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Prisoner, dilemma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261671/tragedy-of-the-commons-in-the-chemostat
#1
Martin Schuster, Eric Foxall, David Finch, Hal Smith, Patrick De Leenheer
We present a proof of principle for the phenomenon of the tragedy of the commons that is at the center of many theories on the evolution of cooperation. Whereas the tragedy is commonly set in a game theoretical context, and attributed to an underlying Prisoner's Dilemma, we take an alternative approach based on basic mechanistic principles of species growth that does not rely on the specification of payoffs which may be difficult to determine in practice. We establish the tragedy in the context of a general chemostat model with two species, the cooperator and the cheater...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229960/how-costly-punishment-diversity-and-density-of-connectivity-influence-cooperation-in-a-biological-network
#2
Ivan C Ezeigbo
It has been an old unsolved puzzle to evolutionary theorists on which mechanisms would increase large-scale cooperation in human societies. Thus, how such mechanisms operate in a biological network is still not well understood. This study addresses these questions with empirical evidence from agent-based models designed to understand these network interactions. Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games were designed to study how costly punishment, diversity, and density of connectivity interact to influence cooperation in a biological network...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228001/reinforcement-learning-produces-dominant-strategies-for-the-iterated-prisoner-s-dilemma
#3
Marc Harper, Vincent Knight, Martin Jones, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Nikoleta E Glynatsi, Owen Campbell
We present tournament results and several powerful strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma created using reinforcement learning techniques (evolutionary and particle swarm algorithms). These strategies are trained to perform well against a corpus of over 170 distinct opponents, including many well-known and classic strategies. All the trained strategies win standard tournaments against the total collection of other opponents. The trained strategies and one particular human made designed strategy are the top performers in noisy tournaments also...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195838/a-phenomenological-analysis-of-eco-evolutionary-coupling-under-dilution
#4
Vitor H Sanches, Dhyan V H Kuraoka, Pedro R Almeida, Carla Goldman
Evolutionary dynamics experienced by mixed microbial populations of cooperators and cheaters has been examined in experiments in the literature using a protocol of periodic dilution to investigate the properties of resilience and adaptability to environmental changes. Data depicted on an appropriate phase diagram indicate, among other features, a stable equilibrium point at which cooperators and cheaters coexist (Sanchez A, Gore J. Feedback between population and evolutionary dynamics determines the fate of social microbial populations...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190280/from-rationality-to-cooperativeness-the-totally-mixed-nash-equilibrium-in-markov-strategies-in-the-iterated-prisoner-s-dilemma
#5
Ivan S Menshikov, Alexsandr V Shklover, Tatiana S Babkina, Mikhail G Myagkov
In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176900/consensual-punishment-does-not-promote-cooperation-in-the-six-person-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-with-noisy-public-monitoring
#6
Nynke van Miltenburg, Wojtek Przepiorka, Vincent Buskens
We study the effects of different punishment institutions on cooperation in a six-person prisoner's dilemma game in which actors observe others' cooperation with some noise (i.e. imperfect public monitoring). Previous research has shown that peer punishment can sustain cooperation, if a certain proportion of group members punish defectors at a cost to themselves. However, in the presence of noise, co-operators will sometimes be mistaken for defectors and punished, and defectors will sometimes be mistaken for co-operators and escape punishment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175206/stochastic-simulation-of-multiscale-complex-systems-with-piskas-a-rule-based-approach
#7
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo Santibañez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#8
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154776/zero-determinant-strategies-in-finitely-repeated-games
#9
Genki Ichinose, Naoki Masuda
Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for sustaining mutual cooperation in repeated social dilemma games, where a player would keep cooperation to avoid being retaliated by a co-player in the future. So-called zero-determinant (ZD) strategies enable a player to unilaterally set a linear relationship between the player's own payoff and the co-player's payoff regardless of the strategy of the co-player. In the present study, we analytically study zero-determinant strategies in finitely repeated (two-person) prisoner's dilemma games with a general payoff matrix...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138411/divide-and-conquer-tournament-on-social-networks
#10
Jiasheng Wang, Yichao Zhang, Jihong Guan, Shuigeng Zhou
In social gaming networks, previous studies extensively investigated the influence of a variety of strategies on reciprocal behaviors in the prisoner's dilemma game. The studied frameworks range from the case that an individual uniformly cooperates or defects with all social contacts, to the recently reported divide-and-conquer games, where an individual can choose a particular move to play with each neighbor. In this paper, we investigate a divide-and-conquer tournament among 14 well-known strategies on social gaming networks...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127336/intermediate-levels-of-network-heterogeneity-provide-the-best-evolutionary-outcomes
#11
Flávio L Pinheiro, Dominik Hartmann
Complex networks impact the diffusion of ideas and innovations, the formation of opinions, and the evolution of cooperative behavior. In this context, heterogeneous structures have been shown to generate a coordination-like dynamics that drives a population towards a monomorphic state. In contrast, homogeneous networks tend to result in a stable co-existence of multiple traits in the population. These conclusions have been reached through the analysis of networks with either very high or very low levels of degree heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127034/balancing-nanotoxicity-and-returns-in-health-applications-the-prisoner-s-dilemma
#12
D A Gkika, L Magafas, P Cool, J Braet
Over the past 30 years, there have been significant advancements in the field of nanomaterials. The possibility to use them in applications such as cancer treatment is extremely promising; however, the toxicity of many nanomaterials as well as the high costs associated with their use is still a concern. This paper aims to study the connection between nanomaterial toxicity and cost. This synergy may be interpreted as a different version of the classic "Prisoner's Dilemma" game, which in this case attempts to explain the possible outcomes of cooperation versus conflict between science advocating for the use of high-risk, possibly toxic materials due to their high returns, and society that might be dubious about the use of high-risk materials...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126368/associations-between-cooperation-reactive-aggression-and-social-impairments-among-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Miia Kaartinen, Kaija Puura, Päivi Pispa, Mika Helminen, Raili Salmelin, Erja Pelkonen, Petri Juujärvi, Esther B Kessler, David H Skuse
Cooperation is a fundamental human ability that seems to be inversely related to aggressive behaviour in typical development. However, there is no knowledge whether similar association holds for children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 27 boys with autism spectrum disorder and their gender, age and total score intelligence matched controls were studied in order to determine associations between cooperation, reactive aggression and autism spectrum disorder-related social impairments. The participants performed a modified version of the Prisoner's Dilemma task and the Pulkkinen Aggression Machine which measure dimensions of trust, trustworthiness and self-sacrifice in predisposition to cooperate, and inhibition of reactive aggression in the absence and presence of situational cues, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123237/coevolution-of-vertex-weights-resolves-social-dilemma-in-spatial-networks
#14
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Hao Guo, Lei Shi, Jiangyan Duan
In realistic social system, the role or influence of each individual varies and adaptively changes in time in the population. Inspired by this fact, we thus consider a new coevolution setup of game strategy and vertex weight on a square lattice. In detail, we model the structured population on a square lattice, on which the role or influence of each individual is depicted by vertex weight, and the prisoner's dilemma game has been applied to describe the social dilemma of pairwise interactions of players. Through numerical simulation, we conclude that our coevolution setup can promote the evolution of cooperation effectively...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#15
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986381/chemotherapeutic-dose-scheduling-based-on-tumor-growth-rates-provide-a-case-for-low-dose-metronomic-high-entropy-therapies
#16
Jeffrey B West, Paul K Newton
We extended the classical tumor regression models such as Skipper's laws and the Norton-Simon hypothesis from instantaneous regression rates to the cumulative effect over repeated cycles of chemotherapy. To achieve this end, we used a stochastic Moran process model of tumor cell kinetics coupled with a prisoner's dilemma game-theoretic cell-cell interaction model to design chemotherapeutic strategies tailored to different tumor growth characteristics. Using the Shannon entropy as a novel tool to quantify the success of dosing strategies, we contrasted maximum tolerated dose (MTD) strategies as compared with low-dose, high-density metronomic strategies (LDM) for tumors with different growth rates...
October 6, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957516/stags-hawks-and-doves-social-evolution-theory-and-individual-variation-in-cooperation
#17
Jeremy Van Cleve
One of the triumphs of evolutionary biology is the discovery of robust mechanisms that promote the evolution of cooperative behaviors even when cooperation reduces the fertility or survival of cooperators. These mechanisms include, kin selection, reciprocity, and direct benefits to cooperation that are often nonlinear. Though they have been extensively studied separately, investigating the joint action of these mechanisms has been more difficult. Moreover, how these mechanisms shape variation in cooperation is not well known...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954151/public-security-female-workers-at-the-coast-of-paran%C3%A3-brazil-intersections-of-gender-work-violence-s-and-health
#18
Daniele Schneider, Marcos Claudio Signorelli, Pedro Paulo Gomes Pereira
This study aimed to promote visibility of women working in public security along the Parana coast, articulating issues of gender, violence(s), and the health-disease process. The methodology was qualitative, through an ethnographic research which included 50 women (civilians, military policewomen, and prison officers) from municipalities along the Parana coast, between March 2014 and March 2015. Results revealed: 1) the dilemmas that these women are subjected to, facing the seasonal dynamics in the field of public security in the region; 2) exposure to violence (mainly institutional and gender-based) and its impact on these women's health; 3) power relations, marked by corporations' hierarchies and gender asymmetries between men and women in professional settings...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931743/the-language-of-cooperation-shared-intentionality-drives-variation-in-helping-as-a-function-of-group-membership
#19
Jennifer Susan McClung, Sarah Placì, Adrian Bangerter, Fabrice Clément, Redouan Bshary
While we know that the degree to which humans are able to cooperate is unrivalled by other species, the variation humans actually display in their cooperative behaviour has yet to be fully explained. This may be because research based on experimental game-theoretical studies neglects fundamental aspects of human sociality and psychology, namely social interaction and language. Using a new optimal foraging game loosely modelled on the prisoner's dilemma, the egg hunt, we categorized players as either in-group or out-group to each other and studied their spontaneous language usage while they made interactive, potentially cooperative decisions...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867224/optional-interactions-and-suspicious-behaviour-facilitates-trustful-cooperation-in-prisoners-dilemma
#20
Tadeas Priklopil, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin Nowak
In evolutionary game theory interactions between individuals are often assumed obligatory. However, in many real-life situations, individuals can decide to opt out of an interaction depending on the information they have about the opponent. We consider a simple evolutionary game theoretic model to study such a scenario, where at each encounter between two individuals the type of the opponent (cooperator/defector) is known with some probability, and where each individual either accepts or opts out of the interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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