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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433907/rapid-generation-of-volatile-fatty-acids-vfa-through-anaerobic-acidification-of-livestock-organic-waste-at-low-hydraulic-residence-time-hrt
#1
Kranti Kuruti, Shalini Nakkasunchi, Sameena Begum, Sudharshan Juntupally, Vijayalakshmi Arelli, Gangagni Rao Anupoju
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and F/M (Food to Microorganism) ratios for the rapid generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from livestock organic wastes (cattle manure (CM) and poultry litter (PL)) through an anaerobic acidification process at a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Experiments were organized using CM and PL in batch reactors (1L and 25L) with and with no pre-treatment of substrate at F/M ratios (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1). Among various existing pre-treatments methods, thermal-acidic (120°C; 1% H2SO4) pre-treatment was found effective...
April 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433853/addition-of-an-extract-of-lucerne-medicago-sativa-l-to-cattle-diets-effects-on-fatty-acid-profile-meat-quality-and-eating-quality-of-the-m-longissimus-muscle
#2
Siân B MacKintosh, Ian Richardson, Eun Joong Kim, Dirk Dannenberger, Didier Coulmier, Nigel D Scollan
There is considerable interest in enhancing beneficial fatty acids, particularly 18:3n-3, conjugated linoleic acid and long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in beef to provide benefits to human health. Here, the potential to enhance these fatty acids by feeding a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich plant extract (PX) from lucerne is presented. Cattle (n=8/diet) were assigned to the following finishing diets: straw and concentrate (S-CC); straw and concentrate containing 25% PX and 2000IUvitaminE/kg PX-concentrate (S-PXC); grass silage (GS); GS plus 75gPX/kg dry matter intake (DMI) (GS-LPX) or GS plus 150g PX/kg DMI (GS-HPX)...
April 8, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433852/efficiency-of-low-versus-high-airline-pressure-in-stunning-cattle-with-a-pneumatically-powered-penetrating-captive-bolt-gun
#3
Steffan Edward Octávio Oliveira, Neville George Gregory, Filipe Antonio Dalla Costa, Troy John Gibson, Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
The efficiency of stunning cattle was assessed in 443 animals (304 pure Zebu and 139 crossbred cattle), being mainly mature bulls and cows. Cattle were stunned using a Jarvis pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun operating with low (160-175psi, N=82) and high (190psi, N=363) airline pressure, which was within the manufactures specifications. Signs of brain function and the position of the shots on the heads were recorded after stunning. Velocity of the captive bolt and its physical parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433738/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-ticks-in-turkey-a-broad-range-tick-surveillance-study
#4
Ömer Orkun, Zafer Karaer, Ayşe Çakmak, Serpil Nalbantoğlu
In Turkey, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreaks started in northern regions in 2002. Human cases still continue to increase and the disease spreads in many other provinces of Turkey. The ecological role of the vector tick species occurring in Turkey is not certain exactly. Therefore, we planned a broad range tick study in three different ecological and geographical areas extending from the West Black Sea regions down to the Central Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize CCHFV molecularly in feeding-ticks collected from various wild and domestic animals and from humans as well as in questing and unfed ticks...
April 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433527/characterization-of-leukocyte-subsets-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-with-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-bovine-mhc-class-i-and-class-ii-molecules-and-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#5
Francesco Grandoni, Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Federica Signorelli, Lindsay M Fry, Cinzia Marchitelli, Victoria Hulubei, Samy A Khaliel, Helmy A Torky, William C Davis
Although buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are a major component of the livestock industry worldwide, limited progress has been made in the study of the mechanisms regulating the immune response to pathogens and parasites affecting their health and productivity. This has been, in part, attributable to the limited availability of reagents to study immune responses in buffalo. As reported here, a set of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), developed against bovine, ovine and caprine leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDM) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, were identified and used to compare expression of LDM in Italian and Egyptian buffalo...
April 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433326/status-of-the-development-of-a-vaccine-against-mycoplasma-bovis
#6
REVIEW
Jose Perez-Casal, Tracy Prysliak, Teresa Maina, Muhammad Suleman, Steve Jimbo
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle and, despite numerous efforts an effective vaccine for control of the disease it causes remains elusive. Although we now know more about the biology of this pathogen, information is lacking about appropriate protective antigens, the type of immune response that confers protection and adjuvants selection. The use of conserved recombinant proteins, selected using in silico approaches, as components of a vaccine may be a better choice over bacterin-based vaccines due to the limited protection afforded by them and adverse reactions caused by them...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431863/the-myometrial-contractility-during-late-pregnancy-in-dairy-cows-in-vitro
#7
L Górriz-Martín, S E Ulbrich, M Schmicke, G Hirsbrunner, C Keller, N Yücesoy, C Pfarrer, H Bollwein, M Heppelmann
This study aimed to investigate the in vitro contractility of the myometrium and its relationship to the blood concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2β), progesterone (P4), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (PGFM) and ionised calcium (Ca(2+)) prior to tissue harvest in 12 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows in late pregnancy. Three circular (CM) and 3 longitudinal myometrial (LM) strips were dissected during a caesarean section and mounted in an organ bath containing modified Krebs solution (KS). The spontaneous contractility was recorded during five 30-min time periods (T1 to T5), after which the strips were exposed to increasing concentrations of oxytocin (OT; 10(-10)-10(-7)M), a natural PGF2α-analogue (PGF; 10(-7)-10(-4)M) and KS (Cont) for four 30-min time periods (T6 to T9)...
April 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431813/evaluation-of-immune-responses-of-stabilised-sat2-antigens-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-cattle
#8
Katherine A Scott, N M Rathogwa, A V Capozzo, Francois F Maree
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. This is especially so for serotypes O and SAT2 which are unstable in mildly acidic pH conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146S particle) and loss of immunogenicity. Previously, stabilised SAT2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a guinea pig trial...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430425/environmental-growth-of-enterococci-and-escherichia-coli-in-feedlot-catch-basins-and-a-constructed-wetland-in-the-absence-of-fecal-input
#10
Lisa Tymensen, Calvin W Booker, Sherry J Hannon, Shaun R Cook, Rahat Zaheer, Ron Read, Tim A McAllister
Population structures of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated from catch basins, a constructed wetland, and feces from a beef cattle feedlot were compared over a two-year period. Enterococcus hirae accounted for 92% of the fecal isolates, whereas secondary environments were characterized by greater relative abundance of environmentally adapted species including Enterococcus casseliflavus. While enterococci densities in the catch basins and wetland were similar under wet and drought conditions, E. hirae predominated during rainy periods while E...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430087/modification-of-two-capripoxvirus-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assays-to-improve-diagnostic-sensitivity-and-include-beta-actin-as-an-internal-positive-control
#11
Amaresh Das, Ming Y Deng, Shawn Babiuk, Michael T McIntosh
Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#12
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428343/mechanisms-of-autophagy-induction-by-sex-steroids-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#13
Katarzyna Zielniok, Agnieszka Sobolewska, Malgorzata Gajewska
In dairy cattle mammary gland involution serves to remodel the secretory tissue, and occurs in a period of overlap between mammogenic stimulation caused by next developing pregnancy and tissue regression induced by milk stasis. At this time high concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) support regeneration of the mammary tissue, as well as enhance autophagy, a cellular process induced in response to stressful conditions for energy generation and homeostasis maintenance. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of autophagy induction by E2 and P4 using an in vitro model of involution based on 20-fold reduction of FBS content (from 10% to 0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428300/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-casseliflavus-pavet15-obtained-from-the-oviduct-infection-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-jiutepec-morelos-mexico
#14
R Cossío-Bayúgar, E Miranda-Miranda, C A Arreguín-Pérez, L Lozano, D Peréz de la Rosa, M K Rocha-Martínez, M A Bravo-Díaz, B Sachman-Ruiz
Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of animals, like mammals, birds, and arthropods. Enterococcus spp. may cause oportunistic infections in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We report here the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus casseliflavus PAVET15 containing 3,722,480 bp, with 80 contigs, an N50 of 179,476 bp, and 41.93% G+C content.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427963/molecular-investigation-of-piroplasma-infection-in-white-yaks-bos-grunniens-in-gansu-province-china
#15
Sitong Li, Junlong Liu, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Shuqing Wang, Shufang Wang, Hong Yin, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan
Piroplasmosis, including theileriosis and babesiosis, is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan disease responsible for huge economic losses to livestock industry. In China, the biology of piroplasms infective to cattle was well understood on the basis of pathogen detection isolations and molecular epidemiological surveys in the past few decades. But very limited information about the infection status of piroplasms in white yak (Bos grunniens), a semi-wild and endemic breed, has been recorded, so far. A total of 350 blood samples was collected from white yaks in 11 towns of Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County of Gansu province, China, during April to July, 2015...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427961/evidence-for-enzootic-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-among-livestock-in-cameroon
#16
M Rissmann, M Eiden, A Wade, R Poueme, S Abdoulkadiri, H Unger, U Ziegler, T Homeier, M H Groschup
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, causing serious epidemics in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Cameroon serological data indicate the presence of RVFV, but active circulation of RVFV, causing clinical infections has not been proven yet. For this purpose we carried out a serological and molecular study on a total of 1,953 randomly selected serum samples of small ruminants and cattle, which were collected in years 2013 and 2014 in Cameroon. In a first step, sera were screened serologically using a variety of assay formats to reveal RVFV specific antibodies...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427328/erratum-to-the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-beef-cattle-before-and-after-transport-to-a-feedlot
#17
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Samat Amat, D Wade Abbott, Andre G Buret, Trevor W Alexander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427324/genomic-prediction-from-observed-and-imputed-high-density-ovine-genotypes
#18
Nasir Moghaddar, Andrew A Swan, Julius H J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction using high-density (HD) marker genotypes is expected to lead to higher prediction accuracy, particularly for more heterogeneous multi-breed and crossbred populations such as those in sheep and beef cattle, due to providing stronger linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci controlling a trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible improvement in genomic prediction accuracy of production traits in Australian sheep breeds based on HD genotypes (600k, both observed and imputed) compared to prediction based on 50k marker genotypes...
April 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426942/polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-profiles-in-serum-from-cattle-sheep-and-goats-across-california
#19
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426822/genomics-of-a-revived-breed-case-study-of-the-belgian-campine-cattle
#20
Liesbeth François, Katrien Wijnrocx, Frédéric G Colinet, Nicolas Gengler, Bettine Hulsegge, Jack J Windig, Nadine Buys, Steven Janssens
Through centuries of both natural and artificial selection, a variety of local cattle populations arose with highly specific phenotypes. However, the intensification and expansion of scale in animal production systems led to the predominance of a few highly productive cattle breeds. The loss of local populations is often considered irreversible and with them specific qualities and rare variants could be lost as well. Over these last years, the interest in these local breeds has increased again leading to increasing efforts to conserve these breeds or even revive lost populations, e...
2017: PloS One
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