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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931743/the-language-of-cooperation-shared-intentionality-drives-variation-in-helping-as-a-function-of-group-membership
#1
Jennifer Susan McClung, Sarah Placì, Adrian Bangerter, Fabrice Clément, Redouan Bshary
While we know that the degree to which humans are able to cooperate is unrivalled by other species, the variation humans actually display in their cooperative behaviour has yet to be fully explained. This may be because research based on experimental game-theoretical studies neglects fundamental aspects of human sociality and psychology, namely social interaction and language. Using a new optimal foraging game loosely modelled on the prisoner's dilemma, the egg hunt, we categorized players as either in-group or out-group to each other and studied their spontaneous language usage while they made interactive, potentially cooperative decisions...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867224/optional-interactions-and-suspicious-behaviour-facilitates-trustful-cooperation-in-prisoners-dilemma
#2
Tadeas Priklopil, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin Nowak
In evolutionary game theory interactions between individuals are often assumed obligatory. However, in many real-life situations, individuals can decide to opt out of an interaction depending on the information they have about the opponent. We consider a simple evolutionary game theoretic model to study such a scenario, where at each encounter between two individuals the type of the opponent (cooperator/defector) is known with some probability, and where each individual either accepts or opts out of the interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819131/impulsiveness-does-not-prevent-cooperation-from-emerging-but-reduces-its-occurrence-an-experiment-with-zebra-finches
#3
Camille Chia, Frédérique Dubois
Reciprocal altruism, the most probable mechanism for cooperation among unrelated individuals, can be modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. This game predicts that cooperation should evolve whenever the players, who expect to interact repeatedly, make choices contingent to their partner's behaviour. Experimental evidence, however, indicates that reciprocity is rare among animals. One reason for this would be that animals are very impulsive compared to humans. Several studies have reported that temporal discounting (that is, strong preferences for immediate benefits) has indeed a negative impact on the occurrence of cooperation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806757/impact-of-interaction-style-and-degree-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-on-barab%C3%A3-si-albert-scale-free-network
#4
Fengjie Xie, Jing Shi, Jun Lin
In this work, we study an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks with limited player interactions, and explore the effect of interaction style and degree on cooperation. The results show that high-degree preference interaction, namely the most applicable interaction in the real world, is less beneficial for emergence of cooperation on scale-free networks than random interaction. Besides, cooperation on scale-free networks is enhanced with the increase of interaction degree regardless whether the interaction is high-degree preference or random...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755954/duality-between-cooperation-and-defection-in-the-presence-of-tit-for-tat-in-replicator-dynamics
#5
Seung Ki Baek, Su Do Yi, Hyeong-Chai Jeong
The prisoner's dilemma describes a conflict between a pair of players, in which defection is a dominant strategy whereas cooperation is collectively optimal. The iterated version of the dilemma has been extensively studied to understand the emergence of cooperation. In the evolutionary context, the iterated prisoner's dilemma is often combined with population dynamics, in which a more successful strategy replicates itself with a higher growth rate. Here, we investigate the replicator dynamics of three representative strategies, i...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#6
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705924/end-of-life-chemotherapy-a-prisoner-s-dilemma
#7
EDITORIAL
Ho-Man Yeung, Randy S Hebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670295/cooperative-behavior-in-the-ultimatum-game-and-prisoner-s-dilemma-depends-on-players-contributions
#8
Amy R Bland, Jonathan P Roiser, Mitul A Mehta, Thea Schei, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins, Rebecca Elliott
Economic games such as the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) are widely used paradigms for studying fairness and cooperation. Monetary versions of these games involve two players splitting an arbitrary sum of money. In real life, however, people's propensity to engage in cooperative behavior depends on their effort and contribution; factors that are well known to affect perceptions of fairness. We therefore sought to explore the impact of relative monetary contributions by players in the UG and PD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659573/multilevel-evolutionary-algorithm-that-optimizes-the-structure-of-scale-free-networks-for-the-promotion-of-cooperation-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#9
Penghui Liu, Jing Liu
Understanding the emergence of cooperation has long been a challenge across disciplines. Even if network reciprocity reflected the importance of population structure in promoting cooperation, it remains an open question how population structures can be optimized, thereby enhancing cooperation. In this paper, we attempt to apply the evolutionary algorithm (EA) to solve this highly complex problem. However, as it is hard to evaluate the fitness (cooperation level) of population structures, simply employing the canonical evolutionary algorithm (EA) may fail in optimization...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618560/topology-dependent-rationality-and-quantal-response-equilibria-in-structured-populations
#10
Sabin Roman, Markus Brede
Given that the assumption of perfect rationality is rarely met in the real world, we explore a graded notion of rationality in socioecological systems of networked actors. We parametrize an actors' rationality via their place in a social network and quantify system rationality via the average Jensen-Shannon divergence between the games Nash and logit quantal response equilibria. Previous work has argued that scale-free topologies maximize a system's overall rationality in this setup. Here we show that while, for certain games, it is true that increasing degree heterogeneity of complex networks enhances rationality, rationality-optimal configurations are not scale-free...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610901/neural-dynamics-of-two-players-when-using-nonverbal-cues-to-gauge-intentions-to-cooperate-during-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#11
Jaehwan Jahng, Jerald D Kralik, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong
Social interaction is a fundamental part of our daily lives; however, exactly how our brains use social cues to determine whether to cooperate without being exploited remains unclear. In this study, we used an electroencephalography (EEG) hyperscanning approach to investigate the effect of face-to-face contact on the brain mechanisms underlying the decision to cooperate or defect in an iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Participants played the game either in face-to-face or face-blocked conditions...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559538/when-agreement-accepting-free-riders-are-a-necessary-evil-for-the-evolution-of-cooperation
#12
Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, The Anh Han, Luís Moniz Pereira, Tom Lenaerts
Agreements and commitments have provided a novel mechanism to promote cooperation in social dilemmas in both one-shot and repeated games. Individuals requesting others to commit to cooperate (proposers) incur a cost, while their co-players are not necessarily required to pay any, allowing them to free-ride on the proposal investment cost (acceptors). Although there is a clear complementarity in these behaviours, no dynamic evidence is currently available that proves that they coexist in different forms of commitment creation...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505764/role-of-generosity-and-forgiveness-return-to-a-cooperative-society
#13
Hye Jin Park, Beom Jun Kim, Hyeong-Chai Jeong
One's reputation in human society depends on what and how one did in the past. If the reputation of a counterpart is too bad, we often avoid interacting with the individual. We introduce a selective cooperator called the goodie, who participates in the prisoner's dilemma game dependent on the opponent's reputation, and study its role in forming a cooperative society. We observe enhanced cooperation when goodies have a small but nonzero probability of playing the game with an individual who defected in previous rounds...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490625/nonlinear-trade-offs-allow-the-cooperation-game-to-evolve-from-prisoner-s-dilemma-to-snowdrift
#14
Lin Chao, Santiago F Elena
The existence of cooperation, or the production of public goods, is an evolutionary problem. Cooperation is not favoured because the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game drives cooperators to extinction. We have re-analysed this problem by using RNA viruses to motivate a model for the evolution of cooperation. Gene products are the public goods and group size is the number of virions co-infecting the same host cell. Our results show that if the trade-off between replication and production of gene products is linear, PD is observed...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473787/individual-characteristics-vs-experience-an-experimental-study-on-cooperation-in-prisoner-s-dilemma
#15
Iván Barreda-Tarrazona, Ainhoa Jaramillo-Gutiérrez, Marina Pavan, Gerardo Sabater-Grande
Cooperative behavior is often assumed to depend on individuals' characteristics, such as altruism and reasoning ability. Evidence is mixed about what the precise impact of these characteristics is, as the subjects of study are generally randomly paired, generating a heterogeneous mix of the two characteristics. In this study we ex-ante create four different groups of subjects by factoring their higher or lower than the median scores in both altruism and reasoning ability. Then we use these groups in order to analyze the joint effect of the two characteristics on the individual choice of cooperating and on successful paired cooperation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#16
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435860/onymity-promotes-cooperation-in-social-dilemma-experiments
#17
Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Rui-Wu Wang, Lei Shi, Yoh Iwasa, Yamir Moreno, Jürgen Kurths
One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431890/which-facilitates-the-evolution-of-cooperation-more-retaliation-or-persistence
#18
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420786/memory-n-strategies-of-direct-reciprocity
#19
Christian Hilbe, Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394939/the-socialization-effect-on-decision-making-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-an-eye-tracking-study
#20
Anastasia G Peshkovskaya, Tatiana S Babkina, Mikhail G Myagkov, Ivan A Kulikov, Ksenia V Ekshova, Kyle Harriff
We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses) to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment); a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups...
2017: PloS One
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