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DNA editing

Sumin Lee, Sang-Wook Lee, Sunmin Park, Sang Min Yoon, Jin-Hong Park, Si Yeol Song, Seung Do Ahn, Jong Hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Su Ssan Kim, Jinhong Jung, Young Seok Kim
PURPOSE: To validate the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and investigate whether a modified classification better reflects the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with non-metastatic HPV-related OPSCC between 2010 and 2016 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
Chuan Dong, Ge-Fei Hao, Hong-Li Hua, Shuo Liu, Abraham Alemayehu Labena, Guoshi Chai, Jian Huang, Nini Rao, Feng-Biao Guo
CRISPR-Cas is a tool that is widely used for gene editing. However, unexpected off-target effects may occur as a result of long-term nuclease activity. Anti-CRISPR proteins, which are powerful molecules that inhibit the CRISPR-Cas system, may have the potential to promote better utilization of the CRISPR-Cas system in gene editing, especially for gene therapy. Additionally, more in-depth research on these proteins would help researchers to better understand the co-evolution of bacteria and phages. Therefore, it is necessary to collect and integrate data on various types of anti-CRISPRs...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Stefano Stella, Pablo Alcón, Guillermo Montoya
CRISPR-Cas is a bacterial defense system against phage infection and nucleic acid invasion. Class 2 type II CRISPR-Cas9 has also been widely used for genome engineering. Here, we review novel insights into the CRISPR class 2 type V enzymes, specifically Cpf1 and C2c1, which display different DNA-recognition and cleavage characteristics than those of Cas9, the best-characterized member of class 2. Recent structures of these ribonucleoprotein complexes that capture several stages of the endonuclease reaction have provided molecular details of recognition, unzipping and cleavage of the target DNA, allowing their comparison with Cas9...
October 16, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Michael F Diaz, Stephane Bentolila, Michael L Hayes, Maureen R Hanson, R Michael Mulligan
An RNA-seq approach was used to investigate the role of a PLS-subfamily pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Mitochondrial Editing Factor 8 (MEF8), on editing in Arabidopsis mitochondria and plastids. MEF8 has an intact DYW domain, but possesses an unusually short PLS repeat region of only five repeats. The MEF8 T-DNA insertion (mef8) line exhibited reduced editing at 38 mitochondrial editing sites and increased editing at 24 sites; therefore the absence of MEF8 affects 11% of the mitochondrial editome. Notably, 60% of the matR transcripts' sites showed a decrease of editing extent in the mef8 mutant...
September 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chenqiang Jia, Cong Huai, Jiaqi Ding, Lingna Hu, Bo Su, Hongyan Chen, Daru Lu
The detection of mutant DNA is critical for precision medicine, but low-frequency DNA mutation is very hard to be determined. CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust tool for in vivo gene editing, and shows the potential for precise in vitro DNA cleavage. Here we developed a DNA mutation detection system based on CRISPR/Cas9 that can detect gene mutation efficiently even in a low-frequency condition. The system of CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage in vitro showed a high accuracy similar to traditional T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay in estimating mutant DNA proportion in the condition of normal frequency...
October 11, 2017: Gene
Yuan Zhang, Lulu Liu, Shengjie Guo, Jinghui Song, Chenxu Zhu, Zongwei Yue, Wensheng Wei, Chengqi Yi
DNA recognition by transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins is mediated by tandem repeats that specify nucleotides through repeat-variable diresidues. These repeat-variable diresidues form direct and sequence-specific contacts to DNA bases; hence, TALE-DNA interaction is sensitive to DNA chemical modifications. Here we conduct a thorough investigation, covering all theoretical repeat-variable diresidue combinations, for their recognition capabilities for 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, two important epigenetic markers in higher eukaryotes...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
In Hye Song, Young-Ae Kim, Sun-Hee Heo, In Ah Park, Miseon Lee, Won Seon Bang, Hye Seon Park, Gyungyub Gong, Hee Jin Lee
Tumours with a high mutation burden exhibit considerable neoantigens and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. RNA editing by ADAR1 is a source of changes in epitope. However, ADAR1 expression in cancer cells and tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte levels in triple-negative breast cancer have not been well evaluated. We immunohistochemically examined ADAR1 expression in 681 triple-negative breast cancer patients and analysed their clinicopathological characteristics. We also analysed basal-like tumours using The Cancer Genome Atlas data...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Mariano Oppikofer, Meredith Sagolla, Benjamin Haley, Hui-Min Zhang, Sarah K Kummerfeld, Jawahar Sudhamsu, E Megan Flynn, Tianyi Bai, Jennifer Zhang, Claudio Ciferri, Andrea G Cochran
Members of the ISWI family of chromatin remodelers mobilize nucleosomes to control DNA accessibility and, in some cases, are required for recovery from DNA damage. However, it remains poorly understood how the non-catalytic ISWI subunits BAZ1A and BAZ1B might contact chromatin to direct the ATPase SMARCA5. Here, we find that the plant homeodomain of BAZ1A, but not that of BAZ1B, has the unusual function of binding DNA. Furthermore, the BAZ1A bromodomain has a non-canonical gatekeeper residue and binds relatively weakly to acetylated histone peptides...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Maxwell Bates, Joe Lachoff, Duncan Meech, Valentin Zulkower, Anais Moisy, Yisha Luo, Hille Tekotte, Cornelia Johanna Franziska Scheitz, Rupal Khilari, Florencio Mazzoldi, Deepak Chandran, Eli S Groban
Genetic Constructor is a cloud Computer Aided Design (CAD) application developed to support synthetic biologists from design intent through DNA fabrication and experiment iteration. The platform allows users to design, manage, and navigate complex DNA constructs and libraries, using a new visual language that focuses on functional parts abstracted from sequence. Features like combinatorial libraries and automated primer design allow the user to separate design from construction by focusing on functional intent, and design constraints aid iterative refinement of designs...
October 11, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
Vicente Soriano
The huge success of current antiretroviral therapy is mediated by a triple effect: (i) Halting progression to AIDS in infected persons; (ii) reducing the risk of transmission to contacts (treatment as prevention); and (iii) minimizing the risk of HIV acquisition treating uninfected persons at risk (pre-exposure prophylaxis). However, UNAIDS has estimated that only 70% of infected people globally are diagnosed, only 53% are treated, and overall 44% have undetectable viral load, which is the necessary request for ensuring any antiretroviral benefit...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
Thirunavukkarasu Periyasamy, Joan Tang Xiao Joe, Ming-Wei Lu
ADARs are RNA editing catalysts that bind double-stranded RNA and convert adenosine to inosine, a process that can lead to destabilization of dsRNA structures and suppression of mRNA translation. In mammals, ADAR1 genes are involved in various cellular pathways, including interferon (IFN)-mediated response. However, the function of fish ADAR1 remains unclear. We report here the cloning of ADAR1 in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) (MgADAR1) and its response to various immune stimulants. The MgADAR1 cDNA is 5371-bp long, consisting of an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 1381 amino acids, a 235-nt 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), and a 990-nt 3'-UTR...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tai-Yin Chiu, Jie-Hong R Jiang
A synthetic approach to biology is a promising technique for various applications. Recent advancements have demonstrated the feasibility of constructing synthetic two-input logic gates in Escherichia coli cells with long-term memory based on DNA inversion induced by recombinases. Moreover, recent evidences indicate that DNA inversion mediated by genome editing tools is possible. Powerful genome editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9 systems, have great potential to be exploited to implement large-scale recombinase-based circuits...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Renee D Wegrzyn, Andrew H Lee, Amy L Jenkins, Colby D Stoddard, Anne E Cheever
Programmable nuclease-based genome editing technologies, including the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, are becoming an essential component of many applications ranging from agriculture to medicine. However, fundamental limitations including the potential for off-target effects, limited control of editing activity and subsequent DNA repair outcomes, and insufficient target conversion and delivery performance prevent the widespread, safe, and practical use of genome editors, especially for human disease interventions...
October 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Tomohiro Tobita, Daiji Kiyozumi, Masahito Ikawa
The placenta is an essential organ for embryo development in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Large contributions in unveiling molecular mechanisms and physiological functions underlying placental formation were made by analyzing mutant and transgenic animals. However, it had been difficult to elucidate whether the placental defects observed in such animals originate from the placenta itself or from the fetus, as both placental and fetal genomes are modified. Therefore strategies to modify the placental genome without affecting the "fetal genome" had been needed...
September 28, 2017: Placenta
Sarah Radecke, Klaus Schwarz, Frank Radecke
Short single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides are versatile molecular tools used in different applications. They enable gene repair and genome editing, and they are central to the antisense technology. Because the usability of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides depends on their efficiencies, as well as their specificities, analyzing their genotoxic off-target activities is important. Thus, we have developed a protocol that follows the fate of a biotin-labeled single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide in human cells based on its physical incorporation into the targeted genome...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Levi G Lowder, Aimee Malzahn, Yiping Qi
Besides genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9-based platform provides a new way of engineering artificial transcription factors (ATFs). Multiplex of guide RNA (gRNA) expression cassettes holds a great promise for many useful applications of CRISPR-Cas9. In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol for building advanced multiplexed CRISPR-dCas9-Activator/repressor T-DNA vectors for carrying out transcriptional activation or repression experiments in plants. We specifically describe the assembly of multiplex T-DNA vectors that can express multiple gRNAs to activate a silenced gene, or to repress two independent miRNA genes simultaneously in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mir A Hossain, Isaac J Knudson, Shaleen Thakur, Yong Shen, Jared R Stees, Joeva J Barrow, Jörg Bungert
Zinc finger proteins are the most common among families of DNA-binding transcription factors. Designer transcription factors generated by the fusion of engineered zinc finger DNA-binding domains (ZF-DBDs) to effector domains have been valuable tools for the modulation of gene expression and for targeted genome editing. However, ZF-DBDs without effector domains have also been shown to effectively modulate gene expression by competing with sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors. Here, we describe the methodology and provide a detailed workflow for the cloning, expression, purification, and direct cell delivery of engineered ZF-DBDs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julio Cesar Rendón, David Cano-Rodríguez, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetic editing is a novel methodology to modify the epigenetic landscape of any genomic location. As such, the approach might reprogram expression profiles, without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic alterations, including promoter hypermethylation, are associated with an increasing number of human diseases. To exploit this situation, epigenetic editing rises as a new alternative to specifically demethylate abnormally hypermethylated regions. Here, we describe a methodology to actively demethylate the hypermethylated ICAM-1 promoter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Maren Schiwon, Claudia Hagedorn, Anja Ehrhardt
CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases refashioned in vivo gene editing approaches for specific gene disruption, gene correction, or gene addition. Moreover, chimeric Cas9 proteins can be applied to direct fused cis-acting effector protein domains, enzymes, or fluorescent markers to DNA to target sequences to regulate gene expression, to introduce epigenetic changes, or to fluorescently label DNA sequences of interest. Here we show how to design guide RNAs for specific DNA targeting. We provide a protocol to customize the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery encoded on commercially available plasmids and present how to test the targeting efficiency of Cas9 with a target-specific gRNA by testing mutation induction efficiency...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antonino Montalbano, Matthew C Canver, Neville E Sanjana
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas nuclease system is a powerful tool for genome editing, and its simple programmability has enabled high-throughput genetic and epigenetic studies. These high-throughput approaches offer investigators a toolkit for functional interrogation of not only protein-coding genes but also noncoding DNA. Historically, noncoding DNA has lacked the detailed characterization that has been applied to protein-coding genes in large part because there has not been a robust set of methodologies for perturbing these regions...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
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