keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Prisoners' dilemma

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705924/end-of-life-chemotherapy-a-prisoner-s-dilemma
#1
EDITORIAL
Ho-Man Yeung, Randy S Hebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670295/cooperative-behavior-in-the-ultimatum-game-and-prisoner-s-dilemma-depends-on-players-contributions
#2
Amy R Bland, Jonathan P Roiser, Mitul A Mehta, Thea Schei, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins, Rebecca Elliott
Economic games such as the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) are widely used paradigms for studying fairness and cooperation. Monetary versions of these games involve two players splitting an arbitrary sum of money. In real life, however, people's propensity to engage in cooperative behavior depends on their effort and contribution; factors that are well known to affect perceptions of fairness. We therefore sought to explore the impact of relative monetary contributions by players in the UG and PD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659573/multilevel-evolutionary-algorithm-that-optimizes-the-structure-of-scale-free-networks-for-the-promotion-of-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#3
Penghui Liu, Jing Liu
Understanding the emergence of cooperation has long been a challenge across disciplines. Even if network reciprocity reflected the importance of population structure in promoting cooperation, it remains an open question how population structures can be optimized, thereby enhancing cooperation. In this paper, we attempt to apply the evolutionary algorithm (EA) to solve this highly complex problem. However, as it is hard to evaluate the fitness (cooperation level) of population structures, simply employing the canonical evolutionary algorithm (EA) may fail in optimization...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618560/topology-dependent-rationality-and-quantal-response-equilibria-in-structured-populations
#4
Sabin Roman, Markus Brede
Given that the assumption of perfect rationality is rarely met in the real world, we explore a graded notion of rationality in socioecological systems of networked actors. We parametrize an actors' rationality via their place in a social network and quantify system rationality via the average Jensen-Shannon divergence between the games Nash and logit quantal response equilibria. Previous work has argued that scale-free topologies maximize a system's overall rationality in this setup. Here we show that while, for certain games, it is true that increasing degree heterogeneity of complex networks enhances rationality, rationality-optimal configurations are not scale-free...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610901/neural-dynamics-of-two-players-when-using-nonverbal-cues-to-gauge-intentions-to-cooperate-during-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#5
Jaehwan Jahng, Jerald D Kralik, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong
Social interaction is a fundamental part of our daily lives; however, exactly how our brains use social cues to determine whether to cooperate without being exploited remains unclear. In this study, we used an electroencephalography (EEG) hyperscanning approach to investigate the effect of face-to-face contact on the brain mechanisms underlying the decision to cooperate or defect in an iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Participants played the game either in face-to-face or face-blocked conditions...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559538/when-agreement-accepting-free-riders-are-a-necessary-evil-for-the-evolution-of-cooperation
#6
Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, The Anh Han, Luís Moniz Pereira, Tom Lenaerts
Agreements and commitments have provided a novel mechanism to promote cooperation in social dilemmas in both one-shot and repeated games. Individuals requesting others to commit to cooperate (proposers) incur a cost, while their co-players are not necessarily required to pay any, allowing them to free-ride on the proposal investment cost (acceptors). Although there is a clear complementarity in these behaviours, no dynamic evidence is currently available that proves that they coexist in different forms of commitment creation...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505764/role-of-generosity-and-forgiveness-return-to-a-cooperative-society
#7
Hye Jin Park, Beom Jun Kim, Hyeong-Chai Jeong
One's reputation in human society depends on what and how one did in the past. If the reputation of a counterpart is too bad, we often avoid interacting with the individual. We introduce a selective cooperator called the goodie, who participates in the prisoner's dilemma game dependent on the opponent's reputation, and study its role in forming a cooperative society. We observe enhanced cooperation when goodies have a small but nonzero probability of playing the game with an individual who defected in previous rounds...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490625/nonlinear-trade-offs-allow-the-cooperation-game-to-evolve-from-prisoner-s-dilemma-to-snowdrift
#8
Lin Chao, Santiago F Elena
The existence of cooperation, or the production of public goods, is an evolutionary problem. Cooperation is not favoured because the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game drives cooperators to extinction. We have re-analysed this problem by using RNA viruses to motivate a model for the evolution of cooperation. Gene products are the public goods and group size is the number of virions co-infecting the same host cell. Our results show that if the trade-off between replication and production of gene products is linear, PD is observed...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473787/individual-characteristics-vs-experience-an-experimental-study-on-cooperation-in-prisoner-s-dilemma
#9
Iván Barreda-Tarrazona, Ainhoa Jaramillo-Gutiérrez, Marina Pavan, Gerardo Sabater-Grande
Cooperative behavior is often assumed to depend on individuals' characteristics, such as altruism and reasoning ability. Evidence is mixed about what the precise impact of these characteristics is, as the subjects of study are generally randomly paired, generating a heterogeneous mix of the two characteristics. In this study we ex-ante create four different groups of subjects by factoring their higher or lower than the median scores in both altruism and reasoning ability. Then we use these groups in order to analyze the joint effect of the two characteristics on the individual choice of cooperating and on successful paired cooperation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#10
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435860/onymity-promotes-cooperation-in-social-dilemma-experiments
#11
Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Rui-Wu Wang, Lei Shi, Yoh Iwasa, Yamir Moreno, Jürgen Kurths
One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431890/which-facilitates-the-evolution-of-cooperation-more-retaliation-or-persistence
#12
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420786/memory-n-strategies-of-direct-reciprocity
#13
Christian Hilbe, Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394939/the-socialization-effect-on-decision-making-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-an-eye-tracking-study
#14
Anastasia G Peshkovskaya, Tatiana S Babkina, Mikhail G Myagkov, Ivan A Kulikov, Ksenia V Ekshova, Kyle Harriff
We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses) to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment); a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347728/the-extended-reciprocity-strong-belief-outperforms-persistence
#15
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338070/the-co-evolution-of-networks-and-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-by-considering-sensitivity-and-visibility
#16
Dandan Li, Jing Ma, Dun Han, Mei Sun, Lixin Tian, H Eugene Stanley
Strategies adopted by individuals in a social network significantly impact the network, and they strongly affect relationships between individuals in the network. Links between individuals also heavily influence their levels of cooperation. Taking into account the evolution of each individual's connection, we explore how sensitivity and visibility affect the prisoner's dilemma game. The so-called 'sensitivity' and 'visibility' respectively present one's self-protection consciousness and the ability of gaining information...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336925/prosocial-orientation-alters-network-dynamics-and-fosters-cooperation
#17
David Melamed, Brent Simpson, Ashley Harrell
Dynamic networks have been shown to increase cooperation, but prior findings are compatible with two different mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It may be that dynamic networks promote cooperation even in networks composed entirely of egoists, who strategically cooperate to attract and maintain profitable interaction partners. Alternatively, drawing on recent insights into heterogeneous social preferences, we expect that dynamic networks will increase cooperation only when nodes are occupied by persons with more prosocial preferences, who tend to attract and keep more cooperative partners relative to egoists...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288869/schizophrenia-illness-severity-is-associated-with-reduced-loss-aversion
#18
James Currie, Dheeraj Buruju, Jennifer S Perrin, Ian C Reid, J Douglas Steele, Nick Feltovich
Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259660/a-simple-rule-of-direct-reciprocity-leads-to-the-stable-coexistence-of-cooperation-and-defection-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#19
Xiu-Deng Zheng, Cong Li, Jie-Ru Yu, Shi-Chang Wang, Song-Jia Fan, Bo-Yu Zhang, Yi Tao
The long-term coexistence of cooperation and defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. However, none of the theoretical models based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game can provide a concise theoretical model to explain what leads to the stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the long-term even though some rules for promoting cooperation have been summarized (Nowak, 2006, Science 314, 1560-1563). Here, based on the concept of direct reciprocity, we develop an elementary model to show why stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the PD game is possible...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242201/examining-the-role-of-individual-movement-in-promoting-coexistence-in-a-spatially-explicit-prisoner-s-dilemma
#20
Andrew E F Burgess, Tommaso Lorenzi, Pietà G Schofield, Stephen F Hubbard, Mark A J Chaplain
The emergence of cooperation is a major conundrum of evolutionary biology. To unravel this evolutionary riddle, several models have been developed within the theoretical framework of spatial game theory, focussing on the interactions between two general classes of player, "cooperators" and "defectors". Generally, explicit movement in the spatial domain is not considered in these models, with strategies moving via imitation or through colonisation of neighbouring sites. We present here a spatially explicit stochastic individual-based model in which pure cooperators and defectors undergo random motion via diffusion and also chemotaxis guided by the gradient of a semiochemical...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
keyword
keyword
69950
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"