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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245183/increased-expression-and-modulated-regulatory-activity-of-co-inhibitory-receptors-pd-1-tigit-and-tim-3-in-lymphocytes-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#1
Michelle Fleury, Anna C Belkina, Elizabeth A Proctor, Christopher Zammitti, Robert W Simms, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Jennifer E Snyder-Cappione, Robert Lafyatis, Hans Dooms
OBJECTIVE: Immune dysfunction is an important component of the disease process underlying Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), but the mechanisms contributing to altered immune cell function in SSc remain poorly defined. Here, we measured the expression and function of the co-inhibitory receptors (co-IRs) PD-1, TIGIT, TIM-3, and LAG-3 in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of SSc patients. METHODS: Co-IR expression levels on immune cell subsets were analyzed using a 16-color flow cytometry panel...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245180/factors-influencing-cane-use-for-the-management-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-cross-sectional-survey
#2
Julia Hart, Rana S Hinman, Ans Van Ginckel, Michelle Hall, Rachel Nelligan, Kim L Bennell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic, symptom-related and cognitive determinants of cane use for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and prioritise the factors that could facilitate cane use in people with no previous cane use. METHODS: A survey of people aged ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of knee OA was conducted. The survey included two sections: i) demographic and cognitive determinants of cane use assessed via subscales of the Cane Cognitive Mediator Scale; ii) 19 statements, underpinned by the Behaviour Change Wheel theoretical framework, relating to factors that could facilitate regular cane use...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245178/transcriptional-regulation-of-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-experimentally-induced-arthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
REVIEW
Yuya Kondo, Masahiro Yokosawa, Shunta Kaneko, Kotona Furuyama, Seiji Segawa, Hiroto Tsuboi, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the joint synovium by activated inflammatory cells. CD4+ T cells form a large proportion of the inflammatory cells invading the synovial tissue, and are involved in the RA pathological process. In general, CD4+ T cells differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell subsets and acquire the functional characterization to respond to specific pathogens, and also mediated some autoimmune disorders such as RA. Because the differentiation of Th cell subsets is determined by the expression of specific transcription factors in response to cytokine environment, these transcription factors is considered to have a role in pathology of RA...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245177/microplastics-as-an-emerging-threat-to-terrestrial-ecosystems
#4
Anderson Abel de Souza Machado, Werner Kloas, Christiane Zarfl, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm, including nanoplastics which are < 0.1 μm) originate from the fragmentation of large plastic litter or from direct environmental emission. Their potential impacts in terrestrial ecosystems remain largely unexplored despite numerous reported effects on marine organisms. Most plastics arriving in the oceans were produced, used, and often disposed on land. Hence, it is within terrestrial systems that microplastics might first interact with biota eliciting ecologically relevant impacts...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245117/gold-nanoflowers-synthesized-using-acanthopanacis-cortex-extract-inhibit-inflammatory-mediators-in-lps-induced-raw264-7-macrophages-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-pathways
#5
Sungeun Ahn, Priyanka Singh, Mi Jang, Yu-Jin Kim, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Shakina Yesmin Simu, Yeon Ju Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
We reported the rapid synthesis (<8s) of gold nanoparticles at room temperature using Acanthopanacis cortex extract (A-AuNPs). We characterized the A-AuNPs using several analytical techniques and found that nano-flower type A-AuNPs, which are known to possess a coarse surface with a high surface to volume ratio, conferring these particles with high binding capacity for various biological molecules. After confirming the stability of the nanoparticles, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of A-AuNPs in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
November 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245091/specificity-in-mediated-pathways-by-anxiety-symptoms-linking-adolescent-stress-profiles-to-depressive-symptoms-results-of-a-moderated-mediation-approach
#6
Frederick Anyan, Boris Bizumic, Odin Hjemdal
BACKGROUND: We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. METHODS: Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245089/metabolic-analysis-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-with-gut-microbiota-mediated-biotransformation-by-hplc-dad-q-tof-ms-ms
#7
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245047/polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic-acid-facilitates-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-8-secretion-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-via-the-jak-stat3-and-p38-mapk-signal-transduction-pathways
#8
Zhang Ying Zhu, Cong Zhuo Jia, Jian Min Luo, Li Wang
Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) is a viral dsRNA analoguethat promotes wounds healing, accelerates re-epithelialization, granulation and neovascularization, and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Little is known about polyI:C mediated induction of inflammatory mediators in human dermal fibroblast (HDFs), which form the primary scaffold for epithelial cells covering the wound. Here, we found that polyI:C enhances IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and induces of IL-6 and IL-8 production in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner in HDFs...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245045/relations-between-problem-behaviors-perceived-symptom-severity-and-parenting-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults-with-asd-the-mediating-role-of-parental-psychological-need-frustration
#9
Lisa M Dieleman, Sarah S W De Pauw, Bart Soenens, Elien Mabbe, Rachel Campbell, Peter Prinzie
Research in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not been examined thoroughly. This study examines the mediating role of parental need frustration in the relation between child maladjustment (i.e., problem behavior and autism severity) and parenting behavior (i.e., controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting)...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245039/prenatal-arsenic-exposure-child-marriage-and-pregnancy-weight-gain-associations-with-preterm-birth-in-bangladesh
#10
Mohammad L Rahman, Molly L Kile, Ema G Rodrigues, Linda Valeri, Anita Raj, Maitreyi Mazumdar, Golam Mostofa, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mahmudur Rahman, Russ Hauser, Andrea Baccarelli, Liming Liang, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a disease of multifactorial etiologies that has environmental, social, and maternal health components. Individual studies have shown that exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water, child marriage, and low maternal weight gain during pregnancy contribute to preterm birth. These factors are highly prevalent and often co-exist in Bangladesh, a country in South Asia with one of the world's highest prevalences of preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the individual and interactive effects of prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain on preterm birth in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh...
December 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245016/preferential-myofibroblast-differentiation-of-cardiac-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-in-the-presence-of-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Elisa Gambini, Gianluca Lorenzo Perrucci, Beatrice Bassetti, Gabriella Spaltro, Giulia Campostrini, Maria Chiara Lionetti, Alberto Pilozzi, Federico Martinelli, Andrea Faruggia, Dario DiFrancesco, Andrea Barbuti, Giulio Pompilio
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by electrical, contractile, and structural remodeling mediated by interstitial fibrosis. It has been shown that human cardiac mesenchymal progenitor cells (CMPCs) can be differentiated into endothelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast cells. Here, we have investigated, for the first time, the contribution of CMPCs in the fibrotic process occurring in AF. As expected, right auricolae samples displayed significantly higher fibrosis in AF vs control (CTR) patients. In tissue samples of AF patients only, double staining for c-kit and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected...
November 27, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245009/fix-it-in-one-go-enhanced-factor-ix-gene-therapy-for-hemophilia-b
#12
David Lillicrap
A phase 1/2 clinical trial of AAV-mediated gene therapy in patients with hemophilia B using an enhanced specific activity factor IX (FIX) transgene reports sustained levels of FIX levels, leading to the near elimination of bleeding for more than a year and without serious adverse side effects. These results are the best outcome to date for hemophilia gene therapy.
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245006/big-role-for-a-tiny-genome
#13
Angela E Douglas
In this issue of Cell, Salem et al. demonstrate a remarkable instance of herbivory dependent on a co-evolved mutualism with specialized bacteria. Despite having a tiny genome and limited metabolic repertoire, the bacteria in Cassida beetles produce pectinases predicted to mediate degradation of plant cell walls in the insect diet.
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#14
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244871/inflammatory-monocytes-mediate-control-of-acute-alphavirus-infection-in-mice
#15
Kelsey C Haist, Kristina S Burrack, Bennett J Davenport, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) are mosquito-transmitted alphaviruses that cause debilitating acute and chronic musculoskeletal disease. Monocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of these infections; however, their specific roles are not well defined. To investigate the role of inflammatory Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes in alphavirus pathogenesis, we used CCR2-DTR transgenic mice, enabling depletion of these cells by administration of diptheria toxin (DT). DT-treated CCR2-DTR mice displayed more severe disease following CHIKV and RRV infection and had fewer Ly6Chi monocytes and NK cells in circulation and muscle tissue compared with DT-treated WT mice...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244870/human-hepatic-lipase-overexpression-in-mice-induces-hepatic-steatosis-and-obesity-through-promoting-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-white-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-fatty-acid-uptake
#16
Lídia Cedó, David Santos, Núria Roglans, Josep Julve, Victor Pallarès, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes, Joan Carles Laguna, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
Human hepatic lipase (hHL) is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL) is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244869/lspr-mediated-high-axial-resolution-fluorescence-imaging-on-a-silver-nanoparticle-sheet
#17
Eiji Usukura, Yuhki Yanase, Ayumi Ishijima, Thasaneeya Kuboki, Satoru Kidoaki, Koichi Okamoto, Kaoru Tamada
This paper reports our original technique for visualizing cell-attached nanointerfaces with extremely high axial resolution using homogeneously excited localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on self-assembled silver nanoparticle sheets. The LSPR sheet can confine and enhance the fluorescence at the nanointerface, which provides high signal-to-noise ratio images of focal adhesion at the cell-attached interface. The advantage of this LSPR-assisted technique is its usability, which provides comparable or higher-quality nanointerfacial images than TIRF microscopy, even under epifluorescence microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244864/resistant-and-susceptible-responses-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-to-bacterial-stem-blight-caused-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae
#18
Lev G Nemchinov, Jonathan Shao, Maya N Lee, Olga A Postnikova, Deborah A Samac
Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai) with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant and susceptible genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244863/a-parapoxviral-virion-protein-targets-the-retinoblastoma-protein-to-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#19
Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo Delhon, Daniel L Rock
Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. A C-terminal LxCxE motif in ORFV119 enabled the protein to interact with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) a multifunctional protein best known for its tumor suppressor activity...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244854/morphological-switch-to-a-resistant-subpopulation-in-response-to-viral-infection-in-the-bloom-forming-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#20
Miguel José Frada, Shilo Rosenwasser, Shifra Ben-Dor, Adva Shemi, Helena Sabanay, Assaf Vardi
Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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