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Prisoner, dilemma

Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Reciprocal cooperation has been observed in a wide range of taxa, but the proximate mechanisms underlying the exchange of help are yet unclear. Norway rats reciprocate help received from partners in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. For donors, this involves accepting own costs to the benefit of a partner, without obtaining immediate benefits in return. We studied whether such altruistic acts are conditional on the communication of the recipient's need. Our results show that in a 2-player mutual food-provisioning task, prospective recipients show a behavioral cascade reflecting increasing intensity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Yijin Wu, Robert Elliott, Linzi Li, Tongwei Yang, Yusen Bai, Wen Ma
In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jing Li, Liqi Zhu, Zhe Chen
This study examined judgment about punishment and whether punishment promoted cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children. In total, 66 6- to 12-year-olds participated in this study. Children were first asked about judgments regarding rewards and punishment in stories, and then they were asked to play the PDG with a partner in conditions with and without punishment. Results showed that children with HFA believed that hitting others should deserve punishment to a greater extent than TD children did...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Frank Stollmeier, Jan Nagler
Evolution occurs in populations of reproducing individuals. Reproduction depends on the payoff a strategy receives. The payoff depends on the environment that may change over time, on intrinsic uncertainties, and on other sources of randomness. These temporal variations in the payoffs can affect which traits evolve. Understanding evolutionary game dynamics that are affected by varying payoffs remains difficult. Here we study the impact of arbitrary amplitudes and covariances of temporally varying payoffs on the dynamics...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Laura Abbott, Tricia Scott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe. It is known that women in prison are a vulnerable female population who are at risk of mental ill-health due to disadvantaged and chaotic life experiences. Accurate numbers of pregnant women held in UK prisons are not recorded, yet it is estimated that 6%-7% of the female prison population are at varying stages of pregnancy and around 100 babies are born to incarcerated women each year. There are limited published papers that document the departure of the researcher following closure of fieldwork with women in prison...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Yini Geng, Jiahua Jin, Fei Chen, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase...
2018: PloS One
Nastassja Gfrerer, Michael Taborsky
Direct reciprocity can establish stable cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is a common assumption of direct reciprocity models that agents exchange like with like, but this is not necessarily true for natural interactions. It is yet unclear whether animals apply direct reciprocity rules when successive altruistic help involves different tasks. Here, we tested whether working dogs transfer help from one to another cooperative task in an iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm. In our experiment, individual dogs received help to obtain food from a conspecific, which involved a specific task...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Alessandro Bravetti, Pablo Padilla
Cooperation is a central mechanism for evolution. It consists of an individual paying a cost in order to benefit another individual. However, natural selection describes individuals as being selfish and in competition among themselves. Therefore explaining the origin of cooperation within the context of natural selection is a problem that has been puzzling researchers for a long time. In the paradigmatic case of the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), several schemes for the evolution of cooperation have been proposed...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Inman Harvey
In both social systems and ecosystems there is a need to resolve potential conflicts between the interests of individuals and the collective interest of the community. The collective interests need to survive the turbulent dynamics of social and ecological interactions. To see how different systems with different sets of interactions have different degrees of robustness, we need to look at their different contingent histories. We analyze abstract artificial life models of such systems, and note that some prominent examples rely on explicitly ahistorical frameworks; we point out where analyses that ignore a contingent historical context can be fatally flawed...
January 25, 2018: Artificial Life
Taekho You, Minji Kwon, Hang-Hyun Jo, Woo-Sung Jung, Seung Ki Baek
Cooperators benefit others with paying costs. Evolution of cooperation crucially depends on the cost-benefit ratio of cooperation, denoted as c. In this work, we investigate the infinitely repeated prisoner's dilemma for various values of c with four of the representative memory-one strategies, i.e., unconditional cooperation, unconditional defection, tit-for-tat, and win-stay-lose-shift. We consider replicator dynamics which deterministically describes how the fraction of each strategy evolves over time in an infinite-sized well-mixed population in the presence of implementation error and mutation among the four strategies...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
M Santos, A L Ferreira, W Figueiredo
The stationary states of the prisoner's dilemma model are studied on a square lattice taking into account the role of a noise parameter in the decision-making process. Only first neighboring players-defectors and cooperators-are considered in each step of the game. Through Monte Carlo simulations we determined the phase diagrams of the model in the plane noise versus the temptation to defect for a large range of values of the noise parameter. We observed three phases: cooperators and defectors absorbing phases, and a coexistence phase between them...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Ulrich Berger
Social projection is the tendency to project one's own characteristics onto others. This phenomenon can potentially explain cooperation in prisoner's dilemma experiments and other social dilemmas. The social projection hypothesis has recently been formalized for symmetric games as co-action equilibrium and for general games as consistent evidential equilibrium. These concepts have been proposed to predict choice behavior in experimental one-shot games. We test the predictions of the co-action equilibrium concept in a simple binary minimizer game experiment...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Schuster, Eric Foxall, David Finch, Hal Smith, Patrick De Leenheer
We present a proof of principle for the phenomenon of the tragedy of the commons that is at the center of many theories on the evolution of cooperation. Whereas the tragedy is commonly set in a game theoretical context, and attributed to an underlying Prisoner's Dilemma, we take an alternative approach based on basic mechanistic principles of species growth that does not rely on the specification of payoffs which may be difficult to determine in practice. We establish the tragedy in the context of a general chemostat model with two species, the cooperator and the cheater...
2017: PloS One
Ivan C Ezeigbo
It has been an old unsolved puzzle to evolutionary theorists on which mechanisms would increase large-scale cooperation in human societies. Thus, how such mechanisms operate in a biological network is still not well understood. This study addresses these questions with empirical evidence from agent-based models designed to understand these network interactions. Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games were designed to study how costly punishment, diversity, and density of connectivity interact to influence cooperation in a biological network...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marc Harper, Vincent Knight, Martin Jones, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Nikoleta E Glynatsi, Owen Campbell
We present tournament results and several powerful strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma created using reinforcement learning techniques (evolutionary and particle swarm algorithms). These strategies are trained to perform well against a corpus of over 170 distinct opponents, including many well-known and classic strategies. All the trained strategies win standard tournaments against the total collection of other opponents. The trained strategies and one particular human made designed strategy are the top performers in noisy tournaments also...
2017: PloS One
Vitor H Sanches, Dhyan V H Kuraoka, Pedro R Almeida, Carla Goldman
Evolutionary dynamics experienced by mixed microbial populations of cooperators and cheaters has been examined in experiments in the literature using a protocol of periodic dilution to investigate the properties of resilience and adaptability to environmental changes. Data depicted on an appropriate phase diagram indicate, among other features, a stable equilibrium point at which cooperators and cheaters coexist (Sanchez and Gore, 2013). We present here a phenomenological analysis of these data focusing on an eco-evolutionary-game perspective...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Ivan S Menshikov, Alexsandr V Shklover, Tatiana S Babkina, Mikhail G Myagkov
In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction...
2017: PloS One
Nynke van Miltenburg, Wojtek Przepiorka, Vincent Buskens
We study the effects of different punishment institutions on cooperation in a six-person prisoner's dilemma game in which actors observe others' cooperation with some noise (i.e. imperfect public monitoring). Previous research has shown that peer punishment can sustain cooperation, if a certain proportion of group members punish defectors at a cost to themselves. However, in the presence of noise, co-operators will sometimes be mistaken for defectors and punished, and defectors will sometimes be mistaken for co-operators and escape punishment...
2017: PloS One
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo SantibaƱez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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