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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145720/phospholipase-d-and-its-essential-role-in-cancer
#1
Ju Hwan Cho, Joong-Soo Han
The role of Phospholipase D (PLD) in cancer development and management has been a major area of interest for researchers. The purpose of this mini-review is to explore PLD and its distinct role during chemotherapy including anti-apoptotic function. PLD is an enzyme that belongs to the phospholipase super family and is found in a broad range of organisms such as viruses, yeast, bacteria, animals, and plants. The function and activity of PLD are widely dependent on and regulated by neurotransmitters, hormones, small monomeric GTPases, and lipids...
November 16, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145467/adenosine-lidocaine-and-mg2-alm-fluid-therapy-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-platelet-dysfunction-and-coagulopathy-after-non-compressible-truncal-hemorrhage
#2
Hayley Letson, Geoffrey Dobson
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and coagulopathy are major drivers of injury progression following hemorrhagic trauma. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM) bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM 'drip' on inflammation and coagulation in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (429±4 g) were randomly assigned to: 1) shams, 2) no-treatment, 3) saline-controls, 4) ALM-therapy, and 5) Hextend®. Hemorrhage was induced in anesthetized-ventilated animals by liver resection (60% left lateral lobe and 50% medial lobe)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145392/conservation-of-a-microrna-cluster-in-parasitic-nematodes-and-profiling-of-mirnas-in-excretory-secretory-products-and-microvesicles-of-haemonchus-contortus
#3
Henry Y Gu, Neil D Marks, Alan D Winter, William Weir, Thomas Tzelos, Tom N McNeilly, Collette Britton, Eileen Devaney
microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144441/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeted-by-analgesic-venom-peptides
#4
REVIEW
James T Daniel, Richard J Clark
Chronic pain is a complex and debilitating condition associated with a large personal and socioeconomic burden. Current pharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain such as opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants exhibit limited efficacy in many patients and are associated with dose-limiting side effects that hinder their clinical use. Therefore, improved strategies for the pharmacological treatment of pathological pain are urgently needed. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and act to transduce extracellular signals and regulate physiological processes...
November 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144418/nmr-based-identification-of-metabolites-in-polar-and-non-polar-extracts-of-avian-liver
#5
Fariba Fathi, Antonio Brun, Katherine H Rott, Paulo Falco Cobra, Marco Tonelli, Hamid R Eghbalnia, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov, John L Markley
Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1...
November 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143720/epidemiological-investigation-of-a-severe-rumen-fluke-outbreak-on-an-irish-dairy-farm
#6
James O'Shaughnessy, Andres Garcia-Campos, Conor G McAloon, Seamus Fagan, Theo de Waal, Maire McElroy, Micheal Casey, Barbara Good, Grace Mulcahy, John Fagan, Denise Murphy, Annetta Zintl
Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143708/genome-wide-association-study-for-growth-traits-in-nelore-cattle
#7
A P N Terakado, R B Costa, G M F de Camargo, N Irano, T Bresolin, L Takada, C V D Carvalho, H N Oliveira, R Carvalheiro, F Baldi, L G de Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with birth weight, weight gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling, yearling height and cow weight in Nelore cattle. Data from 5064 animals participating in the DeltaGen and PAINT breeding programs were used. The animals were genotyped with a panel of 777 962 SNPs (Illumina BovineHD BeadChip) and 412 993 SNPs remained after quality control analysis of the genomic data. A genome-wide association study was performed using a single-step methodology...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143196/effect-of-low-dose-aspirin-on-chronic-acid-reflux-esophagitis-in-rats
#8
Takahiro Masuda, Fumiaki Yano, Nobuo Omura, Kazuto Tsuboi, Masato Hoshino, Se Ryung Yamamoto, Shunsuke Akimoto, Hideyuki Kashiwagi, Katsuhiko Yanaga
BACKGROUND: Clinical role of low-dose aspirin (LDA) in pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is by far controversial. This can be attributed to the paucity of basic research detailing the mechanism of LDA-induced esophageal mucosal injury (EI) on underlying chronic acid reflux esophagitis (RE). AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of LDA on chronic RE in rats. METHODS: Esophagitis was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by ligating the border between forestomach and glandular portion with a 2-0 silk tie and covering the duodenum with a small piece of 18-Fr Nélaton catheter...
November 15, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143134/reduced-population-size-does-not-affect-the-mating-strategy-of-a-vulnerable-and-endemic-seabird
#9
Cristina Nava, Verónica C Neves, Malvina Andris, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Philippe Jarne, Mark Bolton, Joël Bried
Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years...
November 15, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142168/background-data-on-nod-shi-scid-il-2r%C3%AE-null-mice-nog-mice
#10
Kenichiro Kasahara, Yachiyo Fukunaga, Saori Igura, Rie Andoh, Tsubasa Saito, Isamu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kanemitsu, Daisuke Suzuki, Ken Goto, Daichi Nakamura, Masahiro Mochizuki, Masahiko Yasuda, Ryo Inoue, Kazutoshi Tamura, Mariko Nagatani
To obtain background data of NOD/Shi-scid IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice, severely immunedeficient mice, a total of 120 animals were examined at 7, 26 and 52 weeks-old (20 mice/sex/group). The survival rate at 52 weeks-old was 95% (19/20) in both sexes. Clinically, circling behavior in one direction along the cage wall was observed in males after 8 weeks and females after 47 weeks-old, and hunchback position was found in males after 32 weeks-old. Hematologically, lymphocyte count markedly decreased at all ages, while white blood cell count increased in several mice at 52 weeks-old...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142111/can-birds-do-it-too-evidence-for-convergence-in-evaporative-water-loss-regulation-for-birds-and-mammals
#11
E C Eto, P C Withers, C E Cooper
Birds have many physiological characteristics that are convergent with mammals. In the light of recent evidence that mammals can maintain a constant insensible evaporative water loss (EWL) over a range of perturbing environmental conditions, we hypothesized that birds might also regulate insensible EWL, reflecting this convergence. We found that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) maintain EWL constant over a range of relative humidities at three ambient temperatures. EWL, expressed as a function of water vapour pressure deficit, differed from a physical model where the water vapour pressure deficit between the animal and the ambient air is the driver of evaporation, indicating physiological control of EWL...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141628/gene-expression-analyses-of-the-small-intestine-of-pigs-in-the-ex-evacuation-zone-of-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant
#12
Motoko Morimoto, Ayaka Kato, Jin Kobayashi, Kei Okuda, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Tsutomu Sekine, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactive contaminants were released over a widespread area. Monitoring the biological effects of radiation exposure in animals in the ex-evacuation zone should be continued to understand the health effects of radiation exposure in humans. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of radiation by investigating whether there is any alteration in the morphology and gene expressions of immune molecules in the intestine of pigs and inobuta (wild boar and domestic pig hybrid) in the ex-evacuation zone in 2012...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141546/current-theories-and-clinical-trial-evidence-for-limiting-human-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-growth
#13
Jing Yu, Shuai Liu, Jianhua Huang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) refers to localized dilation of abdominal aorta. AAA is largely asymptomatic, but aneurysmal rupture results in a high mortality rate. AAA with a diameter greater than 55 mm carries a high risk of rupture. There are currently no known medical treatments effective in limiting the growth of small AAA. OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of and challenges faced in limiting AAA growth. METHODS: Data from human investigations and animal model studies were summarized...
November 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141203/mouse-adenovirus-type-1-infection-of-adipose-tissue
#14
Caitlyn T Molloy, Laura J Adkins, Cameron Griffin, Kanakadurga Singer, Jason B Weinberg
Human adenovirus (HAdV) type 36 seropositivity has been linked to obesity in humans. That link is supported by a small number of studies using HAdV-36 infection of animals that are not natural hosts for HAdVs. In this study, we infected mice with mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a mouse pathogen, to determine whether MAV-1 infected adipose tissue and was associated with adipose tissue inflammation and obesity. We detected MAV-1 in adipose tissue during acute MAV-1 infection, but we did not detect virus-induced increases in adipose tissue cytokine expression or histological evidence of adipose tissue inflammation during acute infection...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141179/formation-of-longitudinal-axon-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
REVIEW
Harald Hutter
The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest longitudinal axon tract, the ventral nerve cord (VNC)...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141047/is-species-richness-driving-intra-and-interspecific-interactions-and-temporal-activity-overlap-of-a-hantavirus-host-an-experimental-test
#16
André V Rubio, Ivan Castro-Arellano, James N Mills, Rurik List, Rafael Ávila-Flores, Gerardo Suzán
High species diversity of the potential animal host community for a zoonotic pathogen may reduce pathogen transmission among the most competent host, a phenomenon called the "dilution effect", but the mechanisms driving this effect have been little studied. One proposed mechanism is "encounter reduction" where host species of low-competency decrease contact rates between infected and susceptible competent hosts, especially in directly transmitted diseases. We conducted an experiment in outdoor enclosures in northwestern Mexico where we manipulated rodent assemblages to assess the effect of species richness on the frequency of intra- and interspecific interactions and activity patterns of a hantavirus reservoir host (North American deermouse; Peromyscus maniculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140467/genomic-prediction-in-a-nuclear-population-of-layers-using-single-step-models
#17
Yiyuan Yan, Guiqin Wu, Aiqiao Liu, Congjiao Sun, Wenpeng Han, Guangqi Li, Ning Yang
Single-step genomic prediction method has been proposed to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction by incorporating information of both genotyped and ungenotyped animals. The objective of this study is to compare the prediction performance of single-step model with a 2-step models and the pedigree-based models in a nuclear population of layers. A total of 1,344 chickens across 4 generations were genotyped by a 600 K SNP chip. Four traits were analyzed, i.e., body weight at 28 wk (BW28), egg weight at 28 wk (EW28), laying rate at 38 wk (LR38), and Haugh unit at 36 wk (HU36)...
November 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140243/a-versatile-genetic-tool-for-post-translational-control-of-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Sachin Sethi, Jing W Wang
Several techniques have been developed to manipulate gene expression temporally in intact neural circuits. However, the applicability of current tools developed for in vivo studies in Drosophila is limited by their incompatibility with existing GAL4 lines and side effects on physiology and behavior. To circumvent these limitations, we adopted a strategy to reversibly regulate protein degradation with a small molecule by using a destabilizing domain (DD). We show that this system is effective across different tissues and developmental stages...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139484/ftir-imaging-detects-diet-and-genotype-dependent-chemical-composition-changes-in-wild-type-and-mutant-c-elegans-strains
#19
A Bouyanfif, S Liyanage, J E Hewitt, S A Vanapalli, N Moustaid-Moussa, E Hequet, N Abidi
This study focuses on the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to determine chemical changes induced in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by supplementation of C. elegans maintenance media (CeMM) by Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Wild-type C. elegans (N2) and mutant strains (tub-1 and fat-3) were grown in CeMM alone, and CeMM supplemented with EPA at 25 or 100 μM. Feeding was performed for 72 h. FTIR imaging was performed in transmission mode on individual worms. The FTIR imaging analysis of wild-type animals revealed the presence of vibrations assigned to unsaturated fatty acids, specifically bands at 3008 cm(-1) ([double bond, length as m-dash]C-H, olefinic stretch) and 1744 cm(-1) (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, unsaturated fatty acids)...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139077/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-source-attribution-of-nitrogen-pollution-in-a-typical-headwater-agricultural-watershed-in-southeastern-china
#20
Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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