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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338070/the-co-evolution-of-networks-and-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-by-considering-sensitivity-and-visibility
#1
Dandan Li, Jing Ma, Dun Han, Mei Sun, Lixin Tian, H Eugene Stanley
Strategies adopted by individuals in a social network significantly impact the network, and they strongly affect relationships between individuals in the network. Links between individuals also heavily influence their levels of cooperation. Taking into account the evolution of each individual's connection, we explore how sensitivity and visibility affect the prisoner's dilemma game. The so-called 'sensitivity' and 'visibility' respectively present one's self-protection consciousness and the ability of gaining information...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336925/prosocial-orientation-alters-network-dynamics-and-fosters-cooperation
#2
David Melamed, Brent Simpson, Ashley Harrell
Dynamic networks have been shown to increase cooperation, but prior findings are compatible with two different mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation. It may be that dynamic networks promote cooperation even in networks composed entirely of egoists, who strategically cooperate to attract and maintain profitable interaction partners. Alternatively, drawing on recent insights into heterogeneous social preferences, we expect that dynamic networks will increase cooperation only when nodes are occupied by persons with more prosocial preferences, who tend to attract and keep more cooperative partners relative to egoists...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288869/schizophrenia-illness-severity-is-associated-with-reduced-loss-aversion
#3
James Currie, Dheeraj Buruju, Jennifer S Perrin, Ian C Reid, J Douglas Steele, Nick Feltovich
Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259660/a-simple-rule-of-direct-reciprocity-leads-to-the-stable-coexistence-of-cooperation-and-defection-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#4
Xiu-Deng Zheng, Cong Li, Jie-Ru Yu, Shi-Chang Wang, Song-Jia Fan, Bo-Yu Zhang, Yi Tao
The long-term coexistence of cooperation and defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. However, none of the theoretical models based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game can provide a concise theoretical model to explain what leads to the stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the long-term even though some rules for promoting cooperation have been summarized (Nowak, 2006, Science 314, 1560-1563). Here, based on the concept of direct reciprocity, we develop an elementary model to show why stable coexistence of cooperation and defection in the PD game is possible...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242201/examining-the-role-of-individual-movement-in-promoting-coexistence-in-a-spatially-explicit-prisoner-s-dilemma
#5
Andrew E F Burgess, Tommaso Lorenzi, Pietà G Schofield, Stephen F Hubbard, Mark A J Chaplain
The emergence of cooperation is a major conundrum of evolutionary biology. To unravel this evolutionary riddle, several models have been developed within the theoretical framework of spatial game theory, focussing on the interactions between two general classes of player, "cooperators" and "defectors". Generally, explicit movement in the spatial domain is not considered in these models, with strategies moving via imitation or through colonisation of neighbouring sites. We present here a spatially explicit stochastic individual-based model in which pure cooperators and defectors undergo random motion via diffusion and also chemotaxis guided by the gradient of a semiochemical...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238940/dynamic-landscape-models-of-coevolutionary-games
#6
Hendrik Richter
Players of coevolutionary games may update not only their strategies but also their networks of interaction. Based on interpreting the payoff of players as fitness, dynamic landscape models are proposed. The modeling procedure is carried out for Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games that both use either birth-death (BD) or death-birth (DB) strategy updating. The main focus is on using dynamic fitness landscapes as a mathematical model of coevolutionary game dynamics. Hence, an alternative tool for analyzing coevolutionary games becomes available, and landscape measures such as modality, ruggedness and information content can be computed and analyzed...
February 24, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212841/persistence-extends-reciprocity
#7
Shun Kurokawa
One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism"...
February 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208502/separation-of-cyclic-and-starlike-hierarchical-dominance-in-evolutionary-matrix-games
#8
György Szabó, Kinga S Bodó, Keivan Aghababaei Samani
We study antisymmetric components of matrices characterizing pair interactions in multistrategy evolutionary games. Based on the dyadic decomposition of matrices we distinguish cyclic and starlike hierarchical dominance in the appropriate components. In the symmetric matrix games the strengths of these elementary components are determined. The general features and intrinsic symmetries of these interactions are represented by directed graphs. It is found that the variation of a single matrix component modifies simultaneously the strengths of two starlike hierarchical basis games and many other independent rock-paper-scissors type cyclic basis games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208447/influence-of-trust-in-the-spreading-of-information
#9
Hongrun Wu, Alex Arenas, Sergio Gómez
The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182707/win-stay-lose-learn-promotes-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-with-voluntary-participation
#10
Chen Chu, Jinzhuo Liu, Chen Shen, Jiahua Jin, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142074/within-vs-between-subject-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-neural-response-to-cooperative-and-non-cooperative-social-interactions
#11
Xu Chen, Pritam Gautam, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in modulating social behavior across a wide range of vertebrate species. In humans, intranasal oxytocin (INOT) has been shown to modulate various aspects of social behavior, such as empathy, trust, in-group preference, and memory of socially relevant cues. Most INOT studies employ cross-sectional designs despite the enhanced statistical power and reduction in error variance associated with individual differences characteristic of within-subject designs. Using the Prisoner Dilemma task, which models a real-life dyadic social interaction, our group has systematically explored the effect of INOT on social cooperation and non-cooperation using a cross-sectional design...
April 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119509/trust-as-commodity-social-value-orientation-affects-the-neural-substrates-of-learning-to-cooperate
#12
Bruno Lambert, Carolyn H Declerck, Griet Emonds, Christophe Boone
Individuals differ in their motives and strategies to cooperate in social dilemmas. These differences are reflected by an individual's social value orientation: proselfs are strategic and motivated to maximize self-interest, while prosocials are more trusting and value fairness. We hypothesize that, when deciding whether or not to cooperate with a random member of a defined group, proselfs, more than prosocials, adapt their decisions based on past experiences: they 'learn' instrumentally to form a base-line expectation of reciprocity...
January 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071646/reinforcement-learning-accounts-for-moody-conditional-cooperation-behavior-experimental-results
#13
Yutaka Horita, Masanori Takezawa, Keigo Inukai, Toshimasa Kita, Naoki Masuda
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069448/interaction-times-change-evolutionary-outcomes-two-player-matrix-games
#14
Vlastimil Křivan, Ross Cressman
Two most influential models of evolutionary game theory are the Hawk-Dove and Prisoner's dilemma models. The Hawk-Dove model explains evolution of aggressiveness, predicting individuals should be aggressive when the cost of fighting is lower than its benefit. As the cost of aggressiveness increases and outweighs benefits, aggressiveness in the population should decrease. Similarly, the Prisoner's dilemma models evolution of cooperation. It predicts that individuals should never cooperate despite cooperation leading to a higher collective fitness than defection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018667/a-continuous-ideal-free-distribution-approach-to-the-dynamics-of-selfish-cooperative-and-kleptoparasitic-populations
#15
Ilona Reding, Michael Kelley, Jonathan T Rowell, Jan Rychtář
Population distributions depend upon the aggregate behavioural responses of individuals to a range of environmental factors. We extend a model of ideally motivated populations to describe the local and regional consequences of interactions between three populations distinguished by their levels of cooperation and exploitation. Inspired by the classic prisoner's dilemma game, stereotypical fitness functions describe a baseline non-cooperative population whose per capita fitness decreases with density, obligate co-operators who initially benefit from the presence of conspecifics, and kleptoparasites who require heterospecifics to extract resources from the environment...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986509/on-the-preservation-of-cooperation-in-two-strategy-games-with-nonlocal-interactions
#16
Ozgur Aydogmus, Wen Zhou, Yun Kang
Nonlocal interactions such as spatial interaction are ubiquitous in nature and may alter the equilibrium in evolutionary dynamics. Models including nonlocal spatial interactions can provide a further understanding on the preservation and emergence of cooperation in evolutionary dynamics. In this paper, we consider a variety of two-strategy evolutionary spatial games with nonlocal interactions based on an integro-differential replicator equation. By defining the invasion speed and minimal traveling wave speed for the derived model, we study the effects of the payoffs, the selection pressure and the spatial parameter on the preservation of cooperation...
December 13, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915074/evolutionary-stability-for-matrix-games-under-time-constraints
#17
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri
Game theory focuses on payoffs and typically ignores time constraints that play an important role in evolutionary processes where the repetition of games can depend on the strategies, too. We introduce a matrix game under time constraints, where each pairwise interaction has two consequences: both players receive a payoff and they cannot play the next game for a specified time duration. Thus our model is defined by two matrices: a payoff matrix and an average time duration matrix. Maynard Smith's concept of evolutionary stability is extended to this class of games...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#18
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837568/psynteract-a-flexible-cross-platform-open-framework-for-interactive-experiments
#19
Felix Henninger, Pascal J Kieslich, Benjamin E Hilbig
We introduce a novel platform for interactive studies, that is, any form of study in which participants' experiences depend not only on their own responses, but also on those of other participants who complete the same study in parallel, for example a prisoner's dilemma or an ultimatum game. The software thus especially serves the rapidly growing field of strategic interaction research within psychology and behavioral economics. In contrast to all available software packages, our platform does not handle stimulus display and response collection itself...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832736/facial-likability-and-smiling-enhance-cooperation-but-have-no-direct-effect-on-moralistic-punishment
#20
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
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