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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534927/genome-wide-association-study-for-birth-weaning-and-yearling-weight-in-colombian-brahman-cattle
#1
Rodrigo Martínez, Diego Bejarano, Yolanda Gómez, Romain Dasoneville, Ariel Jiménez, Gael Even, Johann Sölkner, Gabor Mészáros
Genotypic and phenotypic data of 1,562 animals were analyzed to find genomic regions that potentially influence the birth weight (BW), weaning weight at seven months of age (WW) and yearling weight (YW) of Colombian Brahman cattle, with genotyping conducted using Illumina Bead chip array with 74,669 SNPs. A Single Step Genomic BLUP (ssGBLP), approach was used to estimate the proportion of variance explained by each marker. Multiple regions scattered across the genome were found to influence weights at different ages, also dependent on the trait component (direct or maternal)...
May 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534726/evaluation-of-longevity-modeling-censored-records-in-nellore
#2
D A Garcia, G J M Rosa, B D Valente, R Carvalheiro, G A Fernandes Júnior, L G Albuquerque
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction ability of models that cope with longevity phenotypic expression as uncensored and censored in Nellore cattle. Longevity was defined as the difference between the dates of last weaned calf and cow birth. There were information of 77 353 females, being 61 097 cows with uncensored phenotypic information and 16 256 cows with censored records. These data were analyzed considering three different models: (1) Gaussian linear model (LM), in which only uncensored records were considered; and two models that consider both uncensored and censored records: (2) Censored Gaussian linear model (CLM); and (3) Weibull frailty hazard model (WM)...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534463/gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-embryonic-disc-trophoblast-and-parietal-hypoblast-at-the-start-of-gastrulation
#3
Peter L Pfeffer, Craig S Smith, Paul Maclean, Debra K Berg
In cattle early gastrulation-stage embryos (Stage 5), four tissues can be discerned: (i) the top layer of the embryonic disc consisting of embryonic ectoderm (EmE); (ii) the bottom layer of the disc consisting of mesoderm, endoderm and visceral hypoblast (MEH); (iii) the trophoblast (TB); and (iv) the parietal hypoblast. We performed microsurgery followed by RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of these four tissues as well as a developmentally earlier pre-gastrulation embryonic disc. The cattle EmE transcriptome was similar at Stages 4 and 5, characterised by the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG pluripotency network...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534030/combining-slaughterhouse-surveillance-data-with-cattle-tracing-scheme-and-environmental-data-to-quantify-environmental-risk-factors-for-liver-fluke-in-cattle
#4
Giles T Innocent, Lucy Gilbert, Edward O Jones, James E McLeod, George Gunn, Iain J McKendrick, Steve D Albon
Liver fluke infection causes serious disease (fasciolosis) in cattle and sheep in many regions of the world, resulting in production losses and additional economic consequences due to condemnation of the liver at slaughter. Liver fluke depends on mud snails as an intermediate host and infect livestock when ingested through grazing. Therefore, environmental factors play important roles in infection risk and climate change is likely to modify this. Here, we demonstrate how slaughterhouse data can be integrated with other data, including animal movement and climate variables to identify environmental risk factors for liver fluke in cattle in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#5
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532992/assessment-of-concurrent-infection-with-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-bvdv-and-mycobacterium-bovis-a-herd-level-risk-factor-analysis-from-northern-ireland
#6
A W Byrne, M Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, S A J Strain, S McBride, J Graham, A Lahuerta-Marin, R Harwood, D A Graham, S McDowell
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a significant pathogen of cattle, leading to severe economic and animal-welfare impacts. Furthermore, the pathogen has been associated with impacting the progression or spread of other pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB)). During this study we investigated (i) risk factors for BVDV at a herd-level and (ii) whether there was any association between BVDV and herd-level bTB risk. The data for this study were gathered from a voluntary BVDV control programme in Northern Ireland (2013-2015) based on the identification of virus positive animals through tissue tag testing of calves...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532844/effects-of-d-cloprostenol-on-different-layers-and-regions-of-the-bovine-uterus-during-the-follicular-and-luteal-phases
#7
M Piccinno, R L Sciorsci, V Masciopinto, M De Rosa, A Rizzo
INTRODUCTION: D-cloprostenol is a synthetic PGF2α, commonly used in bovine reproduction, that increases myometral contractility. However, little is known regarding its contractile behaviour and how it depends on the reproductive state and uterine topography (regions and muscular layers). HYPOTHESIS AND OBJECTIVES: These aspects would affect the action of d-cloprostenol on the uterus. Therefore, we hypothesize a possible use of this drug at the time of artificial insemination, to improve conception rates and, in the post-partum, in order to accelerate uterine involution in dairy cattle...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532809/seroprevalence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-related-alphaherpesvirus-infections-in-free-living-and-captive-cervids-in-poland
#8
Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska, Wojciech Socha, Jolanta G Rola, Magdalena Materniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Etienne Thiry, Jan F Żmudziński
To determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of Poland were tested with IBR gB ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) against BoHV-1 and cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1). The seroprevalence differed significantly between free-living and captive cervids (P<0.001) with a total of 89 out of 498 (17.9%) and 268 out of 696 (38.5%) seropositive animals in each type of population...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532800/antimicrobial-susceptibility-monitoring-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-mycoplasma-bovis-isolated-in-europe
#9
Ulrich Klein, Anno de Jong, Hilde Moyaert, Farid El Garch, Rocio Leon, Alexandra Richard-Mazet, Markus Rose, Dominiek Maes, Andrew Pridmore, Jill R Thomson, Roger D Ayling
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532793/streptococcus-agalactiae-in-elephants-a-comparative-study-with-isolates-from-human-and-zoo-animal-and-livestock-origin
#10
Tobias Eisenberg, Jörg Rau, Uta Westerhüs, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Ahmad Fawzy, Karen Schlez, Michael Zschöck, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Carsten Heydel, Reinhard Sting, Stefanie P Glaeser, Dipen Pulami, Mark van der Linden, Christa Ewers
Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531856/low-cost-digester-monitoring-under-realistic-conditions-rural-use-of-biogas-and-digestate-quality
#11
L Castro, H Escalante, J Jaimes-Estévez, L J Díaz, K Vecino, G Rojas, L Mantilla
The purpose of this work was to assess the behaviour of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in a rural digester under realistic conditions, and estimate the quality and properties of the digestate. The data obtained during monitoring indicated that the digester operation was stable without risk of inhibition. It produced an average of 0.85Nm(3)biogas/d at 65.6% methane, providing an energy savings of 76%. In addition, the digestate contained high nutrient concentrations, which is an important feature of fertilizers...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531221/human-paleodiet-and-animal-utilization-strategies-during-the-bronze-age-in-northwest-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#12
Lele Ren, Xin Li, Lihong Kang, Katherine Brunson, Honggao Liu, Weimiao Dong, Haiming Li, Rui Min, Xu Liu, Guanghui Dong
Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#13
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530580/offgel-electrophoresis-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry-approach-compared-with-dna-based-pcr-method-for-authentication-of-meat-species-from-raw-and-cooked-ground-meat-mixtures-containing-cattle-meat-water-buffalo-meat-and-sheep-meat
#14
Basappa M Naveena, Deepak S Jagadeesh, A Jagadeesh Babu, T Madhava Rao, Veeranna Kamuni, S Vaithiyanathan, Vinayak V Kulkarni, Srikanth Rapole
The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528590/a-review-of-bovine-fasciolosis-and-other-trematode-infections-in-nigeria
#15
N Elelu, M C Eisler
Trematode infections cause serious economic losses to livestock worldwide. Global production losses due to fasciolosis alone exceed US$3 billion annually. Many trematode infections are also zoonotic and thus a public health concern. The World Health Organization has estimated that about 56 million people worldwide are infected by at least one zoonotic trematode species, and up to 750 million people are at risk of infection. Fasciolosis caused by the fluke Fasciola gigantica is endemic in Nigeria and is one of the most common causes of liver condemnation in abattoirs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528531/diversity-and-distribution-of-ticks-from-domestic-ruminants-in-lebanon
#16
Mayssaa Fawaz Dabaja, Maria Tempesta, Ali Bayan, Gesualdo Vesco, Grazia Greco, Grazia Greco, Alessandra Torina, Valeria Blanda, Francesco La Russa, Salvatore Scimeca, Rossella Lelli, Mohamad Ezzedine, Hussein Mortada, Didier Raoult, Pierre Edouard Fournier, Mohamad Mortada
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014...
April 11, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528496/artificial-insemination-of-holstein-heifers-with-sex-sorted-semen-during-the-hot-season-in-a-subtropical-region
#17
Lian-Ben Chang, Chih-Jen Chou, Jia-Shian Shiu, Po-An Tu, Shi-Xuan Gao, Shao-Yu Peng, Shinn-Chih Wu
Our aim was to investigate insemination techniques in order to improve pregnancy rates of artificial insemination (AI) using sex-sorted semen (sexed AI) in cattle in tropical and subtropical (T/ST) regions. In T/ST regions, the pregnancy rates by sexed AI are reportedly the lowest in the hottest months of the year, with less than 15% in cows and 35-40% in heifers (PMID 24048822). We compared sexed AI by depositing the semen into the uterine body (UB-AI, n = 12) versus the unilateral uterine horn (UUH-AI, n = 14) of pre-ovulation heifers...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528495/dairy-farm-demographics-and-management-factors-that-played-a-role-in-the-re-emergence-of-brucellosis-on-dairy-cattle-farms-in-fiji
#18
Andrew Tukana, B Gummow
Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527809/accuracy-of-genomic-predictions-in-gyr-bos-indicus-dairy-cattle
#19
S A Boison, A T H Utsunomiya, D J A Santos, H H R Neves, R Carvalheiro, G Mészáros, Y T Utsunomiya, A S do Carmo, R S Verneque, M A Machado, J C C Panetto, J F Garcia, J Sölkner, M V G B da Silva
Genomic selection may accelerate genetic progress in breeding programs of indicine breeds when compared with traditional selection methods. We present results of genomic predictions in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle of Brazil for milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), and age at first calving using information from bulls and cows. Four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips were studied. Additionally, the effect of the use of imputed data on genomic prediction accuracy was studied...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527801/genetic-and-nongenetic-factors-contributing-to-differences-in-%C3%AE-s-casein-phosphorylation-isoforms-and-other-major-milk-proteins
#20
Z H Fang, H Bovenhuis, A Delacroix-Buchet, G Miranda, D Boichard, M H P W Visker, P Martin
Relative concentrations of αS-casein (αS-CN) phosphorylation isoforms vary considerably among milk of individual cows. We aimed to explore to what extent genetic and other factors contribute to the variation in relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN defined as the proportion of isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation. We also investigated the associations of genetic variants of milk proteins and casein haplotypes with relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and with the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN in French Montbéliarde cattle from the cheese production area of Franche-Comté...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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