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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160792/cross-sectional-serological-survey-for-leptospira-spp-in-beef-and-dairy-cattle-in-two-districts-in-uganda
#1
Anou Dreyfus, Terence Odoch, Lordrick Alinaitwe, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, Amanuel Tsegay, Valentine Jaquier, Clovice Kankya
Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in cattle is unknown in Uganda. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of L. interrogans Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, L. kirschneri Butembo, Grippotyphosa, L. borgpetersenii Nigeria, Hardjo, Wolfii, and Kenya and an overall seroprevalence in cattle from Kole and Mbale districts. Two hundred-seventy five bovine sera from 130 small holder farms from Kole (n = 159) and Mbale (n = 116), collected between January and July 2015, were tested for antibodies against eight Leptospira strains by Microscopic Agglutination Test...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159997/sporulation-capability-and-amylosome-conservation-among-diverse-human-colonic-and-rumen-isolates-of-the-keystone-starch-degrader-ruminococcus-bromii
#2
Indrani Mukhopadhya, Sarah Morais, Jenny Laverde-Gomez, Paul O Sheridan, Alan W Walker, William Kelly, Athol V Klieve, Diane Ouwerkerk, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis, Nicole Koropatkin, Darrell Cockburn, Ryan Kibler, Philip J Cooper, Carlos Sandoval, Emmanuelle Crost, Nathalie Juge, Edward A Bayer, Harry J Flint
Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human colonic microbiota that plays a 'keystone' role in degrading dietary resistant starch. Recent evidence from one strain has uncovered a unique cell surface 'amylosome' complex that organizes starch-degrading enzymes. New genome analysis presented here reveals further features of this complex and shows remarkable conservation of amylosome components between human colonic strains from three different continents and a R. bromii strain from the rumen of Australian cattle...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158908/dairy-production-practices-and-associated-risks-for-bovine-vaccinia-exposure-in-cattle-brazil
#3
I A Borges, A M McCollum, J M Mehal, D Haberling, L A L Dutra, F N Vieira, L A O Andrade, E G Kroon, R C Holman, M G Reynolds, G S Trindade
A cross-sectional serosurvey was performed to identify environmental features or practices of dairy farms associated with risk for exposure to vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle in Brazil. Sera from 103 cows from 18 farms in Minas Gerais state were examined for Orthopoxvirus-neutralizing antibodies. A database of 243 binary or multiple-selection categorical variables regarding the physical features and surrounding ecology of each property was obtained. Thirteen of 46 presumptive predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with Orthopoxvirus serostatus by univariate logistic regression methods...
November 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158867/hepatic-fascioliasis-presenting-with-bile-duct-obstruction-a-case-report
#4
Rachid Lefryekh, Ahmed Bensaad, Fatimazahra Bensardi, Khalid Elhattabi, Mounir Bouali, Bessam Daif, Abdelaziz Fadil, Zakaria Jaouhari, Tazi Hicham, Aziz Hamdani, Maha Soussi Abdalaoui
Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by a liver trematode: fasciola hepatica; which commonly affects cattle and sheep, humans are accidental hosts. Several cases have been reported in the literature worldwide with a large geographical distribution. We present a case of bile duct obstruction due to a hepatic fascioliasis, successfully treated with both a combined surgical and medical approaches. A high index of suspicion should be kept in mind for all cases of obstructive jaundice, especially in areas in which human fascioliasis infection is repeatedly reported...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157901/inducible-cellulase-production-from-an-organic-solvent-tolerant-bacillus-sp-sv1-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-endoglucanase-in-different-species-of-the-genus-bacillus
#5
Lebin Thomas, Hari Ram, Ved Pal Singh
Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3...
November 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157377/analyzing-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-outbreak-as-from-2008-to-2014-in-cattle-and-buffaloes-in-sri-lanka
#6
Umanga C Gunasekera, Arumugumam Sivasothy, Nihal Wedasingha, Sivapiragasam Thayaparan, Bandara Rotewewa, Mahalingam Muralithas, Maximilian P O Baumann, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects all cloven hoofed animals and causes considerable economic losses to cattle and buffalo farmers worldwide. FMD is endemic to Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to analyze the past situation of FMD from 2008 to 2014 in the country and to identify relevant risk factors associated with the 2014 outbreak. Outbreak data from the Department of Animal Production and Health, Sri Lanka from 2008 to 2014 were used to describe the spatial distribution and to determine associations between the frequency of outbreaks across the country (nine provinces) and factors including vaccination coverage and outbreak year...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157370/bayesian-estimation-of-true-prevalence-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-three-diagnostic-tests-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-in-cattle-feces
#7
Pius S Ekong, Michael W Sanderson, Nora M Bello, Lance W Noll, Natalia Cernicchiaro, David G Renter, Jianfa Bai, T G Nagaraja
Cattle are a reservoir for Escherichia coli O157 and they shed the pathogen in their feces. Fecal contaminants on the hides can be transferred onto carcasses during processing at slaughter plants, thereby serving as a source of foodborne infection in humans. The detection of E. coli O157 in cattle feces is based on culture, immunological, and molecular methods We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of one culture- and two PCR-based tests for the detection of E. coli O157 in cattle feces, and its true prevalence using a Bayesian implementation of latent class models...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157310/zooprophylaxis-as-a-control-strategy-for-malaria-caused-by-the-vector-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Abebe Asale, Luc Duchateau, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Gerdien Huisman, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Zooprophylaxis is the use of wild or domestic animals, which are not the reservoir host of a given disease, to divert the blood-seeking malaria vectors from human hosts. In this paper, we systematically reviewed zooprophylaxis to assess its efficacy as a malaria control strategy and to evaluate the possible methods of its application. METHODS: The electronic databases, PubMed Central®, Web of Science, Science direct, and African Journals Online were searched using the key terms: "zooprophylaxis" or "cattle and malaria", and reports published between January 1995 and March 2016 were considered...
October 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157308/characterization-of-the-upper-and-lower-respiratory-tract-microbiota-in-piedmontese-calves
#9
Isabella Nicola, Francesco Cerutti, Elena Grego, Iride Bertone, Paola Gianella, Antonio D'Angelo, Simone Peletto, Claudio Bellino
BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the bovine upper respiratory tract has been recently characterized, but no data for the lower respiratory tract are available. A major health problem in bovine medicine is infectious bronchopneumonia, the most common respiratory syndrome affecting cattle. With this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize and compare the microbial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in calves. RESULTS: The microbiota of the upper (nasal swab [NS]) and the lower (trans-tracheal aspiration [TTA]) respiratory tracts of 19 post-weaned Piedmontese calves with (8/19) and without (11/19) clinical signs of respiratory disease, coming from six different farms, was characterized by 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding...
November 21, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#10
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155863/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cattle-from-southwestern-ethiopia
#11
Zerihun Hailemariam, Jürgen Krücken, Maximilian Baumann, Jabbar S Ahmed, Peter-Henning Clausen, Ard M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155854/profiling-of-proteins-secreted-in-the-bovine-oviduct-reveals-diverse-functions-of-this-luminal-microenvironment
#12
Viju Vijayan Pillai, Darren M Weber, Brett S Phinney, Vimal Selvaraj
The oviductal microenvironment is a site for key events that involve gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Secretions into the oviductal lumen by either the lining epithelium or by transudation of plasma constituents are known to contain elements conducive for reproductive success. Although previous studies have identified some of these factors involved in reproduction, knowledge of secreted proteins in the oviductal fluid remains rudimentary with limited definition of function even in extensively studied species like cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155570/chemistry-antimicrobial-mechanisms-and-antibiotic-activities-of-cinnamaldehyde-against-pathogenic-bacteria-in-animal-feeds-and-human-foods
#13
Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155165/bovine-babesiosis-cattle-protected-in-the-field-with-a-frozen-vaccine-containing-babesia-bovis-and-babesia-bigemina-cultured-in-vitro-with-a-serum-free-medium
#14
Carmen Rojas-Martínez, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas, Julio Vicente Figueroa Millán, Carlos Ramón Bautista-Garfias, Roberto Omar Castañeda-Arriola, José Juan Lira-Amaya, Patricia Vargas Urióstegui, Juan José Ojeda Carrasco, Jesús Antonio Álvarez Martínez
An attenuated live vaccine containing Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultured in vitro with a serum-free medium was assessed for its clinical protection conferred of naïve cattle, under natural tick-challenge in a high endemicity zone to Babesia spp. Three groups of six animals were treated as follows: group I (GI) received a vaccine derived from parasites cultured with a free-serum medium; group II (GII) were immunized with the standard vaccine, with parasites cultured in a medium supplemented with 40% (v/v) bovine serum; and a control group (GIII) inoculated with non-infected bovine erythrocytes...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154929/identification-of-genetic-variants-of-brucella-spp-through-genome-wide-association-studies
#15
Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Udayakumar S Vishnu, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. We present a phylogeny of 552 strains based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined by an alignment-free k-mer approach. A total of 138,029 SNPs were identified from 552 Brucella genomes. Of these, 31,152 and 106,877 were core and non-core SNPs, respectively. Based on pan-genome analysis 11,937 and 972 genes were identified as pan and core genome, respectively. The pan-genome-wide analysis studies (Pan-GWAS) could not identify the group-specific variants in Brucella spp...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154927/integrative-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-define-marked-differences-between-neospora-caninum-isolates-throughout-the-tachyzoite-lytic-cycle
#16
P Horcajo, D Xia, N Randle, E Collantes-Fernández, J Wastling, L M Ortega-Mora, J Regidor-Cerrillo
Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of transmissible abortion in cattle. Intraspecific variations in virulence have been widely shown among N. caninum isolates. However, the molecular basis governing such variability have not been elucidated to date. In this study label free LC-MS/MS was used to investigate proteome differences between the high virulence isolate Nc-Spain7 and the low virulence isolate Nc-Spain1H throughout the tachyzoite lytic cycle. The results showed greater differences in the abundance of proteins at invasion and egress with 77 and 62 proteins, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154734/effect-of-physical-activity-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-of-dairy-cows-on-commercial-dairy-farms
#17
Fruzsina Luca Kézér, János Tőzsér, Mikolt Bakony, Ottó Szenci, Viktor Jurkovich, Levente Kovács
Interbeat interval data were collected from 219 Holstein cows in 2 smaller-scale farms and 3 larger-scale farms to investigate the effects of posture (standing vs. lying), rumination (rumination vs. no rumination) and feeding on baseline values of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters reflecting vagal and sympathetic activity. A General Linear Model was used for detecting factors (parity, milking technology, herd size) having possible effects on HRV calculated for undisturbed lying posture...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154485/epistatic-effects-between-pairs-of-the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-1a-growth-hormone-growth-hormone-receptor-non-smc-condensin-i-complex-subunit-g-and-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-genes-on-carcass-price-related-and-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-japanese
#18
Masanori Komatsu, Kagetomo Nishino, Yuki Fujimori, Yasutoshi Haga, Nagako Iwama, Aisaku Arakawa, Yoshito Aihara, Hisato Takeda, Hideaki Takahashi
Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), are known to play important roles in growth and lipid metabolisms. Single and epistatic effects of the five genes on carcass, price-related and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in a commercial Japanese Black cattle population of Ibaraki Prefecture. A total of 650 steers and 116 heifers for carcass and price-related traits, and 158 steers for FA composition traits were used in this study...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154121/trace-elements-in-the-liver-of-captive-and-free-ranging-european-bison-bison-bonasus-l
#19
Maciej Durkalec, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Michał Krzysiak, Magdalena Larska, Mirosława Kmiecik, Andrzej Posyniak
European bison is classified as a vulnerable species because of many threats. We analyzed the content of toxic and essential elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, Tl, U, V, and Zn) in the livers of 30 captive and free-ranging European bison from the Bison Breeding Center in Smardzewice and from Białowieża Primeval Forest in Poland. The contents of toxic elements were lower than reported previously in European Bison and were similar to those of wild ungulates from non-polluted areas...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153784/an-empirical-comparison-of-isolate-based-and-sample-based-definitions-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-their-effect-on-estimates-of-prevalence
#20
R W Humphry, J Evans, C Webster, S C Tongue, G T Innocent, G J Gunn
Antimicrobial resistance is primarily a problem in human medicine but there are unquantified links of transmission in both directions between animal and human populations. Quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits of reduced antimicrobial usage in livestock requires robust quantification of transmission of resistance between animals, the environment and the human population. This in turn requires appropriate measurement of resistance. To tackle this we selected two different methods for determining whether a sample is resistant - one based on screening a sample, the other on testing individual isolates...
November 10, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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