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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312526/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-as-a-protein-level-non-genomic-disease-therapy-with-s2rm-exosome-released-molecules
#1
REVIEW
Greg Maguire
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease that leads to death. No effective treatments are currently available. Based on data from epidemiological, etiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, I offer a new way of thinking about ALS and its treatment. This paper describes a host of extrinsic factors, including the exposome, that disrupt the extracellular matrix and protein function such that a spreading, prion-like disease leads to neurodegeneration in the motor tracts...
November 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278923/environmental-stressors-and-their-impact-on-health-and-disease
#2
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum issue addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter, mental stress / loneliness as well as the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system...
December 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242840/the-mid-childhood-and-adolescent-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-orientation
#3
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Background: External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods: Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242543/the-twilight-of-immunity-emerging-concepts-in-aging-of-the-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Janko Nikolich-Žugich
Immunosenescence is a series of age-related changes that affect the immune system and, with time, lead to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This Review addresses recent developments in the understanding of age-related changes that affect key components of immunity, including the effect of aging on cells of the (mostly adaptive) immune system, on soluble molecules that guide the maintenance and function of the immune system and on lymphoid organs that coordinate both the maintenance of lymphocytes and the initiation of immune responses...
January 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227115/fundamentals-of-precision-medicine
#5
Kimon Divaris
Precision medicine is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, particularly in dentistry.
September 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221465/yale-school-of-public-health-symposium-on-lifetime-exposures-and-human-health-the-exposome-summary-and-future-reflections
#6
REVIEW
Caroline H Johnson, Toby J Athersuch, Gwen W Collman, Suraj Dhungana, David F Grant, Dean P Jones, Chirag J Patel, Vasilis Vasiliou
The exposome is defined as "the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death" and was developed to address the need for comprehensive environmental exposure assessment to better understand disease etiology. Due to the complexity of the exposome, significant efforts have been made to develop technologies for longitudinal, internal and external exposure monitoring, and bioinformatics to integrate and analyze datasets generated. Our objectives were to bring together leaders in the field of exposomics, at a recent Symposium on "Lifetime Exposures and Human Health: The Exposome," held at Yale School of Public Health...
December 8, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182974/suspect-screening-and-non-targeted-analysis-of-drinking-water-using-point-of-use-filters
#7
Seth R Newton, Rebecca L McMahen, Jon R Sobus, Kamel Mansouri, Antony J Williams, Andrew D McEachran, Mark J Strynar
Monitored contaminants in drinking water represent a small portion of the total compounds present, many of which may be relevant to human health. To understand the totality of human exposure to compounds in drinking water, broader monitoring methods are imperative. In an effort to more fully characterize the drinking water exposome, point-of-use water filtration devices (Brita® filters) were employed to collect time-integrated drinking water samples in a pilot study of nine North Carolina homes. A suspect screening analysis was performed by matching high resolution mass spectra of unknown features to molecular formulas from EPA's DSSTox database...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179034/effects-of-exposure-to-water-disinfection-by-products-in-a-swimming-pool-a-metabolome-wide-association-study
#8
Karin van Veldhoven, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Dinesh K Barupal, Cristina M Villanueva, Laia Font-Ribera, Augustin Scalbert, Barbara Bodinier, Joan O Grimalt, Christian Zwiener, Jelle Vlaanderen, Lützen Portengen, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Manolis Kogevinas
BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and chlorinated swimming pools are associated with adverse health outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate short-term changes in metabolic profiles in response to DBP exposure while swimming in a chlorinated pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PISCINA-II study (EXPOsOMICS project) includes 60 volunteers swimming 40min in an indoor pool...
November 24, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173481/manganese-in-blood-cells-as-an-exposure-biomarker-in-manganese-exposed-workers-healthy-cohort
#9
Xiaoting Ge, Fenfen Wang, Yaoqiu Zhong, Yingnan Lv, Chao Jiang, Yanting Zhou, Defu Li, Bing Xia, Cheng Su, Hong Cheng, Yifei Ma, Feng Xiong, Yuefei Shen, Yunfeng Zou, Xiaobo Yang
Elevated exposure to manganese (Mn) has long been a public health concern. However, there is currently no consensus on the best exposure biomarker. Here we aimed to investigate the exposomic characteristics of plasma metals among Mn-exposed workers and explore the potential biomarkers of Mn exposure in the blood pool. First, total sixteen plasma metals (Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Lead, Chromium, Arsenic, Manganese, Nickel, Molybdenum, Cadmium, Mercury, Thallium, and Cobalt) were determined among 40 occupationally Mn-exposed subjects...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169635/environmental-triggers-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
REVIEW
Gaurav Gulati, Hermine I Brunner
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ in the human body. Despite significant advancements in our understanding of SLE over the recent years, its exact mode of onset and disease progression remains elusive. Low concordance rates among monozygotic twins with SLE (as low as 24%), clustering of disease prevalence around polluted regions and an urban-rural difference in prevalence all highlight the importance of environmental influences in SLE. Experimental data strongly suggests a complex interaction between the exposome (or environmental influences) and genome (genetic material) to produce epigenetic changes (epigenome) that can alter the expression of genetic material and lead to development of disease in the susceptible individual...
October 5, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168895/epigenetics-as-a-driver-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-did-we-forget-the-fathers
#11
REVIEW
Adelheid Soubry
What are the effects of our environment on human development and the next generation? Numerous studies have provided ample evidence that a healthy environment and lifestyle of the mother is important for her offspring. Biological mechanisms underlying these environmental influences have been proposed to involve alterations in the epigenome. Is there enough evidence to suggest a similar contribution from the part of the father? Animal models provide proof of a transgenerational epigenetic effect through the paternal germ line, but can this be translated to humans? To date, literature on fathers is scarce...
November 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152601/a-novel-approach-to-analyzing-lung-cancer-mortality-disparities-using-the-exposome-and-a-graph-theoretical-toolchain
#12
Paul D Juarez, Darryl B Hood, Gary L Rogers, Suzanne H Baktash, Arnold M Saxton, Patricia Matthews-Juarez, Wansoo Im, Myriam Patricia Cifuentes, Charles A Phillips, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Michael A Langston
Objectives: The aim is to identify exposures associated with lung cancer mortality and mortality disparities by race and gender using an exposome database coupled to a graph theoretical toolchain. Methods: Graph theoretical algorithms were employed to extract paracliques from correlation graphs using associations between 2162 environmental exposures and lung cancer mortality rates in 2067 counties, with clique doubling applied to compute an absolute threshold of significance...
April 2017: Environmental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136872/a-novel-hybrid-flow-platform-for-on-line-simultaneous-dynamic-fractionation-and-evaluation-of-mercury-lability-in-environmental-solids
#13
Yanlin Zhang, Manuel Miró, Spas D Kolev
A method for the automatic simultaneous assessment of mobility and lability of mercury in environmental solid samples has been developed for the first time. It has been implemented in a hybrid flow system integrating flow-through dynamic sequential extraction and on-line chemical digestion prior to atomic fluorescence detection. The method allows the determination of trace concentrations of labile mercury (HgL) and non-labile mercury (HgNL) in different bioaccessible phases of environmental solid samples thus providing expeditious data not only for Hg exposome studies but also for the selection of suitable environmental remediation techniques...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114965/oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mediate-the-effect-of-air-pollution-on-cardio-and-cerebrovascular-disease-a-prospective-study-in-nonsmokers
#14
Giovanni Fiorito, Jelle Vlaanderen, Silvia Polidoro, John Gulliver, Claudia Galassi, Andrea Ranzi, Vittorio Krogh, Sara Grioni, Claudia Agnoli, Carlotta Sacerdote, Salvatore Panico, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Gerard Hoek, Zdenko Herceg, Roel Vermeulen, Akram Ghantous, Paolo Vineis, Alessio Naccarati
Air pollution is associated with a broad range of adverse health effects, including mortality and morbidity due to cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD), but the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. This study aims to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the causal chain, and to identify intermediate biomarkers that are associated retrospectively with the exposure and prospectively with the disease. We designed a case-control study on CCVD nested in a cohort of 18,982 individuals from the EPIC-Italy study...
November 8, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107462/each-meal-matters-in-the-exposome-biological-and-community-considerations-in-fast-food-socioeconomic-associations
#15
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
Advances in omics and microbiome technology have transformed the ways in which the biological consequences of life in the 'ecological theatre' can be visualized. Exposome science examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) as a means to understand the response of the 'total organism to the total environment' over time. The repetitive stimulation of compensatory physiological responses (immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine) in response to stress - including sources of stress highly relevant to socioeconomic disadvantage - may lead to metabolic dysregulation and cellular damage, ultimately influencing behavior and disease...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079553/c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-dual-burden-of-disease-codubu-study-protocol-to-investigate-the-co-occurrence-of-chronic-infections-and-noncommunicable-diseases-in-rural-settings-of-epidemiological-transition
#16
Ikenna C Eze, Clémence Esse, Fidèle K Bassa, Siaka Koné, Felix Acka, Loukou Yao, Medea Imboden, Fabienne N Jaeger, Christian Schindler, Mireille Dosso, Véronique Laubhouet-Koffi, Dinard Kouassi, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Individual-level concomitance of infectious diseases and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is poorly studied, despite the reality of this dual disease burden for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: This study protocol describes the implementation of a cohort and biobank aiming for a better understanding of interrelation of helminth and Plasmodium infections with NCD phenotypes like metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes. METHODS: A baseline cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted over one year, in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire...
October 27, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068318/advances-in-chemical-sensing-technologies-for-vocs-in-breath-for-security-threat-assessment-illicit-drug-detection-and-human-trafficking-activity
#17
Stamatios Giannoukos, Agapios Agapiou, S Taylor
On-site chemical sensing of compounds associated with security and terrorist attacks is of worldwide interest. Other related bio-monitoring topics include identification of individuals posing a threat from illicit drugs, explosive manufacturing, as well as searching for victims of human trafficking and collapsed buildings. The current status of field analytical technologies is directed towards the detection and identification of vapours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are associated with exhaled breath; where research is moving from individual breath testing (volatilome) to cell breath (microbiome) and most recently to crowd breath metabolites (exposome)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065591/semantic-modeling-for-exposomics-with-exploratory-evaluation-in-clinical-context
#18
Jung-Wei Fan, Jianrong Li, Yves A Lussier
Exposome is a critical dimension in the precision medicine paradigm. Effective representation of exposomics knowledge is instrumental to melding nongenetic factors into data analytics for clinical research. There is still limited work in (1) modeling exposome entities and relations with proper integration to mainstream ontologies and (2) systematically studying their presence in clinical context. Through selected ontological relations, we developed a template-driven approach to identifying exposome concepts from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051276/precision-medicine-in-airway-diseases-moving-to-clinical-practice
#19
Alvar Agustí, Mona Bafadhel, Richard Beasley, Elisabeth H Bel, Rosa Faner, Peter G Gibson, Renaud Louis, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter J Sterk, Mike Thomas, Claus Vogelmeier, Ian D Pavord
On February 21, 2017, a European Respiratory Society research seminar held in Barcelona discussed how to best apply precision medicine to chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is now clear that both are complex and heterogeneous diseases, that often overlap and that both require individualised assessment and treatment. This paper summarises the presentations and discussions that took place during the seminar. Specifically, we discussed the need for a new taxonomy of human diseases, the role of different players in this scenario (exposome, genes, endotypes, phenotypes, biomarkers and treatable traits) and a number of unanswered key questions in the field...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945073/exposome-scale-investigations-guided-by-global-metabolomics-pathway-analysis-and-cognitive-computing
#20
Benedikt Warth, Scott Spangler, Mingliang Fang, Caroline H Johnson, Erica M Forsberg, Ana Granados, Richard L Martin, Xavier Domingo-Almenara, Tao Huan, Duane Rinehart, J Rafael Montenegro-Burke, Brian Hilmers, Aries Aisporna, Linh T Hoang, Winnie Uritboonthai, H Paul Benton, Susan D Richardson, Antony J Williams, Gary Siuzdak
Concurrent exposure to a wide variety of xenobiotics and their combined toxic effects can play a pivotal role in health and disease, yet are largely unexplored. Investigating the totality of these exposures, i.e., the "exposome", and their specific biological effects constitutes a new paradigm for environmental health but still lacks high-throughput, user-friendly technology. We demonstrate the utility of mass spectrometry-based global exposure metabolomics combined with tailored database queries and cognitive computing for comprehensive exposure assessment and the straightforward elucidation of biological effects...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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