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pupillometry opioids

Davina Wildemeersch, Michiel Baeten, Natasja Peeters, Vera Saldien, Marcel Vercauteren, Guy Hans
Background: Pupillary response by pupillary dilatation reflex (PDR) is a robust reflex, even measurable during general anaesthesia. However, the ability of infrared pupillometry to detect PDR differences obtained by intraoperative opioid administration in anaesthesized patients remains largely unknown. We analyzed the performance of automated infrared pupillometry in detecting differences in pupillary dilatation reflex response by a inbuilt standardized nociceptive stimulation program in patients under general anesthesia with a standardized propofol/fentanyl scheme...
April 2018: Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
D Wildemeersch, N Peeters, V Saldien, M Vercauteren, G Hans
BACKGROUND: In response to noxious stimulation, pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) occurs even in anaesthetized patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of pupillometry with an automated increasing stimulus intensity to monitor intraoperative opioid administration. METHODS: Thirty-four patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Induction by propofol anaesthesia was increased progressively until the sedation depth criteria (SeD) were attained...
April 19, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Arne Kristian Skulberg, Ida Tylleskar, Turid Nilsen, Sissel Skarra, Øyvind Salvesen, Trond Sand, Thorsteinn Loftsson, Ola Dale
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a model for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of naloxone antagonism under steady-state opioid agonism and to compare a high-concentration/low-volume intranasal naloxone formulation 8 mg/ml to intramuscular 0.8 mg. METHODS: Two-way crossover in 12 healthy volunteers receiving naloxone while receiving remifentanil by a target-controlled infusion for 102 min. The group were subdivided into three different doses of remifentanil...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jie Luo, Su Min
Acute postoperative pain remains a major problem, resulting in multiple undesirable outcomes if inadequately controlled. Most surgical patients spend their immediate postoperative period in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), where pain management, being unsatisfactory and requiring improvements, affects further recovery. Recent studies on postoperative pain management in the PACU were reviewed for the advances in assessments and treatments. More objective assessments of pain being independent of patients' participation may be potentially appropriate in the PACU, including photoplethysmography-derived parameters, analgesia nociception index, skin conductance, and pupillometry, although further studies are needed to confirm their utilities...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Nada Sabourdin, Jérôme Barrois, Nicolas Louvet, Agnès Rigouzzo, Marie-Laurence Guye, Christophe Dadure, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry has shown promising results for assessing nociception in anesthetized patients. However, its benefits in clinical practice are not demonstrated. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative pupillometry monitoring on perioperative opioid consumption in major gynecologic surgery. METHODS: After receiving ethics committee approval and written consent of patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to II women undergoing gynecologic surgery were included in this single-blinded, prospective, parallel-arm randomized study...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective: Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design: This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting: Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects: Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
February 1, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Eric Yang, Matthias Kreuzer, September Hesse, Paran Davari, Simon C Lee, Paul S García
This study evaluates the capability of pupillary parameters to detect and predict delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU-D) following general anesthesia. PACU-D may complicate and prolong the patient's postoperative course, consequently increasing hospital costs. After institutional approval, 47 patients undergoing surgical interventions with general anesthesia were included in the study. We measured the pupillary reflexes at signing of informed consent, during surgery 20 min after intubation and when the primary inhaled anesthetic was turned off, and 15 and 45 min after PACU admittance and upon discharge from the PACU...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Ana Abad-Torrent, Albert Sueiras-Gil, Miquel Martínez-Vilalta, Josep Vallet-Fernández, María Guisasola-Rabés
Echinococcosis causes a hydatid cyst, a worldwide disease. Human beings are intermediate hosts, but dogs complete the life cycle of the cestode. The most common presentation sites are the liver and lungs. We present an unusual case of a primary splenic hydatid cyst. Open splenectomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice for splenic hydatid cysts. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has been used in appropriate cases. A healthy 48-year-old woman was scheduled for laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ernest A Kopecky, Alison B Fleming, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Melinda O'Connor, Edward M Sellers
Oxycodone DETERx® (Collegium Pharmaceutical Inc, Canton, Massachusetts) is an extended-release, microsphere-in-capsule, abuse-deterrent formulation designed to retain its extended-release properties after tampering (eg, chewing/crushing). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy study evaluated the oral abuse potential of intact and chewed oxycodone DETERx capsules compared with crushed immediate-release oxycodone. Subjects with a history of recreational opioid use who were nondependent/nontolerant to opioids were enrolled...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Stephen C Harris, Alessandra Cipriano, Salvatore V Colucci, Ram P Kapil, Pierre Geoffroy, Talar Hopyan, Naama Levy-Cooperman
Objectives: A once-daily, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties (Hysingla ER [HYD]) is available for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriate patients. This study evaluated the oral abuse potential and pharmacokinetics (PK) of HYD intact, chewed, or milled to fine particles in comparison with hydrocodone solution or placebo. Design: Single-center, double-blind, randomized, five-period, five-treatment crossover study. Subjects: Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users...
July 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
N Levy-Cooperman, G McIntyre, L Bonifacio, M McDonnell, J M Davenport, P S Covington, L S Dove, E M Sellers
Drugs with μ-opioid receptor (OR) activity can be associated with abuse and misuse. The peripherally acting mixed μ-OR and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist eluxadoline is approved in the United States for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. In two separate crossover studies, we evaluated the oral and intranasal abuse potential of eluxadoline versus placebo and the active control oxycodone. Healthy recreational opioid users received eluxadoline 100, 300, and 1000 mg, oxycodone 30 and 60 mg, and placebo (oral study), or eluxadoline 100 and 200 mg, oxycodone 15 and 30 mg, and placebos matched to eluxadoline and oxycodone (intranasal study)...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Mona Darwish, Mary Bond, Yuju Ma, William Tracewell, Philmore Robertson, Lynn R Webster
Objective: To compare the oral abuse potential of hydrocodone extended-release (ER) tablet developed with CIMA ® Abuse-Deterrence Technology with that of hydrocodone immediate release (IR). Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting and Patients: One study site in the United States; adult nondependent, recreational opioid users. Methods: After confirming their ability to tolerate and discriminate hydrocodone IR 45 mg from placebo, eligible participants were randomized to receive each of the following oral treatments once: finely crushed placebo, hydrocodone IR 45-mg powder, intact hydrocodone ER 45-mg tablet, and finely crushed hydrocodone ER 45-mg tablet...
January 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Víctor Mangas-Sanjuan, José Martín Pastor, Jens Rengelshausen, Roberta Bursi, Iñaki F Troconiz
AIM: The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of the active components of axomadol and to quantify their contribution to observed the pupillometric and analgesic (measured through the cold pressor test) effects linking the PD engagement biomarker with clinical response. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 74) received either placebo or axomadol orally at doses ranging from 66 mg to 225 mg following multiple dosing regimens in two separate clinical trials...
July 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lynn R Webster, Ernest A Kopecky, Michael D Smith, Alison B Fleming
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein "DETERx"). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. SETTING: Clinical research site. SUBJECTS: There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods...
June 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Stephen C Harris, Alessandra Cipriano, Salvatore V Colucci, Ram P Kapil, Pierre Geoffroy, Talar Hopyan, Naama Levy-Cooperman
OBJECTIVES: A once-daily, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties (Hysingla ER® [HYD]) is available for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriate patients. This study evaluated the intranasal abuse potential and pharmacokinetics of HYD coarse and fine particles vs hydrocodone powder or placebo. DESIGN: Single-center, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled, randomized, four-treatment crossover study. SUBJECTS: Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users with a history of intranasal abuse...
May 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Terri L Morton, Krishna Devarakonda, Kenneth Kostenbader, Jeannie Montgomery, Thomas Barrett, Lynn Webster
OBJECTIVE: To correlate abuse-related pharmacodynamic measures and pharmacokinetic measures after administering immediate-release/extended-release and immediate-release oxycodone/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination analgesicsDesign. Randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, 7-way crossover studySetting. Contract research organizationSubjects. Nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids. METHODS: Participants received single doses of intact immediate-release/extended-release and immediate-release oxycodone/acetaminophen 15/650 mg, intact immediate-release/extended-release and immediate-release oxycodone/acetaminophen 30/1,300 mg, crushed immediate-release/extended-release and immediate-release oxycodone/acetaminophen 30/1,300 mg, and placebo...
March 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Merlin D Larson, Matthias Behrends
Portable infrared pupillometers provide an objective measure of pupil size and pupillary reflexes, which for most clinicians was previously only a visual impression. But despite the fact that pupillometry can uncover aspects of how the human pupil reacts to drugs and noxious stimulation, the use of pupillometry has not gained widespread use among anesthesiologists and critical care physicians. The present review is an introduction to the physiology of pupillary reflexes and the currently established clinical applications of infrared pupillometry, which will hopefully encourage physicians to use this diagnostic tool in their clinical practice...
June 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Annalisa Monaco, Ruggero Cattaneo, Luca Mesin, Eleonora Ortu, Mario Giannoni, Davide Pietropaoli
Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors...
2015: PloS One
A Brokjaer, A E Olesen, L L Christrup, A Dahan, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Opioid antagonists are increasingly used to abolish the gastrointestinal side effects of opioids. However, they can potentially interfere with local analgesia exerted via opioid receptors in the gut. Thus, in the current study we aimed to explore the effect of rectal morphine before and after blocking opioid receptors outside the central nervous system with methylnaltrexone (MNTX). METHODS: In this randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study 15 healthy male participants received the following drugs at three separate sessions: (i) placebo, (ii) 30 mg morphine administered per rectum, or (iii) 12 mg MNTX given subcutaneously before 30 mg rectal morphine...
May 2015: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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