-patients
#17
Casey E Gallimore, Dimmy Sokhal, Elizabeth Zeidler Schreiter, Amanda R Margolis
OBJECTIVE: Patients prescribed psychotropic medications within primary care are at risk of suboptimal monitoring. It is unknown whether pharmacists can improve medication safety through targeted monitoring of at risk populations. Access Community Health Centers implemented a quality improvement pilot project that included pharmacists on an integrated care team to provide medication reviews for patients. Aims were to determine whether inclusion of a pharmacist performing medication reviews within a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) practice is feasible and facilitates safe medication use...
June 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917855/maois-does-the-evidence-warrant-their-resurrection
#18
David Menkes, Peter Bosanac, David Castle
OBJECTIVE: The place of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in psychiatry is reviewed, and the question posed as to whether they are now justifiably disregarded by prescribers. METHOD: Multiple databases (PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane) were interrogated to provide an overview regarding the use, efficacy and toxicity of MAOIs. Data regarding funded use of these agents in New Zealand were obtained from PHARMAC. RESULTS: Evidence supports the use of MAOIs in major depressive disorder, certain anxiety disorders and, to lesser extent, bipolar depression...
August 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879253/-placebo-effect-clinical-biological-and-therapeutical-involvements-in-depression
#19
REVIEW
D Gourion, S Mouchabac
The placebo effect is an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction between a subjective and complex mental activity (beliefs, expectations, hopes, learning, patient-physician relationship, socio-cultural context .) with different neural and biological systems. Initially, research on the placebo effect has focused on the mechanisms of pain and analgesia. The cognitive processes of conditioning and reward anticipation (hope of a relief) were highlighted. The involvement of different neurobiological pathways has been clearly shown: endogenous opioids, CCK, dopaminergic pathways, endocannabinoids, immunological factors...
February 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775691/challenges-in-psychopharmacology-a-drug-information-centre-perspective
#20
J Schjøtt
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Questions about psychotropic drugs are frequently submitted to drug information centres (DICs). Twenty years' experience from Norwegian DICs was used to identify particular challenges in responding to those questions. COMMENT: Questions about psychopharmacological therapy are usually patient-related and are often difficult to answer. Frequent questions about psychotropic drugs come from experienced senior physicians in disciplines like psychiatry, geriatrics, general practice and neurology...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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