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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340271/snp-detection-using-rna-sequences-of-candidate-genes-associated-with-puberty-in-cattle
#1
M M Dias, A Cánovas, C Mantilla-Rojas, D G Riley, P Luna-Nevarez, S J Coleman, S E Speidel, R M Enns, A Islas-Trejo, J F Medrano, S S Moore, M R S Fortes, L T Nguyen, B Venus, I S D P Diaz, F R P Souza, L F S Fonseca, F Baldi, L G Albuquerque, M G Thomas, H N Oliveira
Fertility traits, such as heifer pregnancy, are economically important in cattle production systems, and are therefore, used in genetic selection programs. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data from ovary, uterus, endometrium, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, liver, longissimus dorsi muscle, and adipose tissue in 62 candidate genes associated with heifer puberty in cattle. RNA-Seq reads were assembled to the bovine reference genome (UMD 3...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340261/effect-of-a-high-concentrate-diet-on-milk-components-and-mammary-health-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#2
Z L Xie, J Zhang, D M Zhang, J F Li, Y H Lin
In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P < 0.05), but significantly lower milk protein percentage (P < 0...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339599/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-coq9-affects-mitochondrial-and-ovarian-function-and-fertility-in-holstein-cows%C3%A2
#3
M Sofia Ortega, Stephanie Wohlgemuth, Paula Tribulo, Luiz G B Siqueira, Daniel J Null, John B Cole, Marcus V Da Silva, Peter J Hansen
A single missense mutation at position 159 of coenzyme Q9 (COQ9) (G→A; rs109301586) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondria. Here we tested whether reproductive phenotype is associated with the mutation and evaluated functional consequences for cellular oxygen metabolism, body weight changes, and ovarian function...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335483/land-use-for-edible-protein-of-animal-origin-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions...
March 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335329/nanoparticle-based-delivery-of-anaplasma-marginale-membrane-proteins-virb9-1-and-virb10-produced-in-the-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#5
Bing Zhang, Antonio S Cavallaro, Karishma T Mody, Jun Zhang, James R Deringer, Wendy C Brown, Timothy J Mahony, Chengzhong Yu, Neena Mitter
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm), 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle...
November 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335096/estimation-of-methane-emissions-from-local-and-crossbreed-beef-cattle-in-dak-lak-province-of-vietnam
#6
Carlos Alberto Ramírez-Restrepo, Dung Van Tien, Ngoan Le Duc, Mario Herrero, Phung Le Dinh, Dung Dinh Van, Sen Le Thi Hoa, Cuong Vu Chi, Cesar Solano-Patiño, Amy M Lerner, Timothy D Searchinger
Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems in Daklak Province, Vietnam. Methods: Records from Local Yellow x Red Sindhi (Bos indicus; Lai Sind) and ½ Limousin, ½ Drought Master and ½ Red Angus cattle during the growth (0 to 21 months) and fattening (22 to 25 months) periods were used to better understand variations on meat productivity and enteric methane emissions...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335092/effect-of-energy-density-and-virginiamycin-supplementation-in-diets-on-growth-performance-and-digestive-function-of-finishing-steers
#7
Juan Diego Navarrete, Martin F Montano, Constantino Raymundo, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Noemi Torrentera, Richard Avery Zinn
Objective: In the study was determined the influence of virginiamycin supplementation on growth-performance and characteristics of digestion of cattle, decreasing dietary NEm from 2.22 to 2.10 Mcal/kg. Methods: Eighty crossbred beef steers (298.2 ± 6.3 kg) were used in a 152-d performance evaluation consisting of a 28-d adaptation period followed by a 124-d growing-finishing period. During the 124-d period steers were fed either a lesser energy dense (LED, 2.10 Mcal/kg NEm) or higher energy dense (HED, 2...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334304/livestock-grazing-shapes-the-vegetation-structure-and-subsequent-habitat-use-by-the-endangered-skipper-pyrgus-ruralis-lagunae-lepidoptera-hesperiidae
#8
Daniel A Marschalek, David K Faulkner, Douglas H Deutschman
Many species adapted to alpine and montane meadow ecosystems are at risk of extinction. The skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott is a mountaintop butterfly restricted to San Diego County, CA, a federally listed endangered species, and is in imminent risk of extinction. Historically, P. r. lagunae was found in the Laguna and Palomar mountains. We did not detect the skipper in the Laguna Mountains, and the species has likely been extirpated from this area, which represents half of its historical range and is the type locality...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334188/climate-extremes-vegetation-change-and-decoupling-of-interactive-fire-grazing-processes-exacerbate-fly-parasitism-of-cattle
#9
John D Scasta, Justin L Talley, David M Engle, Diane M Debinski
We assessed local horn fly (Haematobia irritans L.) and face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) communities on cattle in 2012 and 2013 relative to vegetation and climate data to understand how parasitism of cattle is influenced by change in climate and vegetation structure. We compared heterogeneity management using spatially and temporally discrete fires (i.e., patch-burning one-third of a pasture annually) to homogeneity management (i.e., burning entire pasture in 2012 then no burning in 2013), with cattle grazing all years in both treatments...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333275/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-inhibits-activation-and-growth-of-bovine-ovarian-follicles-in-vitro-and-is-localized-to-growing-follicles
#10
M Y Yang, R A Cushman, J E Fortune
STUDY QUESTION: Does anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibit activation (initiation of growth) of primordial follicles and attenuate the growth of primary follicles in cattle, an excellent animal model for human ovarian follicular development? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH inhibited activation of bovine primordial follicles and attenuated the growth of activated follicles in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In mice null mutant for AMH, the pool of primordial follicles is depleted prematurely and AMH inhibits follicle activation in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333229/escherichia-coli-cattle-and-the-propagation-of-disease
#11
Richard A Stein, David E Katz
Several early models describing host-pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the "20/80 rule", about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332653/review-of-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-situation-in-north-africa-and-the-risk-of-introducing-the-disease-into-europe
#12
R Bouguedour, A Ripani
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and certain wildlife species. The disease can cause massive economic losses when introduced into countries that were free from the infection, generating negative effects due to reduced animal productivity and restrictions on international livestock trade. Following 15 years of FMD absence, Tunisia and Algeria experienced an incursion of the disease in 2014. The epidemiological situation and disease control measures in operation for FMD in the North African region are not homogeneous...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332652/the-impact-of-importation-of-live-ruminants-on-the-epizootiology-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-saudi-arabia
#13
I H A Abd El-Rahim, A H Asghar, A M Mohamed, S M Fat'hi
Approximately five million live ruminants are imported annually into Saudi Arabia. The majority of these animals are imported shortly before the pilgrimage season from Sudan and the Horn of Africa, where foot and mouth disease (FMD) is known to be enzootic. This study was designed to investigate the impact of the importation of these live ruminants on the epizootiology of FMD in Saudi Arabia. The authors carried out antibody testing on a total of 480 sheep and 233 cattle from the sacrificial livestock yards of the Saudi Project for Utilization of Hajj Meat, which performs ritual slaughter on behalf of pilgrims in the Holy City of Makkah...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332651/serosurveillance-and-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-antibodies-against-bluetongue-virus-in-dairy-cattle-in-two-eco-zones-of-nepal
#14
T N Gaire, S Karki, I P Dhakal, D R Khanal, R A Bowen
Cattle play an important role in the epidemiology of bluetongue (BT) by acting as reservoir hosts. However, the status of BT virus (BTV) in dairy cattle in Nepal is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BTV antibodies in dairy cattle in two eco-zones of Nepal, and to identify the factors associated with virus exposure. The authors conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey from March 2012 through February 2013 by sampling 131 dairy cattle from seven clusters (villages) in the Chitwan district in the Terai region (southern lowlands) and the Lamjung district in the Hills region (the middle part of Nepal)...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332649/epidemiological-surveillance-in-dairy-farms-in-the-pastaza-province-of-ecuador
#15
M Perez Ruano, F V Lam Romero, D Benítez Jiménez, S Ríos Núñez, J C Vargas Burgos, R Quinteros Pozo, X Rodríguez Villafuerte
A survey was carried out on dairy cattle farms in Pastaza province to analyse the degree of compliance with epidemiological surveillance activities (based on the main technical aspects in Ecuador's Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practices) and to assess the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy cattle. Visits were made to 70 dairy and dual-purpose beef/dairy farms, where the survey was conducted to evaluate technical aspects relating to epidemiological surveillance and the risk of introducing disease...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332640/leptospirosis-in-domestic-animals-in-france-serological-results-from-1988-to-2007
#16
G André-Fontaine
Leptospirosis is a common infection in domestic animals. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is used for serological diagnosis. From 1988 to 2007, the Leptospira Medical and Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory at the Nantes National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering used the MAT to test serum samples from more than 40,000 cattle, 40,000 pigs, 20,000 horses and 9,500 dogs. Five Leptospira serogroups were prominent, with specific variations within the four animal species: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroë, Grippotyphosa and Autumnalis...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332567/dairy-cows-value-access-to-pasture-as-highly-as-fresh-feed
#17
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Andressa Amorim Cestari, Becca Franks, Jose A Fregonesi, Daniel M Weary
Many dairy cows in the developed world are now housed exclusively indoors with fewer than 5% of the 10 million lactating cows in the United States having access to pasture during the grazing season. Indoor housing systems are designed to meet biological needs for food, water, hygiene, and shelter, but surveys of public and farmer opinion suggest that people think that pasture access is also important for the well-being of dairy cows. To determine if pasture access is important to the cows themselves, we investigated to what extent cows will work to access pasture (by pushing on a weighted gate), and compared it to the motivation to access fresh feed...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332070/a-review-on-prevalence-control-measure-and-tolerance-of-tanzania-shorthorn-zebu-cattle-to-east-coast-fever-in-tanzania
#18
E L K Laisser, S W Chenyambuga, E D Karimuribo, G Msalya, M J Kipanyula, A J Mwilawa, R H Mdegela, L J M Kusiluka
In Tanzania, control of East Coast fever (ECF) has predominantly relied on tick control using acaricides and chemotherapy, little on ECF vaccination, and very little on dissemination regarding animal immunization. In this paper, the prevalence, control measure, and tolerance of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle to ECF are reviewed. In addition, the opportunities available for reducing the use of acaricides for the benefit of the farmers in terms of reduction of costs of purchasing acaricides and environmental pollution are described...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331604/re-establishing-the-pecking-order-niche-models-reliably-predict-suitable-habitats-for-the-reintroduction-of-red-billed-oxpeckers
#19
Riddhika Kalle, Leigh Combrink, Tharmalingam Ramesh, Colleen T Downs
Distributions of avian mutualists are affected by changes in biotic interactions and environmental conditions driven directly/indirectly by human actions. The range contraction of red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) in South Africa is partly a result of the widespread use of acaracides (i.e., mainly cattle dips), toxic to both ticks and oxpeckers. We predicted the habitat suitability of red-billed oxpeckers in South Africa using ensemble models to assist the ongoing reintroduction efforts and to identify new reintroduction sites for population recovery...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331116/phylogenetic-analysis-of-env-gene-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-strains-spread-in-miyazaki-prefecture-japan
#20
Marawan A Marawan, Hirohisa Mekata, Takumi Hayashi, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Yumi Kirino, Yoichiro Horii, Abdel-Moneim M Moustafa, Faysal K Arnaout, El Sayed M Galila, Junzo Norimine
To understand how the latest dominant bovine leukemia virus (BLV) strains were introduced and spread in the Miyazaki prefecture, we collected blood samples from 3 geographic areas (north, central and south) and carried out sequence analysis of the BLV env gene. Two genotypes, genotype I, and III, were identified and the majority of the strains belonged to genotype I (71/74). To clarify a route of BLV introduction, we divided the strains into 20 subgenotypes based on their nucleotide sequences and performed phylogenetic analysis...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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