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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#2
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062070/trends-in-the-application-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-human-biomonitoring-an-analytical-primer-to-studying-the-environmental-chemical-space-of-the-human-exposome
#3
REVIEW
Syam S Andra, Christine Austin, Dhavalkumar Patel, Georgia Dolios, Mahmoud Awawda, Manish Arora
Global profiling of xenobiotics in human matrices in an untargeted mode is gaining attention for studying the environmental chemical space of the human exposome. Defined as the study of a comprehensive inclusion of environmental influences and associated biological responses, human exposome science is currently evolving out of the metabolomics science. In analogy to the latter, the development and applications of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has shown potential and promise to greatly expand our ability to capture the broad spectrum of environmental chemicals in exposome studies...
January 3, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040263/identification-of-chemical-mixtures-to-which-canadian-pregnant-women-are-exposed-the-mirec-study
#4
Wan-Chen Lee, Mandy Fisher, Karelyn Davis, Tye E Arbuckle, Sanjoy K Sinha
Depending on the chemical and the outcome, prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals can lead to adverse effects on the pregnancy and child development, especially if exposure occurs during early gestation. Instead of focusing on prenatal exposure to individual chemicals, more studies have taken into account that humans are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals on a daily basis. The objectives of this analysis were to identify the pattern of chemical mixtures to which women are exposed and to characterize women with elevated exposures to various mixtures...
December 28, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976870/disruption-of-the-prostaglandin-metabolome-and-characterization-of-the-pharmaceutical-exposome-in-fish-exposed-to-wastewater-treatment-works-effluent-as-revealed-by-nanoflow-nanospray-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics
#5
Arthur David, Anke Lange, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Charles R Tyler, Elizabeth M Hill
Fish can be exposed to a complex mixture of chemical contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, present in discharges of wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents. There is little information on the effects of effluent exposure on fish metabolism, especially the small molecule signaling compounds which are the biological target of many pharmaceuticals. We applied a newly developed sensitive nanoflow-nanospray mass spectrometry nontargeted profiling technique to identify changes in the exposome and metabolome of roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to a final WwTWs effluent for 15 days...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943120/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-pah-related-dna-adducts
#6
REVIEW
Błaszczyk Ewa, Mielżyńska-Švach Danuta
Investigations on the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health have led to the development of an exposome concept. The exposome refers to the totality of exposures received by a person during life, including exposures to life-style factors, from the prenatal period to death. The exposure to genotoxic chemicals and their reactive metabolites can induce chemical modifications of DNA, such as, for example, DNA adducts, which have been extensively studied and which play a key role in chemically induced carcinogenesis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939949/from-the-exposome-to-mechanistic-understanding-of-chemical-induced-adverse-effects
#7
REVIEW
Beate I Escher, Jörg Hackermüller, Tobias Polte, Stefan Scholz, Achim Aigner, Rolf Altenburger, Alexander Böhme, Stephanie K Bopp, Werner Brack, Wibke Busch, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Adrian Covaci, Adolf Eisenträger, James J Galligan, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Thomas Hartung, Michaela Hein, Gunda Herberth, Annika Jahnke, Jos Kleinjans, Nils Klüver, Martin Krauss, Marja Lamoree, Irina Lehmann, Till Luckenbach, Gary W Miller, Andrea Müller, David H Phillips, Thorsten Reemtsma, Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk, Gerrit Schüürmann, Benno Schwikowski, Yu-Mei Tan, Saskia Trump, Susanne Walter-Rohde, John F Wambaugh
The exposome encompasses an individual's exposure to exogenous chemicals, as well as endogenous chemicals that are produced or altered in response to external stressors. While the exposome concept has been established for human health, its principles can be extended to include broader ecological issues. The assessment of exposure is tightly interlinked with hazard assessment. Here, we explore if mechanistic understanding of the causal links between exposure and adverse effects on human health and the environment can be improved by integrating the exposome approach with the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept that structures and organizes the sequence of biological events from an initial molecular interaction of a chemical with a biological target to an adverse outcome...
December 8, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924041/exposome-explorer-a-manually-curated-database-on-biomarkers-of-exposure-to-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#8
Vanessa Neveu, Alice Moussy, Héloïse Rouaix, Roland Wedekind, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, David S Wishart, Augustin Scalbert
Exposome-Explorer (http://exposome-explorer.iarc.fr) is the first database dedicated to biomarkers of exposure to environmental risk factors. It contains detailed information on the nature of biomarkers, their concentrations in various human biospecimens, the study population where measured and the analytical techniques used for measurement. It also contains correlations with external exposure measurements and data on biological reproducibility over time. The data in Exposome-Explorer was manually collected from peer-reviewed publications and organized to make it easily accessible through a web interface for in-depth analyses...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921453/integrating-ion-mobility-spectrometry-into-mass-spectrometry-based-exposome-measurements-what-can-it-add-and-how-far-can-it-go
#9
Thomas O Metz, Erin S Baker, Emma L Schymanski, Ryan S Renslow, Dennis G Thomas, Tim J Causon, Ian K Webb, Stephan Hann, Richard D Smith, Justin G Teeguarden
Measuring the exposome remains a challenge due to the range and number of anthropogenic molecules that are encountered in our daily lives, as well as the complex systemic responses to these exposures. One option for improving the coverage, dynamic range and throughput of measurements is to incorporate ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) into current MS-based analytical methods. The implementation of IMS in exposomics studies will lead to more frequent observations of previously undetected chemicals and metabolites...
January 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780885/futuretox-iii-bridges-for-translation
#10
Daland R Juberg, Thomas B Knudsen, Miriam Sander, Nancy B Beck, Elaine M Faustman, Donna L Mendrick, John R Fowle, Thomas Hartung, Raymond R Tice, Emmanuel Lemazurier, Richard A Becker, Suzanne Compton Fitzpatrick, George P Daston, Alison Harrill, Ronald N Hines, Douglas A Keller, John C Lipscomb, David Watson, Tina Bahadori, Kevin M Crofton
Future Tox III, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2015. Building upon Future Tox I and II, Future Tox III was focused on developing the high throughput risk assessment paradigm and taking the science of in vitro data and in silico models forward to explore the question-what progress is being made to address challenges in implementing the emerging big-data toolbox for risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. This article reports on the outcome of the workshop including 2 examples of where advancements in predictive toxicology approaches are being applied within Federal agencies, where opportunities remain within the exposome and AOP domains, and how collectively the toxicology community across multiple sectors can continue to bridge the translation from historical approaches to Tox21 implementation relative to risk assessment and regulatory decision-making...
October 25, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779619/a-database-of-human-exposomes-and-phenomes-from-the-us-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#11
Chirag J Patel, Nam Pho, Michael McDuffie, Jeremy Easton-Marks, Cartik Kothari, Isaac S Kohane, Paul Avillach
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population survey implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the health of the United States whose data is publicly available in hundreds of files. This Data Descriptor describes a single unified and universally accessible data file, merging across 255 separate files and stitching data across 4 surveys, encompassing 41,474 individuals and 1,191 variables. The variables consist of phenotype and environmental exposure information on each individual, specifically (1) demographic information, physical exam results (e...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768585/future-of-environmental-research-in-the-age-of-epigenomics-and-exposomics
#12
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759495/blood-borne-biomarkers-and-bioindicators-for-linking-exposure-to-health-effects-in-environmental-health-science
#13
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720464/the-skin-aging-exposome
#14
Jean Krutmann, Anne Bouloc, Gabrielle Sore, Bruno A Bernard, Thierry Passeron
The term "exposome" describes the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected from conception to death. It includes both external and internal factors as well as the human body's response to these factors. Current exposome research aims to understand the effects all factors have on specific organs, yet today, the exposome of human skin has not received major attention and a corresponding definition is lacking. This review was compiled with the collaboration of European scientists, specialized in either environmental medicine or skin biology...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681243/epigenome-and-exposome-in-prenatal-programming-essential-components-of-personalized-medicine-in-need-of-understanding-and-development
#15
Pavel Hamet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629808/computational-metabolomics-a-framework-for-the-million-metabolome
#16
Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, Ken Liu, Shuzhao Li, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
"Sola dosis facit venenum." These words of Paracelsus, "the dose makes the poison", can lead to a cavalier attitude concerning potential toxicities of the vast array of low abundance environmental chemicals to which humans are exposed. Exposome research teaches that 80-85% of human disease is linked to environmental exposures. The human exposome is estimated to include >400,000 environmental chemicals, most of which are uncharacterized with regard to human health. In fact, mass spectrometry measures >200,000 m/z features (ions) in microliter volumes derived from human samples; most are unidentified...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628343/in-hive-pesticide-exposome-assessing-risks-to-migratory-honey-bees-from-in-hive-pesticide-contamination-in-the-eastern-united-states
#17
Kirsten S Traynor, Jeffery S Pettis, David R Tarpy, Christopher A Mullin, James L Frazier, Maryann Frazier, Dennis vanEngelsdorp
This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624170/porous-extraction-paddle-a-solid-phase-extraction-technique-for-studying-the-urine-metabolome
#18
Gang Shao, Michael MacNeil, Yuanyuan Yao, Roger W Giese
RATIONALE: A method was needed to accomplish solid phase extraction of a large urine volume in a convenient way where resources are limited, towards a goal of metabolome and xenobiotic exposome analysis at another, distant location. METHODS: A porous extraction paddle (PEP) was set up, comprising a porous nylon bag containing extraction particles that is flattened and immobilized between two stainless steel meshes. Stirring the PEP after attachment to a shaft of a motor mounted on the lid of the jar containing the urine accomplishes extraction...
September 14, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597075/re-the-exposome-for-kidney-stones
#19
Dean G Assimos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589520/specific-triazine-herbicides-induce-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-production
#20
Erik Portelius, Emilie Durieu, Marion Bodin, Morgane Cam, Josef Pannee, Charlotte Leuxe, Aloϊse Mabondzo, Nassima Oumata, Hervé Galons, Jung Yeol Lee, Young-Tae Chang, Kathrin Stϋber, Philipp Koch, Gaëlle Fontaine, Marie-Claude Potier, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Spiros D Garbis, Adrian Covaci, Debby Van Dam, Peter De Deyn, Frank Karg, Marc Flajolet, Chiori Omori, Saori Hata, Toshiharu Suzuki, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Laurent Meijer
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by secretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Increased production of Aβ42 over Aβ40 and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifying products of the 'human chemical exposome' (HCE) able to induce Aβ42 production may be a key to understanding some of the initiating causes of AD and to generate non-genetic, chemically-induced AD animal models. A cell model was used to screen HCE libraries for Aβ42 inducers...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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