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Ching-Wen Pan, Meng-Hsien Chen, Lien-Siang Chou, Hsing-Juh Lin
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs...
2016: PloS One
Paolo Usseglio, Alan M Friedlander, Haruko Koike, Johanna Zimmerhackel, Anna Schuhbauer, Tyler Eddy, Pelayo Salinas-de-León
The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch...
2016: PloS One
Sónia Puga, Patrícia Pereira, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Erin Mann, Marisa Barata, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, João Canário, Armando Almeida, Mário Pacheco
The current study aims to shed light on the neurotoxicity of MeHg in fish (white seabream - Diplodus sargus) by the combined assessment of: (i) MeHg toxicokinetics in the brain, (ii) brain morphometry (volume and number of neurons plus glial cells in specific brain regions) and (iii) fish swimming behavior (endpoints associated with the motor performance and the fear/anxiety-like status). Fish were surveyed for all the components after 7 (E7) and 14 (E14) days of dietary exposure to MeHg (8.7μgg(-1)), as well as after a post-exposure period of 28days (PE28)...
October 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Xuesong Zhao, Xin Ren, Baixiang Ren, Zhouying Luo, Rong Zhu
2,2,4',4'-Tetrabromodi-phenyl ether (BDE-47) is predominantly concentrated in humans and wildlife and disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the thyroid endocrine disruption induced by life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 in adults and offspring of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish embryos at the blastula stage to different concentrations of BDE-47 (1, 5, and 10μg/L). Exposure duration was 180days until fish reached adulthood. In F0 larvae, exposure decreased survival and increased malformations at 4 dpf...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
D Bolton, M Mayer-Pinto, G F Clark, K A Dafforn, W A Brassil, A Becker, E L Johnston
Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Eric J Warrant
As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jean-Stéphane Joly, Gaelle Recher, Alessandro Brombin, Kathy Ngo, Volker Hartenstein
The visual systems of vertebrates and many other bilaterian clades consist of complex neural structures guiding a wide spectrum of behaviors. Homologies at the level of cell types and even discrete neural circuits have been proposed, but many questions of how the architecture of visual neuropils evolved among different phyla remain open. In this review we argue that the profound conservation of genetic and developmental steps generating the eye and its target neuropils in fish and fruit flies supports a homology between some core elements of bilaterian visual circuitries...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jorge Regueiro, Noelia Negreira, Marc H G Berntssen
Ion mobility spectrometry allows for the measurement of the collision cross section (CCS), which provides information about the shape of an ionic molecule in the gas phase. While the hyphenation of travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) has been mainly used for structural elucidation purposes, its potential for fast screening of small molecules in complex samples has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The current work explores the capabilities of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a new design TWIMS-QTOFMS for the screening and identification of a large set of pesticides in complex salmon feed matrices...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Sara J Marsteller, Natalya Zolotova, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Serli Önlü, Melek Türker Saçan
The authors constructed novel, robust and validated linear Quantitative Structure-Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models in line with OECD criteria using the two cytotoxicity data sets which were obtained from the Alamar Blue (AB) and 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) assays. The data sets comprise the cytotoxic effect of structurally diverse and widely used pharmaceuticals, synthetic musks and industrial chemicals on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cell line RTL-W1. Common descriptors defined the relationship between structure and cytotoxicity for both the AB and the CFDA-AM assays which measure the metabolic activity and membrane integrity, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Andrzej Wojcik, Ursula Oestreicher, Lleonard Barrios, Anne Vral, Georgia Terzoudi, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Kai Rothkamm, Francois Trompier, Ulrike Kulka
PURPOSE: To set up an operational basis of the Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB) network within which the application of seven established biodosimetric tools (the dicentric assay, the FISH assay, the micronucleus assay, the PCC assay, the gamma-H2AX assay, electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence) will be compared and standardized among the participating laboratories. METHODOLOGY: Two intercomparisons were organized where blood samples and smartphone components were irradiated, coded and sent out to participating laboratories for dosimetric analysis...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
G Barros, J Zuanon, C Deus
This study assessed the width of the trophic niche of four characid species (Bryconops giacopinii, Bryconops inpai, Hyphessobrycon aff. melazonatus and Iguanodectes geisleri) found under different co-occurrence circumstances in Amazonian upland streams. The study was conducted during the rainy season of 2011 at eight sites of two micro-basins of the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The four species were studied in the following circumstances: only one of the species occurring in the stream; two species co-occurring; three species co-occurring...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
S S Killen, T Norin, L G Halsey
The rate at which active animals can expend energy is limited by their maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR). Two methods are commonly used to estimate MMR as oxygen uptake in fishes, namely during prolonged swimming or immediately following brief exhaustive exercise, but it is unclear whether they return different estimates of MMR or whether their effectiveness for estimating MMR varies among species with different lifestyles. A broad comparative analysis of MMR data from 121 fish species revealed little evidence of different results between the two methods, either for fishes in general or for species of benthic, benthopelagic or pelagic lifestyles...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Shenglin Yang, Zongfen Wu, Wei Lin, Longxin Xu, Long Cheng, Lin Zhou
In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Khaled Abass, Markku Koiranen, Darja Mazej, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Milena Horvat, Jukka Hakkola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Arja Rautio
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort program (NFBC) is the epidemiological and longitudinal prospective general population research program, which was established to promote health and wellbeing of the population in northern Finland. The aim of present study, as a part of the NFBC program, was to analyze the blood levels of arsenic (B-As), cadmium (B-Cd), lead (B-Pb), total mercury (B-Hg) and selenium (B-Se); to compare these levels with threshold limits; to study sociodemographic factors; and to correlate these levels with calcium and haemoglobin...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Consuelo J Perez, Alessandra Tata, Michel L de Campos, Chun Peng, Demian R Ifa
Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Stephen Douglas Atkinson, Craig Randall Banner
Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14...
October 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Murilo S Abreu, Ana Cristina V Giacomini, Darlan Gusso, Gessi Koakoski, Thiago A Oliveira, Alessandra Marqueze, Rodrigo Egydio Barreto, Leonardo J G Barcellos
In fish, defensive reactions are induced by different chemical cues that emanate from sense-related stresses [physical, chemical, and visual (visual contact with predator)] or food stresses (acute fasting and chronic food restriction). Using a shuttle box with a two-chamber unmixed laminar flow that allowed fish to remain or flee from a chemical cue, we showed that the avoidance response depended on the type of the chemical cue. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) retreated from water conditioned with chemical cues released by chemically or physically stressed fish and acutely fasted fish, but not from water with cues from fish experiencing visual contact with predatory fish or fish suffering from chronic food restriction...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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