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F P Vilela, M R Frazão, D P Rodrigues, R G Costa, M R T Casas, S A Fernandes, J P Falcão, F Campioni
Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Rita K C Brandão, Gleidson G P de Carvalho, Robério R Silva, Daniel L S Dias, Fabrício B L Mendes, Túlio O J D'A Lins, Maria M S Pereira, Joanderson O Guimarães, Manuela S L Tosto, Luana M de A Rufino, Maria L G M L de Araujo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion...
September 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Lucy A Brunton, Christl A Donnelly, Heather O'Connor, Alison Prosser, Stuart Ashfield, Adam Ashton, Paul Upton, Andrew Mitchell, Anthony V Goodchild, Jessica E Parry, Sara H Downs
Culling badgers to control the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (TB) between this wildlife reservoir and cattle has been widely debated. Industry-led culling began in Somerset and Gloucestershire between August and November 2013 to reduce local badger populations. Industry-led culling is not designed to be a randomized and controlled trial of the impact of culling on cattle incidence. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor the effects of the culling and, taking the study limitations into account, perform a cautious evaluation of the impacts...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Wendy Gibson, Christopher Kay, Lori Peacock
The African trypanosomiases are diseases of humans and their livestock caused by trypanosomes carried by bloodsucking tsetse flies. Although the human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is the best known, other trypanosome species are of greater concern for animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Trypanosomacongolense is a major cattle pathogen, which is as amenable to laboratory culture as T. brucei, with the advantage that its whole life cycle can be recapitulated in vitro. Thus, besides being worthy of study in its own right, T...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
September 23, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
F M Rodríguez, N C Gareis, G J Hein, N R Salvetti, A N Amweg, E Huber, A F Stassi, H H Ortega, F Rey
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of infertility in dairy cattle. It has been postulated that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system may contribute to follicular persistence and development of COD. The initiation of the IGF response is a result of interactions between IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases, mainly pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A). IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity and consequently regulate their access to IGF receptors (IGFRs). The aim of this research was to determine variations in components of the IGF system in the ovaries of cows with persistent follicles induced by long-term administration of progesterone...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
V Marugan-Hernandez
Neospora caninum, a tissue cyst-forming parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis. It is considered to be one of the most important transmissible causes of reproductive failure in cattle; abortion and neonatal mortality result in significant economic losses within the cattle industry worldwide. The balance between acute (mediated by the tachyzoite stage) and persistent (mediated by the bradyzoite stage) phases of the infection is influenced by the immune status of the animal, and for pregnant cows (the intermediate host) immune status is critical for transplacental (i...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
I B Veiga, M Welle, J S Agerholm
Several cauliflower-like alopecic masses arose on the head of an otherwise healthy, full-term newborn Jersey × Belgian blue heifer, which was humanely destroyed shortly after birth due to the severity of the skin lesions. Microscopically, the masses were composed of multiple papillary projections displaying well-differentiated sebaceous glands surrounded by a moderate number of well-developed sweat glands, as well as embryonic and fully developed, but dysplastic hair follicles. Thick branching connective tissue stalks supported these adnexal components...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
T C Faccin, E K Masuda, J V M Piazer, S M P Melo, G D Kommers
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) may be observed as exophytic masses or ulcerative or infiltrative endophytic neoplasms. However, in cattle, there is also an uncommon gross presentation as an annular stenotic thickening of the oesophageal wall. Thirteen cases of annular stenotic oesophageal SCC in cattle grazing in bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) areas are reported. The lesions consisted of endophytic masses, focally extensive, firm and circumferential (annular) in the oesophageal wall. Pronounced wrinkling of the mucosa, with retracted uneven areas and subsequent luminal narrowing (stenosis), was observed in all cases...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Zhongwang Zhang, Li Pan, Yaozhong Ding, Jianliang Lv, Peng Zhou, Yuzhen Fang, Xinsheng Liu, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that causes an economically significant disease in cattle and swine. Replication of FMDV is dependent on both viral proteins and cellular factors. Nonstructural protein 2B of FMDV plays multiple roles during viral infection and replication. We investigated the roles of 2B in virus-host interactions by constructing a cDNA library obtained from FMDV-infected swine tissues, and used a split-ubiquitin-based yeast two-hybrid system to identify host proteins that interacted with 2B...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Daryl P Stevens, Aravind Surapaneni, Rachna Thodupunuri, Nicholas A O'Connor, David Smith
The LRVs required to decrease HE concentrations in raw sewage to an acceptable level to manage the risk to human and livestock health were determined. An LRV of 3.0 was required to meet the HBT of 1 μDALY pppy in SE Australia where human helminth infections are not endemic. In comparison, a similar exposure volume and LRV in endemic regions would result in a HBT of 100 μDALY pppy. The risks posed by cattle- and pig-related helminths were also managed acceptably with the treatment of sewage providing an LRV of 3...
August 30, 2017: Water Research
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Rongchang Yang, Ian Robertson, Irene Ayi, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoea in developing countries including Ghana, however, nothing is known about the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in farmers and their ruminant livestock in this country. A total of 925 faecal samples from humans (n=95), cattle (n=328), sheep (n=217) and goats (n=285), were screened for Cryptosporidium and Giardia by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at the 18S rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci respectively. Cryptosporidium positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S and 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci amplicons...
September 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
A Saborío-Montero, B Vargas-Leitón, J J Romero-Zúñiga, J M Sánchez
The aim of this study was to determine risk factors associated with milk fever (MF) occurrence in Costa Rican grazing dairy cattle. A total of 69,870 cows from 126 dairy herds were included in the study. Data were collected in the Veterinary Automated Management and Production Control Program software by the Population Medicine Research Program of the Veterinary Medicine School, National University of Costa Rica, from 1985 to 2014. To determine the risk factors for MF, 2 logistic regression mixed models were evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
H W Barkema, K Orsel, S S Nielsen, A P Koets, V P M G Rutten, J P Bannantine, G P Keefe, D F Kelton, S J Wells, R J Whittington, C G Mackintosh, E J Manning, M F Weber, C Heuer, T L Forde, C Ritter, S Roche, C S Corbett, R Wolf, P J Griebel, J P Kastelic, J De Buck
In the last decades, many regional and country-wide control programmes for Johne's disease (JD) were developed due to associated economic losses, or because of a possible association with Crohn's disease. These control programmes were often not successful, partly because management protocols were not followed, including the introduction of infected replacement cattle, because tests to identify infected animals were unreliable, and uptake by farmers was not high enough because of a perceived low return on investment...
September 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Wen, A Mao, Z Fan, W Li, Q Xiao, Q Liu, J Xie, K He
Porcine circovirus-like virus P1, a novel single-stranded circular DNA virus, is a potential causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in swine. In this study, we detected P1 strains in serum samples from cattle, goats and rabbits suffering different clinical symptoms, in Jiangsu Province, China. We sequenced the whole genomes of six P1 strains, which showed 99.4%-100% nucleotide sequence similarity and were closely related to other porcine-origin P1 isolates. The sequences of six non-porcine-origin P1 viruses were most closely phylogenetically related to other porcine-origin P1 sequences...
September 21, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N Courtejoie, B Durand, E Bréard, C Sailleau, D Vitour, S Zientara, A Gorlier, F Baurier, C Gourmelen, F Benoit, H Achour, C Milard, S Poliak, C Pagneux, C Viarouge, G Zanella
Undetected in Europe since 2010, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) re-emerged in August 2015 in Central France. To gain insight into the re-emergence on the French territory, we estimated the seroprevalence in cattle before the detection of BTV-8 in 2015, in areas differentially affected by the current outbreak. A retrospective survey based on the analysis of stored sera was thus conducted in the winter preceding the re-emergence in seven French departments including the one where the virus was first detected...
September 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
V Renault, M F Humblet, V Moons, G Bosquet, B Gauthier, L M Cebrián, J Casal, C Saegerman
The implementation of biosecurity measures in the animal health and production context is quite broad and aims at limiting the risk of introduction and spread of diseases. Veterinarians play a major role in biosecurity as key informants on the subject for cattle holders, key players in terms of disease prevention/control and eradication programs, as well as key risk factor in terms of disease dissemination. Many biosecurity studies have highlighted professional visitors such as veterinary practitioners as representing a high-risk factor in terms of disease introduction in animal facilities but, to date, very few studies have focused on the implementation level of biosecurity measures by veterinarians...
September 21, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
David Styles, Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, Jon Moorby, Andreas Foskolos, James Gibbons
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets...
September 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Nejash Abdela, Nuraddis Ibrahim, Feyissa Begna
Among tick-borne diseases, bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis are considered to be one of the most important in ruminants worldwide, causing significant economic losses in tropical and subtropical areas. This cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objectives to assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis and also to identify the vectors involved in transmission of these diseases in and around Jimma town, south western Ethiopia...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
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