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Richard Odemer, Lisa Nilles, Nadine Linder, Peter Rosenkranz
Neonicotinoids alone or in combination with pathogens are considered to be involved in the worldwide weakening of honey bees. We here present a new approach for testing sublethal and/or synergistic effects in free flying colonies. In our experiment individually marked honey bees were kept in free flying mini-hives and chronically exposed to sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin. Additional groups of bees were challenged with Nosema infections or with combinations of the pesticide and pathogens. Longevity and flight activity of the differentially treated bees were monitored for a period of 18 days...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Hadeel Albabtain, Monira Alwhaibi, Khalid Alburaikan, Yousif Asiri
Background: Complementary and Alternative Medication (CAM) is commonly used among women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, few studies examine the prevalence of CAM and its' relation to the patients' QoL among women with breast cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 women with breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The outcome measure of interest was the QoL. The correlation was used to assess the association between CAM use and QoL...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Aaron S Griffin, Peter Cabot, Ben Wallwork, Ben Panizza
The use of alternative medicine in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) continues to increase in popularity, for the most part without meeting the burden of being based on sound clinical evidence. New and emerging treatments, both natural and developed, are numerous, and it remains a challenge for otolaryngologists as well as general practitioners to keep up to date with these therapies and their efficacy. In this systematic review, we discuss a number of alternative therapies for CRS, their proposed physiologic mechanisms, and evidence supporting their use...
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Christoph Kurze, Yves Le Conte, Per Kryger, Oleg Lewkowski, Thomas Müller, Robin F A Moritz
Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects epithelial cells of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) midgut. Previous studies have shown that Nosema may alter cell renewal and apoptosis in honey bees. We found that the amount of apoptotic cells progressively declines from the anterior towards posterior regions of the midgut in Nosema-infected sensitive bees. There was no such pattern in the infected Nosema tolerant honey bees and controls. These data provide additional evidence that N...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Sandeep Janghu, Manab B Bera, Vikas Nanda, Ashish Rawson
The present study was done to optimize the power ultrasound processing for maximizing diastase activity of and minimizing hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honey using response surface methodology. Experimental design with treatment time (1-15 min), amplitude (20-100%) and volume (40-80 mL) as independent variables under controlled temperature conditions was studied and it was concluded that treatment time of 8 min, amplitude of 60% and volume of 60 mL give optimal diastase activity and HMF content, i...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Ripon Sarkar, Aritri Ghosh, Ananya Barui, Pallab Datta
Topical application of honey for tissue regeneration, has recently regained attention in clinical practice with controlled studies affirming its efficacy and indicating its role in regeneration over repair. Parallely, to overcome difficulties of applying raw honey, several product development studies like nanofibrous matrices have been reported. However, one approach concentrated on achieving highest possible honey loading in the nanofiber membranes while other studies have found that only specific honey dilutions result in differential cellular responses on wound healing and re-epithelization...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Luca Maria Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Maria Nobile, Federica Ceriani, Francesco Arioli
Demand for honey is increasing, especially if it is organic and if its nutritional properties are linked to untreated environments in order to guarantee quality for health. Sources of contamination of honey can be divided into environmental and apicultural Therefore, the distribution of POPs (persistent organic pollutants), pesticides and antibiotic residues from geographical areas with different contamination sources (high anthropic impact, intensive farming, husbandry and low anthropic impact) was investigated in order to confirm the potential transfer of xenobiotics into the supply chain and to give beekeepers tools for the selection of areas dedicated to organic production...
March 13, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
A-G E Ausseil, J R Dymond, L Newstrom
Honey bees require nectar and pollen from flowers: nectar for energy and pollen for growth. The demand for nectar and pollen varies during the year, with more pollen needed in spring for colony population growth, and more nectar needed in summer to sustain the maximum colony size and collect surplus nectar stores for winter. Sufficient bee forage is therefore necessary to ensure a healthy bee colony. Land-use changes can reduce the availability of floral resources suitable for bees, thereby increasing the susceptibility of bees to other stressors such as disease and pesticides...
March 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yuki Henselek, Elisabeth J Eilers, Claire Kremen, Stephen D Hendrix, Alexandra-Maria Klein
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kazimir Matović, Jelena Ćirić, Vesna Kaljević, Nebojša Nedić, Goran Jevtić, Nikola Vasković, Milan Ž Baltić
Honey is a natural substance produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) enjoyed by people due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical parameters (moisture, ash, water-insoluble content, reducing sugars, sucrose, free acidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, and electrical conductivity) and microbiological status (total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total number of sulfite-reducing clostridia, the presence of Salmonella spp...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan Feng, Yan Xia
Covalent organic framework (COF) was explored as a novel matrix with a high desorption/ionization efficiency for direct detection of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS). By using COF as an LDI MS matrix, we could detect not only biological micro molecules such as amino acids and fatty acids, but also emerging environmental pollutants like bisphenol S (BPS) and pyrene. With COF as the matrix, higher desorption/ionization efficiency, and less background interference were achieved than the conventional organic matrices...
July 19, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sai Wang, Yiyang Dong, Xingguo Liang
Although surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique and aptamer technology shows great potential in analytical and biological chemistry, direct capture and analysis of small molecules using SPR remains tough. Detection sensitivity of aptasensor and recognition ability of aptamer is limited, because direct immobilization of aptamer causes large steric hindrance and strand entanglement. Herein, we chose a typical small molecule-tetracycline (Mw. 444.4 g/mol) as a model, and combined aptamer technology, DNA nanostructure, and commercial Biacore T200 SPR instrument to develop a straightforward format SPR aptasensor...
February 27, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Edmund R Hunt, Christopher Kendall, Emma Stanbury, Ana B Sendova-Franks, Nigel R Franks
Visual landmarks are important navigational aids to many animals, and when more than one is available their juxtaposition can convey valuable new information to a navigator about progress toward a goal, depending on the landmarks' comparative distinctiveness. We investigated the effect of presenting rock ant colonies (Temnothorax albipennis) with identical horizontal landmarks either side of their route, versus one horizontal landmark paired with a sloping landmark, as they navigated to a new nest site. Our findings suggest that ants can obtain more navigational information from a combination of dissimilar landmarks: the average tortuosity of the route taken between old and new nests was significantly lower when a horizontal landmark was paired with a monotonically downward sloping landmark (the paths were more direct)...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vita Boyar
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report on our experience with a portable, single-use negative pressure wound therapy device used in combination with activated active Leptospermum honey (ALH) in the treatment of colonized or infected, dehisced, thoracic wounds in neonates with complex congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: We reviewed medical records of 18 neonates and reported on findings from 11; the remaining 7 were not included secondary to incomplete records, transfer to a different institution prior to wound healing, or death...
March 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Jianru Zhao, Xiaohua Pan, Xiaobo Sun, Wei Pan, Guifeng Yu, Jinping Wang
In this work, carbon dots (CDs) with a high quantum yield (22.3%) were easily prepared by hydrothermal pyrolysis of acid fuchsin 6B and hydrogen peroxide at 180°C for 10 h. The resultant CDs possess a narrow size distribution in the range of 2.6 to 3.2 nm and emit blue fluorescence. Interestingly, the absorption band of metronidazole (MTZ) centered at 318 nm can complementary overlap with the excitation band of the as-prepared CDs centered at 320 nm, resulting in an inner filter effect (IFE) in high efficiency...
March 9, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Janet Lowore, Julia Meaton, Adrian Wood
In parts of the developing world, deforestation rates are high and poverty is chronic and pervasive. Addressing these issues through the commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been widely researched, tested, and discussed. While the evidence is inconclusive, there is growing understanding of what works and why, and this paper examines the acknowledged success and failure factors. African forest honey has been relatively overlooked as an NTFP, an oversight this paper addresses. Drawing on evidence from a long-established forest conservation, livelihoods, and trade development initiative in SW Ethiopia, forest honey is benchmarked against accepted success and failure factors and is found to be a near-perfect NTFP...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Management
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Kirk E Anderson
Parasaccharibacter apium displays multiple ecological strategies in its honey bee host. We sequenced the genomes of four strains found in larvae and the adult gut in order to better understand its ecology and relationship to other Acetobacteraceae The P. apium genome consists of 2,009,892 bp and 1,830 protein-coding genes.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Noble I Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E Sonenshine, Steven Cook
Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research...
March 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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