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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758620/antibodies-against-the-mono-methylated-arginine-glycine-repeat-mma-rg-of-the-epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-2-ebna2-identify-potential-cellular-proteins-targeted-in-viral-transformation
#1
Hiresh Ayoubian, Thomas Fröhlich, Dagmar Pogodski, Andrew Flatley, Elisabeth Kremmer, Aloys Schepers, Regina Feederle, Georg J Arnold, Friedrich A Grässer
The Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is a key mediator of viral tumorigenesis. EBNA2 features an arginine-glycine (RG) repeat at amino acids (aa)339-354 that is essential for the transformation of lymphocytes and contains symmetrically (SDMA) and asymmetrically (ADMA) di-methylated arginine residues. The SDMA-modified EBNA2 binds the survival motor neuron protein (SMN), thus mimicking SMD3, a cellular SDMA-containing protein that interacts with SMN...
August 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675161/structural-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-the-membrane-integral-n-acyltransferase-step-in-bacterial-lipoprotein-synthesis
#2
Maciej Wiktor, Dietmar Weichert, Nicole Howe, Chia-Ying Huang, Vincent Olieric, Coilín Boland, Jonathan Bailey, Lutz Vogeley, Phillip J Stansfeld, Nienke Buddelmeijer, Meitian Wang, Martin Caffrey
Lipoproteins serve essential roles in the bacterial cell envelope. The posttranslational modification pathway leading to lipoprotein synthesis involves three enzymes. All are potential targets for the development of new antibiotics. Here we report the crystal structure of the last enzyme in the pathway, apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase, Lnt, responsible for adding a third acyl chain to the lipoprotein's invariant diacylated N-terminal cysteine. Structures of Lnt from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli have been solved; they are remarkably similar...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536075/increased-chemo-sensitivity-by-knockdown-coilin-expression-involved-acceleration-of-premature-cellular-senescence-in-hela-cells
#3
Yaoyao Song, Jing Niu, Zhixia Yue, Ruiqi Gao, Chenguang Zhang, Wei Ding
Coilin is a marker protein of the Cajal body (CB). Cajal bodies, functional nuclear structure, play important roles for the maturation of telomerase mRNAs. However, whether CB participates in the process of cell senescence is unknown. Cisplatin is a frequently used drug for the chemotherapy for various cancers, which was recently reported to be able to induce premature senescence of tumor cells. In this study, we found that when HeLa cells were treated with 2 μg/ml cisplatin for 4 days, stagnant cell growth, especially in cells stained positive of SA-β-gal, was accompanied with significant changes in CB morphologies...
July 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373290/a-genetic-screen-implicates-a-cwc16-yju2-ccdc130-protein-and-smu1-in-alternative-splicing-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Tatsuo Kanno, Wen-Dar Lin, Jason L Fu, Antonius J M Matzke, Marjori Matzke
To identify regulators of pre-mRNA splicing in plants, we developed a forward genetic screen based on an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana In wild-type plants, three major splice variants issue from the GFP gene but only one represents a translatable GFP mRNA. Compared to wild-type seedlings, which exhibit an intermediate level of GFP expression, mutants identified in the screen feature either a "GFP-weak" or "Hyper-GFP" phenotype depending on the ratio of the three splice variants...
July 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347715/preeclampsia-novel-insights-from-global-rna-profiling-of%C3%A2-trophoblast-subpopulations
#5
Matthew Gormley, Katherine Ona, Mirhan Kapidzic, Tamara Garrido-Gomez, Tamara Zdravkovic, Susan J Fisher
BACKGROUND: The maternal signs of preeclampsia, which include the new onset of high blood pressure, can occur because of faulty placentation. We theorized that transcriptomic analyses of trophoblast subpopulations in situ would lend new insights into the role of these cells in preeclampsia pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to enrich syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of severe preeclampsia cases...
August 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337219/neural-differentiation-in-hdac1-depleted-cells-is-accompanied-by-coilin-downregulation-and-the-accumulation-of-cajal-bodies-in-nucleoli
#6
Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Eva Bártová
Cajal bodies (CBs) are important compartments containing accumulated proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related nuclear events, including splicing. Here, we studied the nuclear distribution pattern of CBs in neurogenesis. In adult brains, coilin was present at a high density, but CB formation was absent in the nuclei of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the adult hippocampus were characterized by a crescent-like morphology of coilin protein. We additionally observed a 70 kDa splice variant of coilin in adult mouse brains, which was different to embryonic brains and mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cells (mESCs), characterized by the 80 kDa standard variant of coilin...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857188/low-voltage-scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-lampbrush-chromosomes-and-nuclear-bodies-in-avian-and-amphibian-oocytes
#7
Tatiana Kulikova, Tatiana Khodyuchenko, Yuri Petrov, Alla Krasikova
Nucleus is a highly compartmentalized part of the cell where the key processes of genome functionality are realized through the formation of non-membranous nuclear domains. Physically nuclear domains appear as liquid droplets with different viscosity stably maintained throughout the interphase or during the long diplotene stage of meiosis. Since nuclear body surface represents boundary between two liquid phases, the ultrastructural surface topography of nuclear domains is of an outstanding interest. The aim of this study was to examine ultrathin surface topography of the amphibian and avian oocyte nuclear structures such as lampbrush chromosomes, nucleoli, histone-locus bodies, Cajal body-like bodies, and the interchromatin granule clusters via low-voltage scanning electron microscopy...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801359/bed-utilisation-in-an-irish-regional-paediatric-unit-a-cross-sectional-study-using-the-paediatric-appropriateness-evaluation-protocol-paep
#8
Coilín ÓhAiseadha, Mai Mannix, Jean Saunders, Roy K Philip
BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources...
May 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627892/cajal-bodies-in-neurons
#9
Miguel Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Ana M Romero, Maria T Berciano
Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)...
June 3, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525486/minimized-human-telomerase-maintains-telomeres-and-resolves-endogenous-roles-of-h-aca-proteins-tcab1-and-cajal-bodies
#10
Jacob M Vogan, Xiaozhu Zhang, Daniel T Youmans, Samuel G Regalado, Joshua Z Johnson, Dirk Hockemeyer, Kathleen Collins
We dissected the importance of human telomerase biogenesis and trafficking pathways for telomere maintenance. Biological stability of human telomerase RNA (hTR) relies on H/ACA proteins, but other eukaryotes use other RNP assembly pathways. To investigate additional rationale for human telomerase assembly as H/ACA RNP, we developed a minimized cellular hTR. Remarkably, with only binding sites for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), minimized hTR assembled biologically active enzyme. TERT overexpression was required for cellular interaction with minimized hTR, indicating that H/ACA RNP assembly enhances endogenous hTR-TERT interaction...
August 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485326/cell-free-production-of-membrane-proteins-in-escherichia-coli-lysates-for-functional-and-structural-studies
#11
Ralf-Bernhardt Rues, Erik Henrich, Coilin Boland, Martin Caffrey, Frank Bernhard
The complexity of membrane protein synthesis is largely reduced in cell-free systems and it results into high success rates of target expression. Protocols for the preparation of bacterial lysates have been optimized in order to ensure reliable efficiencies in membrane protein production that are even sufficient for structural applications. The open accessibility of the semisynthetic cell-free expression reactions allows to adjust membrane protein solubilization conditions according to the optimal folding requirements of individual targets...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419845/identification-of-processing-elements-and-interactors-implicate-smn-coilin-and-the-pseudogene-encoded-coilp1-in-telomerase-and-box-c-d-scarnp-biogenesis
#12
Aaron R Poole, Isioma I Enwerem, Ian A Vicino, Jackson B Coole, Stanley V Smith, Michael D Hebert
Many cellular functions, such as translation, require ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). The biogenesis of RNPs is a multi-step process that, depending on the RNP, can take place in many cellular compartments. Here we examine 2 different RNPs: telomerase and small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs). Both of these RNPs are enriched in the Cajal body (CB), which is a subnuclear domain that also has high concentrations of another RNP, small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs). SnRNPs are essential components of the spliceosome, and scaRNPs modify the snRNA component of the snRNP...
October 2, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317682/identification-of-coilin-mutants-in-a-screen-for-enhanced-expression-of-an-alternatively-spliced-gfp-reporter-gene-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Tatsuo Kanno, Wen-Dar Lin, Jason L Fu, Ming-Tsung Wu, Ho-Wen Yang, Shih-Shun Lin, Antonius J M Matzke, Marjori Matzke
Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain...
August 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310875/overexpression-of-the-scaffold-wd40-protein-wrap53%C3%AE-enhances-the-repair-of-and-cell-survival-from-dna-double-strand-breaks
#14
H Rassoolzadeh, S Böhm, E Hedström, H Gad, T Helleday, S Henriksson, M Farnebo
Altered expression of the multifunctional protein WRAP53β (WD40 encoding RNA Antisense to p53), which targets repair factors to DNA double-strand breaks and factors involved in telomere elongation to Cajal bodies, is linked to carcinogenesis. While loss of WRAP53β function has been shown to disrupt processes regulated by this protein, the consequences of its overexpression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of WRAP53β disrupts the formation of and impairs the localization of coilin to Cajal bodies...
June 16, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215323/smn-and-coilin-negatively-regulate-dyskerin-association-with-telomerase-rna
#15
Aaron R Poole, Michael D Hebert
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein comprising telomerase RNA and associated proteins. The formation of the telomerase holoenzyme takes place in the Cajal body (CB), a subnuclear domain that participates in the formation of ribonucleoproteins. CBs also contribute to the delivery of telomerase to telomeres. The protein WRAP53 is enriched within the CB and is instrumental for the targeting of telomerase RNA to CBs. Two other CB proteins, SMN and coilin, are also suspected of taking part in some aspect of telomerase biogenesis...
2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912896/structural-basis-of-lipoprotein-signal-peptidase-ii-action-and-inhibition-by-the-antibiotic-globomycin
#16
Lutz Vogeley, Toufic El Arnaout, Jonathan Bailey, Phillip J Stansfeld, Coilin Boland, Martin Caffrey
With functions that range from cell envelope structure to signal transduction and transport, lipoproteins constitute 2 to 3% of bacterial genomes and play critical roles in bacterial physiology, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. Lipoproteins are synthesized with a signal peptide securing them to the cytoplasmic membrane with the lipoprotein domain in the periplasm or outside the cell. Posttranslational processing requires a signal peptidase II (LspA) that removes the signal peptide. Here, we report the crystal structure of LspA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the antimicrobial globomycin at 2...
February 19, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908624/monoubiquitination-of-survival-motor-neuron-regulates-its-cellular-localization-and-cajal-body-integrity
#17
Ke-Jun Han, Daniel Foster, Edward W Harhaj, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kirk Hansen, Chang-Wei Liu
Low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein cause spinal muscular atrophy, the leading genetic disorder for infant mortality. SMN is ubiquitously expressed in various cell types and localizes in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it concentrates in two subnuclear structures termed Cajal body (CB) and gems. In addition, SMN can also be detected in the nucleolus of neurons. Mechanisms that control SMN sorting in the cell remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Itch directly interacts with and monoubiquitinates SMN...
April 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552949/physiological-expression-and-accumulation-of-the-products-of-two-upstream-open-reading-frames-mrtl-and-mychex1-along-with-p64-and-p67-myc-from-the-human-c-myc-locus
#18
Mi Hong Ji, Seung-Ki Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Hyun Jin Jun, Scott W Blume, Hyoung Soo Choi
In addition to the canonical c-Myc p64 and p67 proteins, the human c-myc locus encodes two distinct proteins, mrtl (myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor) and MycHex1 (Myc Human Exon 1), from the upstream open reading frames within the 5'-untranslated region of the c-myc P0 mRNA. The aim of this study is to examine simultaneously, for the first time, mrtl, MycHex1, c-Myc p64, and p67 in human tumor cell lines and pediatric brain tumor tissues. Western blot analysis demonstrated endogenous mrtl, MycHex1, c-Myc p64, and p67 simultaneously...
June 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089539/hcinap-negatively-regulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-by-recruiting-the-phosphatase-pp1-to-deactivate-ikk-complex
#19
Linglong Qu, Yapeng Ji, Xi Zhu, Xiaofeng Zheng
Tight regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is essential to maintain homeostasis in immune system in response to various stimuli, which has been studied extensively and deeply. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its negative regulation are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that human coilin-interacting nuclear ATPase protein (hCINAP) is a novel negative regulator in NF-κB signaling by deactivating IκB kinase (IKK) complex. In response to TNF stimulation, hCINAP dynamically associates with IKKα and IKKβ and inhibits IKK phosphorylation...
December 2015: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068304/vrk1-regulates-cajal-body-dynamics-and-protects-coilin-from-proteasomal-degradation-in-cell-cycle
#20
Lara Cantarero, Marta Sanz-García, Hadar Vinograd-Byk, Paul Renbaum, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Pedro A Lazo
Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles associated with ribonucleoprotein functions and RNA maturation. CBs are assembled on coilin, its main scaffold protein, in a cell cycle dependent manner. The Ser-Thr VRK1 (vaccinia-related kinase 1) kinase, whose activity is also cell cycle regulated, interacts with and phosphorylates coilin regulating assembly of CBs. Coilin phosphorylation is not necessary for its interaction with VRK1, but it occurs in mitosis and regulates coilin stability. Knockdown of VRK1 or VRK1 inactivation by serum deprivation causes a loss of coilin phosphorylation in Ser184 and of CBs formation, which are rescued with an active VRK1, but not by kinase-dead VRK1...
2015: Scientific Reports
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