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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778030/retrospective-genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-a-305-patient-cohort-referred-for-testing-of-a-targeted-epilepsy-panel
#1
Andrew N Hesse, Jennifer Bevilacqua, Kritika Shankar, Honey V Reddi
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a diverse neurological condition with extreme genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The introduction of next-generation sequencing into the clinical laboratory has made it possible to investigate hundreds of associated genes simultaneously for a patient, even in the absence of a clearly defined syndrome. This has resulted in the detection of rare and novel mutations at a rate well beyond our ability to characterize their effects. This retrospective study reviews genotype data in the context of available phenotypic information on 305 patients spanning the epileptic spectrum to identify established and novel patterns of correlation...
May 16, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776997/turning-workers-into-false-queens-the-role-of-exogenous-pheromones-in-regulating-reproduction-in-worker-honey-bees
#2
Abdullahi A Yusuf, Robin M Crewe, Christian W W Pirk
One of the responses that honey bee workers can make in the event of queen loss is to develop into false queens. False queens are workers that exhibit both behavioural and physiological traits similar to those of a true queen. However, the presence of more than one false queen in a colony distorts the established hierarchies. As transformation into a false queen occurs after emergence as an adult, we tested the effect of worker mobile pheromone carriers (PCs) treated with exogenously supplied pheromones on their nestmates...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776994/first-demonstration-of-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-memory-in-honey-bee-queens
#3
Zhiwen Gong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
As the primary source of colony reproduction, social insect queens play a vital role. However, the cognitive abilities of queens are not well understood, although queen learning and memory are essential in multiple species such as honey bees, in which virgin queens must leave the nest and then successful learn to navigate back over repeated nuptial flights. Honey bee queen learning has never been previously demonstrated. We therefore tested olfactory learning in queens and workers and examined the role of DNA methylation, which plays a key role in long term memory formation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775568/neonicotinoids-decrease-sucrose-responsiveness-of-honey-bees-at-first-contact
#4
Fabien J Démares, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
For two decades, neonicotinoid insecticides have been extensively used worldwide. Targeting neuronal receptors, they have deleterious effects on the behaviour and physiology of many of many beneficial as well as harmful insects. Bees are exposed to these insecticides in pollen and nectar while providing pollination services to agricultural crops, and neonicotinoids have been shown to impair navigation by bees and to decrease their foraging activity. We have previously reported the effect of dietary thiamethoxam on sucrose responsiveness of young worker bees...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772268/determination-and-regulation-of-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-food-a-critical-review-of-recent-research
#5
Chuanhui Ma, Yang Liu, Lin Zhu, Hong Ji, Xun Song, Hui Guo, Tao Yi
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plants. PAs have been reported to be hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic; they are a significant group of natural toxins affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. To date, over 10,000 PAs poisoning cases have been reported worldwide. In recent years, many articles have reported the detection of PAs in various foods, including honey, milk, meat, eggs, tea and salad. This review summarized the contamination of PAs in foods, state of the art detection methods and regulations by different countries and authorities, hoping to propose effective solutions to minimize the consumption of PAs in food...
May 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769608/rapid-parallel-evolution-overcomes-global-honey-bee-parasite
#6
Melissa Oddie, Ralph Büchler, Bjørn Dahle, Marin Kovacic, Yves Le Conte, Barbara Locke, Joachim R de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Neumann
In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769574/honey-bees-consider-larval-nutritional-status-rather-than-genetic-relatedness-when-selecting-larvae-for-emergency-queen-rearing
#7
Ramesh R Sagili, Bradley N Metz, Hannah M Lucas, Priyadarshini Chakrabarti, Carolyn R Breece
In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768495/pollen-analysis-of-australian-honey
#8
J M Kale Sniderman, Kia A Matley, Simon G Haberle, David J Cantrill
Pollen analysis is widely used to verify the geographic origin of honeys, but has never been employed in Australia. In this study, we analysed the pollen content of 173 unblended honey samples sourced from most of the commercial honey producing regions in southern Australia. Southern Australian vegetation is dominated by Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) forests and, as expected, most Australian honeys are palynologically dominated by Eucalyptus, while other important components include Myrtaceae taxa such as Corymbia/Angophora and the tribe Leptospermeae; plus Brassicaceae, Echium, Macadamia, and Acacia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765943/juvenile-xanthogranuloma-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#9
Radha Ram, Marissa D Marolf, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Honey H Herce
Purpose: To report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma that simulated a chalazion and to discuss the association between juvenile xanthogranuloma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Method: Case report and review of literature. Results: A 13-year-old boy with a prior history of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was referred to our clinic for a possible chalazion. The patient had undergone treatment for Langerhans cell histiocytosis 10 years prior...
April 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764668/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-health-and-disease-of-adult-honey-bee-workers
#10
REVIEW
Kasie Raymann, Nancy A Moran
The role of the gut microbiome in animal health has become increasingly evident. Unlike most other insects, honey bees possess a highly conserved and specialized core gut microbiome, which consists of nine bacterial species and is acquired mostly through social transmission. Five of these species are ubiquitous in honey bees and are also present in bumble bees. Recent studies have shown that the bee gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism, immune function, growth and development, and protection against pathogens...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764667/bacterial-pathogens-of-bees
#11
REVIEW
Anne Fünfhaus, Julia Ebeling, Elke Genersch
Pollination is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by many insects, especially by wild and managed bee species. Hence, reports on large scale honey bee colony losses and on population declines of many wild bees were alarming and resulted in increased awareness of the importance of bee health and increased interest in bee pathogens. To serve this interest, this review will give a comprehensive overview on bacterial bee pathogens by covering not only the famous pathogens (Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius), but also the orphan pathogens which have largely been neglected by the scientific community so far (spiroplasmas) and the pathogens which were only recently discovered as being pathogenic to bees (Serratia marcescens, Lysinibacillus sphaericus)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764666/relevance-of-wild-and-managed-bees-for-human-well-being
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764663/tropilaelaps-mite-an-emerging-threat-to-european-honey-bee
#13
REVIEW
Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764661/interactions-between-pesticides-and-pathogen-susceptibility-in-honey-bees
#14
REVIEW
Scott T O'Neal, Troy D Anderson, Judy Y Wu-Smart
There exist a variety of factors that negatively impact the health and survival of managed honey bee colonies, including the spread of parasites and pathogens, loss of habitat, reduced availability or quality of food resources, climate change, poor queen quality, changing cultural and commercial beekeeping practices, as well as exposure to agricultural and apicultural pesticides both in the field and in the hive. These factors are often closely intertwined, and it is unlikely that a single stressor is driving colony losses...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764655/effects-of-the-gut-parasite-nosema-ceranae-on-honey-bee-physiology-and-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Laurianne Paris, Hicham El Alaoui, Frédéric Delbac, Marie Diogon
The common and widespread parasite Nosema ceranae is considered a major threat to the Western honey bee at both the individual and colony levels. Several studies demonstrated that infection by this parasite may affect physiology, behavior, and survival of honey bees. N. ceranae infection impairs midgut integrity and alters the energy demand in honey bees. The infection can also significantly suppress the bee immune response and modify pheromone production in worker and queen honey bees leading to precocious foraging...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764654/drivers-of-colony-losses
#16
REVIEW
Nathalie Steinhauer, Kelly Kulhanek, Karina Antúnez, Hannelie Human, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Marie-Pierre Chauzat, Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Over the past decade, in some regions of the world, honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have experienced rates of colony loss that are difficult for beekeepers to sustain. The reasons for losses are complex and interacting, with major drivers including Varroaand related viruses, pesticides, nutrition and beekeeper practices. In these endeavors it has also become apparent that defining a dead colony, and singling out the effects of specific drivers of loss, is not so straightforward. Using the class of neonicotinoid pesticides as an example we explain why quantifying risk factor impact at the colony level is at times elusive and in some cases unpractical...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764652/genetics-and-physiology-of-varroa-mites
#17
REVIEW
Jay D Evans, Steven C Cook
Varroa destructor is the primary biological threat to domesticated honey bee colonies in much of the world, impacting host fitness both directly and by transmitting RNA viruses. Genomic, proteomic, and functional-genetic resources provide a framework for Varroa biology. When coupled with physiological analyses of development, host finding, and reproduction, these resources reveal general traits of arthropods and offer new strategies for mite control. Efforts to develop novel controls are focused on efficacy, efficient delivery, and the avoidance of both host impacts and the swift evolution of resistance by mites...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764651/recently-identified-bee-viruses-and-their-impact-on-bee-pollinators
#18
REVIEW
Alexander J McMenamin, Michelle L Flenniken
Bees are agriculturally and ecologically important plant pollinators. Recent high annual losses of honey bee colonies, and reduced populations of native and wild bees in some geographic locations, may impact the availability of affordable food crops and the diversity and abundance of native and wild plant species. Multiple factors including viral infections affect pollinator health. The majority of well-characterized bee viruses are picorna-like RNA viruses, which may be maintained as covert infections or cause symptomatic infections or death...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764650/feedbacks-between-nutrition-and-disease-in-honey-bee-health
#19
REVIEW
Adam G Dolezal, Amy L Toth
Declines in honey bee health have been attributed to multiple interacting environmental stressors; among the most important are forage/nutrition deficits and parasites and pathogens. Recent studies suggest poor honey bee nutrition can exacerbate the negative impacts of infectious viral and fungal diseases, and conversely, that common honey bee parasites and pathogens can adversely affect bee nutritional physiology. This sets up the potential for harmful feedbacks between poor nutrition and infectious disease that may contribute to spiraling declines in bee health...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763828/combinatorial-multispectral-thermodynamics-docking-and-site-directed-mutagenesis-reveal-the-cognitive-characteristics-of-honey-bee-chemosensory-protein-to-plant-semiochemical
#20
Jing Tan, Xinmi Song, Xiaobin Fu, Fan Wu, Fuliang Hu, Hongliang Li
In the chemoreceptive system of insects, there are always some soluble binding proteins, such as some antennal-specific chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which are abundantly distributed in the chemosensory sensillar lymph. The antennal-specific CSPs usually have strong capability to bind diverse semiochemicals, while the detailed interaction between CSPs and the semiochemicals remain unclear. Here, by means of the combinatorial multispectral, thermodynamics, docking and site-directed mutagenesis, we detailedly interpreted a binding interaction between a plant semiochemical β-ionone and antennal-specific CSP1 from the worker honey bee...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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