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Prisoners' dilemma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212841/persistence-extends-reciprocity
#1
Shun Kurokawa
One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism"...
February 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208502/separation-of-cyclic-and-starlike-hierarchical-dominance-in-evolutionary-matrix-games
#2
György Szabó, Kinga S Bodó, Keivan Aghababaei Samani
We study antisymmetric components of matrices characterizing pair interactions in multistrategy evolutionary games. Based on the dyadic decomposition of matrices we distinguish cyclic and starlike hierarchical dominance in the appropriate components. In the symmetric matrix games the strengths of these elementary components are determined. The general features and intrinsic symmetries of these interactions are represented by directed graphs. It is found that the variation of a single matrix component modifies simultaneously the strengths of two starlike hierarchical basis games and many other independent rock-paper-scissors type cyclic basis games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208447/influence-of-trust-in-the-spreading-of-information
#3
Hongrun Wu, Alex Arenas, Sergio Gómez
The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182707/win-stay-lose-learn-promotes-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-with-voluntary-participation
#4
Chen Chu, Jinzhuo Liu, Chen Shen, Jiahua Jin, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142074/within-vs-between-subject-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-neural-response-to-cooperative-and-non-cooperative-social-interactions
#5
Xu Chen, Pritam Gautam, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in modulating social behavior across a wide range of vertebrate species. In humans, intranasal oxytocin (INOT) has been shown to modulate various aspects of social behavior, such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Most INOT studies employ cross-sectional designs despite the enhanced statistical power and reduction in error variance associated with individual differences characteristic of within-subject designs. Using the Prisoner Dilemma task, which models a real-life dyadic social interaction, our group has systematically explored the effect of INOT on social cooperation and non-cooperation using a cross-sectional design...
January 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119509/trust-as-commodity-social-value-orientation-affects-the-neural-substrates-of-learning-to-cooperate
#6
Bruno Lambert, Carolyn H Declerck, Griet Emonds, Christophe Boone
Individuals differ in their motives and strategies to cooperate in social dilemmas. These differences are reflected by an individual's social value orientation: proselfs are strategic and motivated to maximize self-interest, while prosocials are more trusting and value fairness. We hypothesize that, when deciding whether or not to cooperate with a random member of a defined group, proselfs, more than prosocials, adapt their decisions based on past experiences: they 'learn' instrumentally to form a base-line expectation of reciprocity...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071646/reinforcement-learning-accounts-for-moody-conditional-cooperation-behavior-experimental-results
#7
Yutaka Horita, Masanori Takezawa, Keigo Inukai, Toshimasa Kita, Naoki Masuda
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069448/interaction-times-change-evolutionary-outcomes-two-player-matrix-games
#8
Vlastimil Křivan, Ross Cressman
Two most influential models of evolutionary game theory are the Hawk-Dove and Prisoner's dilemma models. The Hawk-Dove model explains evolution of aggressiveness, predicting individuals should be aggressive when the cost of fighting is lower than its benefit. As the cost of aggressiveness increases and outweighs benefits, aggressiveness in the population should decrease. Similarly, the Prisoner's dilemma models evolution of cooperation. It predicts that individuals should never cooperate despite cooperation leading to a higher collective fitness than defection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018667/a-continuous-ideal-free-distribution-approach-to-the-dynamics-of-selfish-cooperative-and-kleptoparasitic-populations
#9
Ilona Reding, Michael Kelley, Jonathan T Rowell, Jan Rychtář
Population distributions depend upon the aggregate behavioural responses of individuals to a range of environmental factors. We extend a model of ideally motivated populations to describe the local and regional consequences of interactions between three populations distinguished by their levels of cooperation and exploitation. Inspired by the classic prisoner's dilemma game, stereotypical fitness functions describe a baseline non-cooperative population whose per capita fitness decreases with density, obligate co-operators who initially benefit from the presence of conspecifics, and kleptoparasites who require heterospecifics to extract resources from the environment...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986509/on-the-preservation-of-cooperation-in-two-strategy-games-with-nonlocal-interactions
#10
Ozgur Aydogmus, Wen Zhou, Yun Kang
Nonlocal interactions such as spatial interaction are ubiquitous in nature and may alter the equilibrium in evolutionary dynamics. Models including nonlocal spatial interactions can provide a further understanding on the preservation and emergence of cooperation in evolutionary dynamics. In this paper, we consider a variety of two-strategy evolutionary spatial games with nonlocal interactions based on an integro-differential replicator equation. By defining the invasion speed and minimal traveling wave speed for the derived model, we study the effects of the payoffs, the selection pressure and the spatial parameter on the preservation of cooperation...
December 13, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915074/evolutionary-stability-for-matrix-games-under-time-constraints
#11
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri
Game theory focuses on payoffs and typically ignores time constraints that play an important role in evolutionary processes where the repetition of games can depend on the strategies, too. We introduce a matrix game under time constraints, where each pairwise interaction has two consequences: both players receive a payoff and they cannot play the next game for a specified time duration. Thus our model is defined by two matrices: a payoff matrix and an average time duration matrix. Maynard Smith's concept of evolutionary stability is extended to this class of games...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#12
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837568/psynteract-a-flexible-cross-platform-open-framework-for-interactive-experiments
#13
Felix Henninger, Pascal J Kieslich, Benjamin E Hilbig
We introduce a novel platform for interactive studies, that is, any form of study in which participants' experiences depend not only on their own responses, but also on those of other participants who complete the same study in parallel, for example a prisoner's dilemma or an ultimatum game. The software thus especially serves the rapidly growing field of strategic interaction research within psychology and behavioral economics. In contrast to all available software packages, our platform does not handle stimulus display and response collection itself...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832736/facial-likability-and-smiling-enhance-cooperation-but-have-no-direct-effect-on-moralistic-punishment
#14
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829046/women-tend-to-defect-in-a-social-dilemma-game-in-southwest-china
#15
Riccardo Pansini, Lei Shi, Rui-Wu Wang
Cooperation theories assume that interacting individuals can change their strategies under different expected payoffs, depending on their social status or social situations. When looking at sex differences in cooperation, the existing studies have found that the genders cooperate at similar frequencies. However, the majority of the data originate within Western human societies. In this paper, we explore whether there are gender differences in cooperation in China. An Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with a punishment option was used to gather data about Southwest Chinese subjects in a culture in which men have a hierarchical advantage over women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821362/the-influence-of-cooperation-and-defection-on-social-decision-making-in-depression-a-study-of-the-iterated-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#16
Kristen M Sorgi, Mascha van 't Wout
This study evaluated the influence of self-reported levels of depression on interpersonal strategic decision making when interacting with partners who differed in their predetermined tendency to cooperate in three separate computerized iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Games (iPDGs). Across 29 participants, cooperation was lowest when interacting with a predominantly defecting partner and highest when interacting with a predominantly cooperating partner. Greater depression severity was related to steadier and continued cooperation over trials with the cooperating partner, seeming to reflect a prosocial response tendency when interacting with this partner...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808222/think-global-act-local-preserving-the-global-commons
#17
Oliver P Hauser, Achim Hendriks, David G Rand, Martin A Nowak
Preserving global public goods, such as the planet's ecosystem, depends on large-scale cooperation, which is difficult to achieve because the standard reciprocity mechanisms weaken in large groups. Here we demonstrate a method by which reciprocity can maintain cooperation in a large-scale public goods game (PGG). In a first experiment, participants in groups of on average 39 people play one round of a Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with their two nearest neighbours on a cyclic network after each PGG round. We observe that people engage in "local-to-global" reciprocity, leveraging local interactions to enforce global cooperation: Participants reduce PD cooperation with neighbours who contribute little in the PGG...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805507/transplant-ethics
#18
Nur Altınörs, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. RESULTS: The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism...
2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775099/opting-out-against-defection-leads-to-stable-coexistence-with-cooperation
#19
Bo-Yu Zhang, Song-Jia Fan, Cong Li, Xiu-Deng Zheng, Jian-Zhang Bao, Ross Cressman, Yi Tao
Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768713/religious-fragmentation-social-identity-and-conflict-evidence-from-an-artefactual-field-experiment-in-india
#20
Surajeet Chakravarty, Miguel A Fonseca, Sudeep Ghosh, Sugata Marjit
We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study...
2016: PloS One
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