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Prisoners' dilemma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431890/which-facilitates-the-evolution-of-cooperation-more-retaliation-or-persistence
#1
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420786/memory-n-strategies-of-direct-reciprocity
#2
Christian Hilbe, Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394939/the-socialization-effect-on-decision-making-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-an-eye-tracking-study
#3
Anastasia G Peshkovskaya, Tatiana S Babkina, Mikhail G Myagkov, Ivan A Kulikov, Ksenia V Ekshova, Kyle Harriff
We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses) to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment); a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347728/the-extended-reciprocity-strong-belief-outperforms-persistence
#4
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338070/the-co-evolution-of-networks-and-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-by-considering-sensitivity-and-visibility
#5
Dandan Li, Jing Ma, Dun Han, Mei Sun, Lixin Tian, H Eugene Stanley
Strategies adopted by individuals in a social network significantly impact the network, and they strongly affect relationships between individuals in the network. Links between individuals also heavily influence their levels of cooperation. Taking into account the evolution of each individual's connection, we explore how sensitivity and visibility affect the prisoner's dilemma game. The so-called 'sensitivity' and 'visibility' respectively present one's self-protection consciousness and the ability of gaining information...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336925/prosocial-orientation-alters-network-dynamics-and-fosters-cooperation
#6
David Melamed, Brent Simpson, Ashley Harrell
Dynamic networks have been shown to increase cooperation, but prior findings are compatible with two different mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It may be that dynamic networks promote cooperation even in networks composed entirely of egoists, who strategically cooperate to attract and maintain profitable interaction partners. Alternatively, drawing on recent insights into heterogeneous social preferences, we expect that dynamic networks will increase cooperation only when nodes are occupied by persons with more prosocial preferences, who tend to attract and keep more cooperative partners relative to egoists...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288869/schizophrenia-illness-severity-is-associated-with-reduced-loss-aversion
#7
James Currie, Dheeraj Buruju, Jennifer S Perrin, Ian C Reid, J Douglas Steele, Nick Feltovich
Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259660/a-simple-rule-of-direct-reciprocity-leads-to-the-stable-coexistence-of-cooperation-and-defection-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#8
Xiu-Deng Zheng, Cong Li, Jie-Ru Yu, Shi-Chang Wang, Song-Jia Fan, Bo-Yu Zhang, Yi Tao
The long-term coexistence of cooperation and defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. However, none of the theoretical models based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game can provide a concise theoretical model to explain what leads to the stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the long-term even though some rules for promoting cooperation have been summarized (Nowak, 2006, Science 314, 1560-1563). Here, based on the concept of direct reciprocity, we develop an elementary model to show why stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the PD game is possible...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242201/examining-the-role-of-individual-movement-in-promoting-coexistence-in-a-spatially-explicit-prisoner-s-dilemma
#9
Andrew E F Burgess, Tommaso Lorenzi, Pietà G Schofield, Stephen F Hubbard, Mark A J Chaplain
The emergence of cooperation is a major conundrum of evolutionary biology. To unravel this evolutionary riddle, several models have been developed within the theoretical framework of spatial game theory, focussing on the interactions between two general classes of player, "cooperators" and "defectors". Generally, explicit movement in the spatial domain is not considered in these models, with strategies moving via imitation or through colonisation of neighbouring sites. We present here a spatially explicit stochastic individual-based model in which pure cooperators and defectors undergo random motion via diffusion and also chemotaxis guided by the gradient of a semiochemical...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238940/dynamic-landscape-models-of-coevolutionary-games
#10
Hendrik Richter
Players of coevolutionary games may update not only their strategies but also their networks of interaction. Based on interpreting the payoff of players as fitness, dynamic landscape models are proposed. The modeling procedure is carried out for Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games that both use either birth-death (BD) or death-birth (DB) strategy updating. The main focus is on using dynamic fitness landscapes as a mathematical model of coevolutionary game dynamics. Hence, an alternative tool for analyzing coevolutionary games becomes available, and landscape measures such as modality, ruggedness and information content can be computed and analyzed...
February 24, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212841/persistence-extends-reciprocity
#11
Shun Kurokawa
One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism"...
February 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208502/separation-of-cyclic-and-starlike-hierarchical-dominance-in-evolutionary-matrix-games
#12
György Szabó, Kinga S Bodó, Keivan Aghababaei Samani
We study antisymmetric components of matrices characterizing pair interactions in multistrategy evolutionary games. Based on the dyadic decomposition of matrices we distinguish cyclic and starlike hierarchical dominance in the appropriate components. In the symmetric matrix games the strengths of these elementary components are determined. The general features and intrinsic symmetries of these interactions are represented by directed graphs. It is found that the variation of a single matrix component modifies simultaneously the strengths of two starlike hierarchical basis games and many other independent rock-paper-scissors type cyclic basis games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208447/influence-of-trust-in-the-spreading-of-information
#13
Hongrun Wu, Alex Arenas, Sergio Gómez
The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182707/win-stay-lose-learn-promotes-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-with-voluntary-participation
#14
Chen Chu, Jinzhuo Liu, Chen Shen, Jiahua Jin, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142074/within-vs-between-subject-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-neural-response-to-cooperative-and-non-cooperative-social-interactions
#15
Xu Chen, Pritam Gautam, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in modulating social behavior across a wide range of vertebrate species. In humans, intranasal oxytocin (INOT) has been shown to modulate various aspects of social behavior, such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Most INOT studies employ cross-sectional designs despite the enhanced statistical power and reduction in error variance associated with individual differences characteristic of within-subject designs. Using the Prisoner Dilemma task, which models a real-life dyadic social interaction, our group has systematically explored the effect of INOT on social cooperation and non-cooperation using a cross-sectional design...
April 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119509/trust-as-commodity-social-value-orientation-affects-the-neural-substrates-of-learning-to-cooperate
#16
Bruno Lambert, Carolyn H Declerck, Griet Emonds, Christophe Boone
Individuals differ in their motives and strategies to cooperate in social dilemmas. These differences are reflected by an individual's social value orientation: proselfs are strategic and motivated to maximize self-interest, while prosocials are more trusting and value fairness. We hypothesize that, when deciding whether or not to cooperate with a random member of a defined group, proselfs, more than prosocials, adapt their decisions based on past experiences: they 'learn' instrumentally to form a base-line expectation of reciprocity...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071646/reinforcement-learning-accounts-for-moody-conditional-cooperation-behavior-experimental-results
#17
Yutaka Horita, Masanori Takezawa, Keigo Inukai, Toshimasa Kita, Naoki Masuda
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069448/interaction-times-change-evolutionary-outcomes-two-player-matrix-games
#18
Vlastimil Křivan, Ross Cressman
Two most influential models of evolutionary game theory are the Hawk-Dove and Prisoner's dilemma models. The Hawk-Dove model explains evolution of aggressiveness, predicting individuals should be aggressive when the cost of fighting is lower than its benefit. As the cost of aggressiveness increases and outweighs benefits, aggressiveness in the population should decrease. Similarly, the Prisoner's dilemma models evolution of cooperation. It predicts that individuals should never cooperate despite cooperation leading to a higher collective fitness than defection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018667/a-continuous-ideal-free-distribution-approach-to-the-dynamics-of-selfish-cooperative-and-kleptoparasitic-populations
#19
Ilona Reding, Michael Kelley, Jonathan T Rowell, Jan Rychtář
Population distributions depend upon the aggregate behavioural responses of individuals to a range of environmental factors. We extend a model of ideally motivated populations to describe the local and regional consequences of interactions between three populations distinguished by their levels of cooperation and exploitation. Inspired by the classic prisoner's dilemma game, stereotypical fitness functions describe a baseline non-cooperative population whose per capita fitness decreases with density, obligate co-operators who initially benefit from the presence of conspecifics, and kleptoparasites who require heterospecifics to extract resources from the environment...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986509/on-the-preservation-of-cooperation-in-two-strategy-games-with-nonlocal-interactions
#20
Ozgur Aydogmus, Wen Zhou, Yun Kang
Nonlocal interactions such as spatial interaction are ubiquitous in nature and may alter the equilibrium in evolutionary dynamics. Models including nonlocal spatial interactions can provide a further understanding on the preservation and emergence of cooperation in evolutionary dynamics. In this paper, we consider a variety of two-strategy evolutionary spatial games with nonlocal interactions based on an integro-differential replicator equation. By defining the invasion speed and minimal traveling wave speed for the derived model, we study the effects of the payoffs, the selection pressure and the spatial parameter on the preservation of cooperation...
December 13, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
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