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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933587/the-pro-apoptotic-bax-protein-influences-cell-growth-and-differentiation-from-the-nucleus-in-healthy-interphasic-cells
#1
Stéphanie Brayer, Audrey Joannes, Madeleine Jaillet, Elisa Gregianin, Souhir Mahmoudi, Joëlle Marchal Sommé, Aurélie Fabre, Pierre Mordant, Aurélie Cazes, Bruno Crestani, Arnaud A Mailleux
It has become more and more evident that the BCL-2 family proteins mediate a wide range of non-apoptotic functions. The pro-apoptotic BAX protein has been reported in interphasic nuclei. Whether the nuclear form of BAX could be involved in non-apoptotic function is still unknown. Our study showed for the first time that BAX was associated with chromatin in vitro. Next, we used gain and loss of function approaches to decipher the potential role of nuclear BAX in non-apoptotic cells. In vitro, nuclear BAX promoted cell proliferation in lung epithelial cells and primary human lung fibroblasts by modulating CDKN1A expression...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931573/chd7-collaborates-with-sox2-to-regulate-activation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Toru Doi, Toru Ogata, Junji Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Sawada, Sakae Tanaka, Motoshi Nagao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) act as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in homeostatic and pathological conditions. OPCs are activated in response to injury, to generate myelinating OLs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Chd7 regulates OPC activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Chd7 is expressed in OPCs in the adult spinal cord and its expression is upregulated with a concomitant increase in Sox2 expression following SCI. OPC-specific ablation of Chd7 in the injured mice leads to reduced OPC proliferation, the loss of OPC identity, and impaired OPC differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925811/it-s-fun-to-transcribe-with-fun30-a-model-for-nucleosome-dynamics-during-rna-polymerase-ii-mediated-elongation
#3
Junwoo Lee, Eun Shik Choi, Daeyoup Lee
The ability of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to regulate the nucleosome barrier is poorly understood because we do not know enough about the involved factors and we lack a conceptual framework to model this process. Our group recently identified the conserved Fun30/SMARCAD1 family chromatin-remodeling factor, Fun30(Fft3), as being critical for relieving the nucleosome barrier during RNAPII-mediated elongation, and proposed a model illustrating how Fun30(Fft3) may contribute to nucleosome disassembly during RNAPII-mediated elongation...
September 19, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919299/the-retrotransposon-gag-domain-containing-protein-rgag4-is-an-ikaros-target-in-the-pituitary
#4
Zhongyi Shen, Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
Previous studies have established the common and critical involvement of the zinc finger protein Ikaros in lymphoid and pituitary cell development and expansion. Key to the assembly of several transcriptional networks, we have demonstrated up-regulation of Ikaros and its interacting partner the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) in response to hypoxia. This prompted us to explore common transcriptional targets using a chromatin immunoprecipitate (ChIP) screen of DNA from pituitary corticotroph cells. This strategy yielded a finite list of targets common to both transcription factors that included the metalloprotease ADAMTS10...
September 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916968/hmgb-proteins-and-arthritis
#5
REVIEW
Noboru Taniguchi, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Ikuro Maruyama, Martin Lotz
The high-mobility group box (HMGB) family includes four members: HMGB1, 2, 3 and 4. HMGB proteins have two functions. In the nucleus, HMGB proteins bind to DNA in a DNA structure-dependent but nucleotide sequence-independent manner to function in chromatin remodeling. Extracellularly, HMGB proteins function as alarmins, which are endogenous molecules released upon tissue damage to activate the immune system. HMGB1 acts as a late mediator of inflammation and contributes to prolonged and sustained systemic inflammation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis...
September 15, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#6
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915537/mta1-expression-in-human-cancers-clinical-and-pharmacological-significance
#7
REVIEW
Vijaya Lakshmi Malisetty, Vasudevarao Penugurti, Prashanth Panta, Suresh Kumar Chitta, Bramanandam Manavathi
Remarkably, majority of the cancer deaths are due to metastasis, not because of primary tumors. Metastasis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer. During metastasis invasion of primary tumor cells from the site of origin to a new organ occurs. Metastasis associated proteins (MTAs) are a small family of transcriptional coregulators that are closely associated with tumor metastasis. These proteins are integral components of nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex (NuRD). By virtue of being integral components of NuRD, these proteins regulate the gene expression by altering the epigenetic changes such as acetylation and methylation on the target gene chromatin...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911922/neoadjuvant-sorafenib-gemcitabine-and-cisplatin-administration-preceding-cystectomy-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-an-open-label-single-arm-single-center-phase-2-study
#8
Andrea Necchi, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Daniele Raggi, Federica Perrone, Patrizia Giannatempo, Giuseppina Calareso, Elena Togliardi, Nicola Nicolai, Luigi Piva, Davide Biasoni, Mario Catanzaro, Tullio Torelli, Silvia Stagni, Maurizio Colecchia, Adele Busico, Marzia Pennati, Nadia Zaffaroni, Luigi Mariani, Roberto Salvioni
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (MIUBC) should be improved. Sorafenib was combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy (SGC) in an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial (NCT01222676). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After transurethral resection of the bladder, T2-T4a N0 patients received four cycles of SGC followed by cystectomy. Sorafenib 400mg q12h daily, continuously, was added to standard GC chemotherapy...
September 11, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904641/histone-code-and-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-aberrations-in-lung-cancer-implications-in-the-therapy-response
#9
REVIEW
Abril Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Leonel Armas-López, Oscar Arrieta, Joaquín Zúñiga, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904333/the-ino80-complex-mediates-epigenetic-centromere-propagation-via-active-removal-of-histone-h3
#10
Eun Shik Choi, Youngseo Cheon, Keunsoo Kang, Daeyoup Lee
The centromere is the chromosomal locus at which the kinetochore is assembled to direct chromosome segregation. The histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), is known to epigenetically mark active centromeres, but the mechanism by which CENP-A propagates at the centromere, replacing histone H3, remains poorly understood. Using fission yeast, here we show that the Ino80 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, which removes histone H3-containing nucleosomes from associated chromatin, promotes CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin assembly at the centromere in a redundant manner with another chromatin-remodeling factor Chd1(Hrp1)...
September 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904128/integration-of-kinase-and-calcium-signaling-at-the-level-of-chromatin-underlies-inducible-gene-activation-in-t-cells
#11
Ruth Brignall, Pierre Cauchy, Sarah L Bevington, Bethany Gorman, Angela O Pisco, James Bagnall, Christopher Boddington, William Rowe, Hazel England, Kevin Rich, Lorraine Schmidt, Nigel P Dyer, Mark A Travis, Sascha Ott, Dean A Jackson, Peter N Cockerill, Pawel Paszek
TCR signaling pathways cooperate to activate the inducible transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, and AP-1. In this study, using the calcium ionophore ionomycin and/or PMA on Jurkat T cells, we show that the gene expression program associated with activation of TCR signaling is closely related to specific chromatin landscapes. We find that calcium and kinase signaling cooperate to induce chromatin remodeling at ∼2100 chromatin regions, which demonstrate enriched binding motifs for inducible factors and correlate with target gene expression...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903339/ing5-knockdown-enhances-migration-and-invasion-of-lung-cancer-cells-by-inducing-emt-via-egfr-pi3k-akt-and-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathways
#12
Xin-Li Liu, Xu-Tao Zhang, Jin Meng, Hong-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhao, Chen Li, Yang Sun, Qi-Bing Mei, Feng Zhang, Tao Zhang
ING5 belongs to the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) candidate tumor suppressor family, whose functions have been involved in the regulation of chromatin remodeling, cell cycle progression, proliferation and apoptosis. Our previous study has shown that ING5 overexpression inhibits lung cancer aggressiveness via suppressing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the current study, by Phospho-Kinase array and western blot, we have defined significantly upregulated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 oncogenic signaling pathways in ING5 knockdown A549 cells, which could be downregulated by ING5 overexpression...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899943/the-chromatin-remodeling-isw1a-complex-is-regulated-by-sumoylation
#13
Qingtang Shen, Nissrine Beyrouthy, Laura Matabishi-Bibi, Catherine Dargemont
The ISWI class of proteins consists in a family of chromatin remodeling ATPases that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and predominantly functions to slide nucleosomes laterally. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isw1 partners with several non-essential alternative subunits-Ioc2, Ioc3, or Ioc4-to form two distinct complexes Isw1a and Isw1b. Besides its ATPase domain, Isw1 presents a C-terminal region formed by HAND, SANT and SLIDE domains responsible for interaction with the Ioc proteins and optimal association of Isw1 to chromatin...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899870/mbd3-nurd-controls-lymphoid-cell-fate-and-inhibits-tumorigenesis-by-repressing-a-b-cell-transcriptional-program
#14
Stephen J Loughran, Federico Comoglio, Fiona K Hamey, Alice Giustacchini, Youssef Errami, Eleanor Earp, Berthold Göttgens, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Adam J Mead, Brian Hendrich, Anthony R Green
Differentiation of lineage-committed cells from multipotent progenitors requires the establishment of accessible chromatin at lineage-specific transcriptional enhancers and promoters, which is mediated by pioneer transcription factors that recruit activating chromatin remodeling complexes. Here we show that the Mbd3/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) chromatin remodeling complex opposes this transcriptional pioneering during B cell programming of multipotent lymphoid progenitors by restricting chromatin accessibility at B cell enhancers and promoters...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898504/reversible-dna-protein-cross-linking-at-epigenetic-dna-marks
#15
Shaofei Ji, Hongzhao Shao, Qiyuan Han, Christopher L Seiler, Natalia Tretyakova
5-Formylcytosine (5fC) is an endogenous DNA modification frequently found within regulatory elements of mammalian genes. Although 5fC is an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the two epigenetic marks show distinct genome-wide distributions and protein affinities, suggesting that they perform different functions in epigenetic signaling. A unique feature of 5fC is the presence of a potentially reactive aldehyde group in its structure. Here, we show that 5fC bases in DNA readily form Schiff base conjugates with Lys side chains of nuclear proteins in vitro and in vivo...
September 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895440/unravelling-the-biology-of-chromatin-in-health-and-cancer-using-proteomic-approaches
#16
Cassandra G Eubanks, Gerald Dayebgadoh, Xingyu Liu, Michael P Washburn
Chromatin remodeling complexes play important roles in the control of genome regulation in both normal and diseased states, and are therefore critical components for the regulation of epigenetic states in cells. Given the role epigenetics plays in cancer, for example, chromatin remodeling complexes are routinely targeted for therapeutic intervention. Areas covered: Protein mass spectrometry and proteomics are powerful technologies used to study and understand chromatin remodeling. While impressive progress has been made in this area, there remain significant challenges in the application of proteomic technologies to the study of chromatin remodeling...
September 12, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895115/sumoylation-of-suvr2-contributes-to-its-role-in-transcriptional-gene-silencing
#17
Yu-Xi Luo, Yong-Feng Han, Qiu-Yuan Zhao, Jin-Lu Du, Kun Dou, Lin Li, She Chen, Xin-Jian He
The SU(VAR)-3-9-related protein family member SUVR2 has been previously identified to be involved in transcriptional gene silencing both in RNA-dependent and -independent pathways. It interacts with the chromatin-remodeling proteins CHR19, CHR27, and CHR28 (CHR19/27/28), which are also involved in transcriptional gene silencing. Here our study demonstrated that SUVR2 is almost fully mono-sumoylated in vivo. We successfully identified the exact SUVR2 sumoylation site by combining in vitro mass spectrometric analysis and in vivo immunoblotting confirmation...
September 8, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893254/skip-controls-flowering-time-via-the-alternative-splicing-of-sef-pre-mrna-in-arabidopsis
#18
Zhibo Cui, Aizi Tong, Yiqiong Huo, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiqi Yang, Xianli Yang, Xiao-Xue Wang
BACKGROUND: Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clock function and abiotic stress tolerance; however, the mechanisms whereby it regulates flowering time are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we found that SKIP is required for the splicing of serrated leaves and early flowering (SEF) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), which encodes a component of the ATP-dependent SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR1-C)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892740/human-ogg1-activity-in-nucleosomes-is-facilitated-by-transient-unwrapping-of-dna-and-is-influenced-by-the-local-histone-environment
#19
Katharina Bilotti, Erin E Kennedy, Chuxuan Li, Sarah Delaney
If unrepaired, damage to genomic DNA can cause mutations and/or be cytotoxic. Single base lesions are repaired via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The first step in BER is the recognition and removal of the nucleobase lesion by a glycosylase enzyme. For example, human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) is responsible for removal of the prototypic oxidatively damaged nucleobase, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). To date, most studies of glycosylases have used free duplex DNA substrates. However, cellular DNA is packaged as repeating nucleosome units, with 145 base pair segments of DNA wrapped around histone protein octamers...
September 1, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892201/two-brm-promoter-polymorphisms-predict-poor-survival-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Ivan Pasic, Kit Man Wong, Jonghun John Lee, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Yonathan Brhane, Dangxiao Cheng, Zhuo Chen, Devalben Patel, Catherine Brown, Roxana Bucur, David Reisman, Jennifer J Knox, Wei Xu, Rayjean J Hung, Geoffrey Guo, Sean P Cleary
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the promoter of the BRM gene, a critical subunit of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, have previously been implicated in risk and prognosis in Caucasian-predominant lung, head and neck, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers, and in hepatocellular cancers in Asians. We investigated the role of these polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and prognosis. METHODS: HCC cases were recruited in a comprehensive cancer centre while the matched controls were recruited from family practice units from the same catchment area...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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