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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325039/strong-pinned-spin-mediated-memory-effect-in-nio-nanoparticles
#1
Ashish Chhaganlal Gandhi, Ting Shan Chan, Jayashree Pant, Sheng Yun Wu
After a decade of effort, a large number of magnetic memory nanoparticles with different sizes and core/shell compositions have been developed. While the field-cooling memory effect is often attributed to particle size and distribution effects, other magnetic coupling parameters such as inter- and intra-coupling strength, exchange bias, interfacial pinned spins, and the crystallinity of the nanoparticles also have a significant influence on magnetization properties and mechanisms. In this study, we used the analysis of static- and dynamic-magnetization measurements to investigate NiO nanoparticles with different sizes and discussed how these field-cooling strengths affect their memory properties...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324930/rtms-enhanced-gamma-oscillation-through-strengthened-network-connection
#2
Mengmeng Dou, Xin Tian
Gamma oscillations emerge generally in working memory to aspect of higher cognitive functions, and typically with the interaction of brain network. How is gamma oscillatory activity influenced by the functional connection in the brain'a network? How can gamma oscillations be increased by neural modulation to result in potential benefits for working memory? The present study aims to investigate the intensity of gamma oscillations modulated by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and the possible brain network mechanism of increased gamma oscillations during working memory task in rats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324804/high-density-lipoprotein-immunomodulates-the-functional-activities-of-macrophage-and-cytokines-produced-during-ex-vivo-macrophage-cd4-t-cell-crosstalk-at-the-recent-onset-human-type-1-diabetes
#3
Ibtissem Benghalem, Warda Meziane, Zeyneb Hadjidj, Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Ahmed Belamri, Kheira Mouhadjer, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Both CD4(+) T cells and macrophages are mainly involved in the autoimmune-mediated β-cells destruction in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of HDL on functional activities of macrophage and its ability to regulate the production of cytokines in autologous mixed macrophage/CD4(+) T cells at the recent-onset human type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Cell samples were isolated from volunteers with recent-onset T1D or healthy controls...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324774/methylation-changes-of-sirt1-klf4-dapk1-and-spg20-in-b-lymphocytes-derived-from-follicular-and-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#4
Raffaele Frazzi, Eleonora Zanetti, Mariaelena Pistoni, Ione Tamagnini, Riccardo Valli, Luca Braglia, Francesco Merli
Diffuse large-B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and follicular lymphomas (FL) are the most represented subtypes among mature B-cell neoplasms and originate from malignant B lymphocytes. Methylation represents one of the major epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a class III lysine-deacetylase playing several functions and considered to be a context-dependent tumor promoter. We present the quantitative methylation, gene expression and tissue distribution of SIRT1 and some key mediators related to lymphoma pathogenesis in B lymphocytes purified from biopsies of follicular hyperplasias, FL and DLBCL...
March 9, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324757/perceptual-category-learning-and-visual-processing-an-exercise-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#5
George Cantwell, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Jessica L Roeder, F Gregory Ashby
The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning...
March 6, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324744/centrosomes-piddosome-joins-the-counting-game
#6
Susana Godinho
Centrosome numbers are tightly regulated during the cell cycle. A new study shows that the PIDDosome prevents the propagation of cells carrying amplified centrosomes via p53 stabilisation and p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest, thus ensuring the maintenance of normal centrosome numbers.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#7
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324652/positive-feedback-genetic-circuit-incorporating-a-constitutively-active-mutant-gal3-into-yeast-gal-induction-system
#8
Shintaro Ryo, Jun Ishii, Toshihide Matsuno, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Daiki Matsubara, Masahiro Tominaga, Akihiko Kondo
The GAL expression system is the most frequently used induction technique in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report a simple but powerful genetic circuit for use with the GAL induction system. Briefly, an artificial positive feedback circuit was incorporated into the GAL regulatory network. We selected green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter of GAL1 induction, and designed a strain that expressed a constitutively active Gal3 mutant protein (Gal3(c)) under control of the GAL10 promoter. In the resulting strain, GAL1 and GAL10 promoters regulate the expression of GFP and GAL3(c), respectively...
March 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324605/targeted-ablation-using-laser-nanosurgery
#9
Naga Venkata Gayathri Vegesna, Paolo Ronchi, Sevi Durdu, Stefan Terjung, Rainer Pepperkok
Laser-mediated dissection methods have been used for many years to micro-irradiate biological samples, but recent technological progress has rendered this technique more precise, powerful, and easy to use. Today pulsed lasers can be operated with diffraction limited, sub-micrometer precision to ablate intracellular structures. Here, we discuss laser nanosurgery setups and the instrumentation in our laboratory. We describe how to use this technique to ablate cytoskeletal elements in living cells. We also show how this technique can be used in multicellular organisms, to micropuncture and/or ablate cells of interest and finally how to monitor a successful laser nanosurgery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324488/flow-cytometer-monitoring-of-bnip3-and-bnip3l-nix-dependent-mitophagy
#10
Matilda Šprung, Ivan Dikic, Ivana Novak
Mitochondria are organelles with numerous vital roles in cellular metabolism. Impaired or damaged mitochondria are degraded in autophagolysosomes in a process known as mitophagy. Given the fundamental role of mitophagy in maintenance of cellular homeostasis, methods and techniques with which to study this process are constantly evolving and emerging. So far, mitophagy flux was mostly monitored using fluorescently labeled LC3 protein on autophagosomal membrane and any of the labeled outer mitochondrial membrane proteins...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#11
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324245/comparison-of-dna-microarray-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-and-real-time-pcr-with-dna-sequencing-for-identification-of-fusarium-spp-obtained-from-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#12
Marcela de Souza, Tetsuhiro Matsuzawa, Kanae Sakai, Yasunori Muraosa, Luzia Lyra, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Anna Sara Shafferman Levin, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Yuzuru Mikami, Tohoru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Maria Luiza Moretti, Plínio Trabasso
The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%...
March 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324211/comparison-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-potential-of-iliac-crest-and-degenerative-facet-joint-bone-autografts-for-intervertebral-fusion-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#14
Jeroen Geurts, Daniela Ramp, Stefan Schären, Cordula Netzer
PURPOSE: The promotion of spinal fusion using bone autografts is largely mediated by the osteoinductive potential of progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that reside in the marrow spaces of cancellous bone. Iliac crest is the common autograft donor site, but its use presents an increased risk for donor site pain, morbidity and infection. Degenerative bone samples harvested during facetectomy might provide an alternative viable source of osteoinductive autografts. In this study, we conducted an intra-individual comparison of the osteogenic potential of isolated low passage MSC from both sources...
March 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324192/the-presence-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-placenta-and-or-cord-blood-might-result-in-th2-polarization
#15
H-M Koskimaa, A Paaso, M J P Welters, S Grénman, K Syrjänen, S H van der Burg, S Syrjänen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an early exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) during the prenatal period or infancy could result in HPV16-specific T helper (Th) responses resembling those of adults with HPV-induced lesions. We tested HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in children born with HPV-positive umbilical cord blood and/or placenta or having persistent oral HPV infection and in constantly oral HPV-negative controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children from the Finnish HPV Family Study cohort (mean age 14...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324156/molecular-characterization-of-two-rhesus-glycoproteins-from-the-euryhaline-freshwater-white-rimmed-stingray-himantura-signifer-and-changes-in-their-transcript-levels-and-protein-abundance-in-the-gills-kidney-and-liver-during-brackish-water-acclimation
#16
Cheng T Yeam, You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It is ammonotelic in fresh water, but retains the capacities of urea synthesis and ureosmotic osmoregulation to survive in brackish water. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of Rhesus glycoproteins (Rhgp), which are known to transport ammonia, in conserving nitrogen (N) in H. signifer during brackish water acclimation when N became limited resulting from increased hepatic urea synthesis. The complete coding sequence of rhbg from H...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324125/exercise-and-cancer-from-healthy-to-therapeutic
#17
REVIEW
Manja Idorn, Per Thor Straten
Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been suggested to play a role. We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors, and a more than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Given the common mechanisms of immune cell mobilization in mouse and man during exercise, we hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#18
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324107/functional-characterization-of-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-c5-in-female-murine-gonadotropes
#19
Andreas Beck, Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Marc Freichel, Ulrich Boehm
Gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland secrete gonadotropins regulating gonadal function in mammals. Recent results have implicated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels in pituitary physiology, however, if and how TRP channels contribute to gonadotrope function is not known. Here we report that 14 out of 28 TRP channels encoded in the mouse genome are expressed in murine gonadotropes with highest expression levels found for TRPC5 in juvenile females. We show that TRP channel expression in these cells exhibits considerable plasticity and that it depends on gender as well as on the developmental and hormonal status of the animal...
January 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324105/thyroid-hormone-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-levels-in-female-offspring-of-obese-rats
#20
T Tabachnik, T Kisliouk, A Marco, N Meiri, A Weller
Maternal obesity is a risk factor for offspring obesity. Melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) is one of the mediators of food intake and energy balance. This study examines epigenetic mechanisms underlying altered Mc4r levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in offspring of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese dams, and aims to elucidate the role of thyroid hormones in epigenetic regulation and tagging of their nucleosome at the Mc4r promoter. Female Wistar rats were fed HFD or chow from weaning through gestation and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Endocrinology
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