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Lorenzo Cecchi, Gennaro D'Amato, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Allergies are complex diseases that result from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. However, the increase in allergies observed in the past decades is explained exclusively by environmental changes occurring in the same period. Presently, the exposome, the totality of specific and nonspecific external environmental exposures (external exposome) to which a subject is exposed from preconception onward and their consequences at the organ and cell levels (internal exposome), is being considered to explain the inception, development, and exacerbations of allergic diseases...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Morgane Cam, Emilie Durieu, Marion Bodin, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Svenja Koslowski, Natalia Vasylieva, Bogdan Barnych, Bruce D Hammock, Bettina Bohl, Philipp Koch, Chiori Omori, Kazuo Yamamoto, Saori Hata, Toshiharu Suzuki, Frank Karg, Patrick Gizzi, Vesna Erakovic-Haber, Vlatka Bencetic Mihaljevic, Branka Tavcar, Erik Portelius, Josef Pannee, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Spiros D Garbis, Pierrick Auvray, Hermeto Gerber, Jeremy Fraering, Patrick C Fraering, Laurent Meijer
Generation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), especially increased production of Aβ42/Aβ43 over Aβ40, and their aggregation as oligomers and plaques, represent a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In familial AD (FAD), altered Aβ production originates from specific mutations of AβPP or presenilins 1/2 (PS1/PS2), the catalytic subunits of γ-secretase. In sporadic AD, the origin of altered production of Aβs remains unknown...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Andrew J Chetwynd, Arthur David
Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) platforms are widely used to perform high throughput untargeted profiling of biological samples for metabolomics-based approaches. However, these LC-ESI platforms usually favour the detection of metabolites present at relatively high concentrations because of analytical limitations such as ion suppression, thus reducing overall sensitivity. To counter this issue of sensitivity, the latest in terms of analytical platforms can be adopted to enable a greater portion of the metabolome to be analysed in a single analytical run...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Stamatelopoulou Asimina, D Chapizanis, S Karakitsios, P Kontoroupis, D N Asimakopoulos, T Maggos, D Sarigiannis
Nowadays, the advancement of mobile technology in conjunction with the introduction of the concept of exposome has provided new dynamics to the exposure studies. Since the addressing of health outcomes related to environmental stressors is crucial, the improvement of exposure assessment methodology is of paramount importance. Towards this aim, a pilot study was carried out in the two major cities of Greece (Athens, Thessaloniki), investigating the applicability of commercially available fitness monitors and the Moves App for tracking people's location and activities, as well as for predicting the type of the encountered location, using advanced modeling techniques...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Paul E Pfeffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
G P Hu, Z J Chen, S C Tang, G Jia
Biomonitoring can be applied to assess internal exposure and environmental exposure by exposure markers with providing internal exposure to biological characterization and individual exposure information, which is a key tool to evaluate the risk exposure to disease by biological alternation information. With the development of high throughput, broad spectrum and high efficiency screening and detection technology, biomonitoring is defined as traditional biological monitoring (targeted monitoring) and non targeted monitoring analysis (exposomic approaches)...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Ana M Gil, Daniela Duarte, Joana Pinto, António S Barros
This nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics study compared the influence of two different central Portugal exposomes, one of which comprised an important source of pollutants (the Estarreja Chemical Complex, ECC), on the urinary metabolic trajectory of a cohort of healthy pregnant women (total n = 107). An exposome-independent description of pregnancy metabolism was found to comprise a set of 18 metabolites reflecting expected changes in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and hormone and lipid metabolisms...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Courtney K Blackwell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Richard C Gershon, David Cella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diverse methodological approaches pose significant challenges to assess environmental exposure effects on child health outcomes. Although transdisciplinary research efforts offer unique opportunities for understanding the complex and multidimensional facets of lifespan health and disease trajectories, a shared measurement strategy is necessary for ensuring cohesion and comprehensibility across disciplines and domains. RECENT FINDINGS: Exposure science often focuses on one life stage, one primary outcome domain and/or one environmental context without regard for understanding the complexity of exposome pathways and outcomes across a developmental continuum...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Robert O Wright, Susan Teitelbaum, Claudia Thompson, David Balshaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Demonstrate the role of environment as a predictor of child health. RECENT FINDINGS: The children's health exposure analysis resource (CHEAR) assists the Environmental influences on child health outcomes (ECHO) program in understanding the time sensitive and dynamic nature of perinatal and childhood environment on developmental trajectories by providing a central infrastructure for the analysis of biological samples from the ECHO cohort awards...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Dolores Corella, Oscar Coltell, Fernando Macian, José M Ordovás
Increasingly, studies showing the protective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on different diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, some cancers, and even total mortality and aging indicators) are being published. The scientific evidence level for each outcome is variable, and new studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms whereby the MedDiet may exercise its effects. Here, we present recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of MedDiet effects, mainly focusing on cardiovascular diseases but also discussing other related diseases...
January 26, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Sherry-Ann Brown, Naveen Pereira
Variability in response to antiplatelet therapy can be explained in part by pharmacogenomics, particularly of the CYP450 enzyme encoded by CYP2C19. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function variants help explain these interindividual differences. Individuals may carry multiple variants, with linkage disequilibrium noted among some alleles. In the current pharmacogenomics era, genomic variation in CYP2C19 has led to the definition of pharmacokinetic phenotypes for response to antiplatelet therapy, in particular, clopidogrel...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Brigitte Dréno, Vincenzo Bettoli, Elena Araviiskaia, Miguel Sanchez Viera, Anne Bouloc
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is one of the main reasons for dermatological consultations. Severity and response to treatment may be impacted by various external factors or exposome. AIM: to assess the impact of environmental factors on acne and to provide a comprehensive overview of the acne exposome. METHODS: two consensus meetings of five European dermatologists and a comprehensive literature search on exposome factors triggering acne served as a basis for this review...
January 29, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
María-Teresa Colomina, Fernando Sánchez-Santed, Nélida M Conejo, Paloma Collado, Alicia Salvador, Milagros Gallo, Helena Pinos, Cosme Salas, José F Navarro, Ana Adán, Arantza Azpiroz, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND: The concept of the exposome has emerged as a new strategy for studying all environmental exposures throughout an individual’s life and their impact on human health. Nowadays, electronic devices are available to collect data about an individual’s geolocation, biological function, or exposure biomarkers. The appearance of “omic” sciences and advances in bioinformatics have allowed massive data-gathering and analysis from various scientific fields. OBJECTIVE: to propose the term Psychoexposome in line with the concept of the exposome from the field of environmental sciences...
February 2018: Psicothema
Greg Maguire
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease that leads to death. No effective treatments are currently available. Based on data from epidemiological, etiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, I offer a new way of thinking about ALS and its treatment. This paper describes a host of extrinsic factors, including the exposome, that disrupt the extracellular matrix and protein function such that a spreading, prion-like disease leads to neurodegeneration in the motor tracts...
November 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum issue addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter, mental stress / loneliness as well as the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system...
December 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Background: External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods: Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
Janko Nikolich-Žugich
Immunosenescence is a series of age-related changes that affect the immune system and, with time, lead to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This Review addresses recent developments in the understanding of age-related changes that affect key components of immunity, including the effect of aging on cells of the (mostly adaptive) immune system, on soluble molecules that guide the maintenance and function of the immune system and on lymphoid organs that coordinate both the maintenance of lymphocytes and the initiation of immune responses...
January 2018: Nature Immunology
Kimon Divaris
Precision medicine is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, particularly in dentistry.
September 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Caroline H Johnson, Toby J Athersuch, Gwen W Collman, Suraj Dhungana, David F Grant, Dean P Jones, Chirag J Patel, Vasilis Vasiliou
The exposome is defined as "the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death" and was developed to address the need for comprehensive environmental exposure assessment to better understand disease etiology. Due to the complexity of the exposome, significant efforts have been made to develop technologies for longitudinal, internal and external exposure monitoring, and bioinformatics to integrate and analyze datasets generated. Our objectives were to bring together leaders in the field of exposomics, at a recent Symposium on "Lifetime Exposures and Human Health: The Exposome," held at Yale School of Public Health...
December 8, 2017: Human Genomics
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