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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732171/pohad-why-we-should-study-future-fathers
#1
Adelheid Soubry
The growing field of 'Developmental Origin of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) generally reflects environmental influences from mother to child. The importance of maternal lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures before and during gestation period is well recognized. However, few epidemiological designs explore potential influences from the paternal environment on offspring health. This is surprising given that numerous animal models have provided evidence that the paternal environment plays a role in a non-genetic inheritance of pre-conceptional exposures through the male germ line...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732169/does-cross-generational-epigenetic-inheritance-contribute-to-cultural-continuity
#2
Marcus E Pembrey
Human studies of cross-generational epigenetic inheritance have to consider confounding by social patterning down the generations, often referred to as 'cultural inheritance'. This raises the question to what extent is 'cultural inheritance' itself epigenetically mediated rather than just learnt. Human studies of non-genetic inheritance have demonstrated that, beyond foetal life, experiences occurring in mid-childhood before puberty are the most likely to be associated with cross-generational responses in the next generation(s)...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729514/the-framework-of-urban-exposome-application-of-the-exposome-concept-in-urban-health-studies
#3
Xanthi D Andrianou, Konstantinos C Makris
Horizontal challenges, such as climate change or the growing populations, and their manifestations require the development of multidisciplinary research synergies in urban health that could benefit from concepts, such as the human exposome. Cities are composed of interconnected systems which are influenced, by global trends, national policies and local complexities. In this context, the exposome concept could be expanded having the city setting in its core, providing the conceptual framework for the new generation of urban studies...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680996/from-john-snow-to-omics-the-long-journey-of-environmental-epidemiology
#4
Paolo Vineis
A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas noncommunicable diseases have multiple causes which by themselves are usually neither necessary nor sufficient. Epidemiology seems to have reached a limit in disentangling the role of single components in causal complexes, particularly at low doses. To overcome limitations the discipline can take advantage of technical developments including the science of the exposome...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676625/exposomics-based-analysis-of-environmental-factors-associated-with-forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-second-at-6-months-post-lung-transplantation
#5
Michelle L North, Musawir Ahmed, Sepehr Salehi, Kavindi Jayasinghe, Manisha Tilak, Joyce Wu, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Greg J Evans, Chung-Wai Chow
RATIONALE: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction is the biggest impediment to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Studies have shown an increased risk for chronic lung allograft dysfunction in patients exposed to traffic-related air pollution, using residential distance to roadways and outdoor pollution. OBJECTIVES: Personal monitoring and the indoor environment post-lung transplantation have not been investigated. The exposome is a novel conceptual framework that allows for concurrent examination of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including environmental exposures, as well as changes in exposures over time, to elucidate the complex environmental factors that affect health outcomes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653304/a-review-of-the-pharmaceutical-exposome-in-aquatic-fauna
#6
REVIEW
Thomas H Miller, Nicolas R Bury, Stewart F Owen, James I MacRae, Leon P Barron
Pharmaceuticals have been considered 'contaminants of emerging concern' for more than 20 years. In that time, many laboratory studies have sought to identify hazard and assess risk in the aquatic environment, whilst field studies have searched for targeted candidates and occurrence trends using advanced analytical techniques. However, a lack of a systematic approach to the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals has provided a fragmented literature of serendipitous approaches. Evaluation of the extent of the risk for the plethora of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals available requires the reliable measurement of trace levels of contaminants across different environmental compartments (water, sediment, biota - of which biota has been largely neglected)...
April 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626821/biomarkers-of-exposure-in-environment-wide-association-studies-opportunities-to-decode-the-exposome-using-human-biomonitoring-data
#7
REVIEW
Nadine Steckling, Alberto Gotti, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly, Dimitris Chapizanis, Danae Costopoulou, Frank De Vocht, Mercè Garí, Joan O Grimalt, Ester Heath, Rosemary Hiscock, Marta Jagodic, Spyros P Karakitsios, Kleopatra Kedikoglou, Tina Kosjek, Leondios Leondiadis, Thomas Maggos, Darja Mazej, Kinga Polańska, Andrew Povey, Joaquim Rovira, Julia Schoierer, Marta Schuhmacher, Zdravko Špirić, Anja Stajnko, Rob Stierum, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Irene Vassiliadou, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Milena Horvat, Dimosthenis A Sarigiannis
BACKGROUND: The European Union's 7th Framework Programme (EU's FP7) project HEALS - Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys - aims a refinement of the methodology to elucidate the human exposome. Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides a valuable tool for understanding the magnitude of human exposure from all pathways and sources. However, availability of specific biomarkers of exposure (BoE) is limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to summarize the availability of BoEs for a broad range of environmental stressors and exposure determinants and corresponding reference and exposure limit values and biomonitoring equivalents useful for unraveling the exposome using the framework of environment-wide association studies (EWAS)...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597345/dna-methylome-marks-of-exposure-to-particulate-matter-at-three-time-points-in-early-life
#8
Michelle Plusquin, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Akram Ghantous, Rossella Alfano, Mariona Bustamante, Leda Chatzi, Cyrille Cuenin, John Gulliver, Zdenko Herceg, Manolis Kogevinas, Tim Nawrot, Costanza Pizzi, Daniela Porta, Caroline Relton, Lorenzo Richiardi, Oliver Robinson, Jordi Sunyer, Roel Vermeulen, Annette Vriens, Martine Vrijheid, John Henderson, Paolo Vineis
Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with restricted foetal growth and reduced birthweight. Here, we performed methylome-wide analyses of cord and children's blood DNA in relation to residential exposure to PM smaller than 10µm (PM10). This study included participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC, cord blood, n=780; blood at age 7, n=757 and age 15-17, n=850) and the EXPOsOMICS birth cohort consortium including cord blood from ENVIRONAGE (n=197), INMA (n=84), Piccolipiù (n=99) and Rhea (n=75)...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589387/evidence-of-the-possible-harm-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-humans-ongoing-debates-and-key-issues
#9
REVIEW
Duk Hee Lee
Evidence has emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can produce adverse effects, even at low doses that are assumed safe. However, systemic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on human studies, especially of EDCs with short half-lives, have demonstrated inconsistent results. Epidemiological studies have insuperable methodological limitations, including the unpredictable net effects of mixtures, non-monotonic dose-response relationships, the non-existence of unexposed groups, and the low reliability of exposure assessment...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#10
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568436/a-structural-examination-and-collision-cross-section-database-for-over-500-metabolites-and-xenobiotics-using-drift-tube-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#11
Xueyun Zheng, Noor A Aly, Yuxuan Zhou, Kevin T Dupuis, Aivett Bilbao, Vanessa L Paurus, Daniel J Orton, Ryan Wilson, Samuel H Payne, Richard D Smith, Erin S Baker
The confident identification of metabolites and xenobiotics in biological and environmental studies is an analytical challenge due to their immense dynamic range, vast chemical space and structural diversity. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is widely used for small molecule analyses since it can separate isomeric species and be easily coupled with front end separations and mass spectrometry for multidimensional characterizations. However, to date IMS metabolomic and exposomic studies have been limited by an inadequate number of accurate collision cross section (CCS) values for small molecules, causing features to be detected but not confidently identified...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563153/a-multivariate-approach-to-investigate-the-combined-biological-effects-of-multiple-exposures
#12
Pooja Jain, Paolo Vineis, Benoît Liquet, Jelle Vlaanderen, Barbara Bodinier, Karin van Veldhoven, Manolis Kogevinas, Toby J Athersuch, Laia Font-Ribera, Cristina M Villanueva, Roel Vermeulen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
Epidemiological studies provide evidence that environmental exposures may affect health through complex mixtures. Formal investigation of the effect of exposure mixtures is usually achieved by modelling interactions, which relies on strong assumptions relating to the identity and the number of the exposures involved in such interactions, and on the order and parametric form of these interactions. These hypotheses become difficult to formulate and justify in an exposome context, where influential exposures are numerous and heterogeneous...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555026/assessing-health-risks-from-multiple-environmental-stressors-moving-from-g%C3%A3-e-to-i%C3%A3-e
#13
REVIEW
Cliona M McHale, Gwendolyn Osborne, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Andrew G Salmon, Martha S Sandy, Gina Solomon, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T Smith, Lauren Zeise
Research on disease causation often attempts to isolate the effects of individual factors, including individual genes or environmental factors. This reductionist approach has generated many discoveries, but misses important interactive and cumulative effects that may help explain the broad range of variability in disease occurrence observed across studies and individuals. A disease rarely results from a single factor, and instead results from a broader combination of factors, characterized here as intrinsic (I) and extrinsic (E) factors...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519451/external-exposome-and-allergic-respiratory-and-skin-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cecchi, Gennaro D'Amato, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Allergies are complex diseases that result from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. However, the increase in allergies observed in the past decades is explained exclusively by environmental changes occurring in the same period. Presently, the exposome, the totality of specific and nonspecific external environmental exposures (external exposome) to which a subject is exposed from preconception onward and their consequences at the organ and cell levels (internal exposome), is being considered to explain the inception, development, and exacerbations of allergic diseases...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504531/induction-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-production-by-fipronil-and-other-pyrazole-insecticides
#15
Morgane Cam, Emilie Durieu, Marion Bodin, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Svenja Koslowski, Natalia Vasylieva, Bogdan Barnych, Bruce D Hammock, Bettina Bohl, Philipp Koch, Chiori Omori, Kazuo Yamamoto, Saori Hata, Toshiharu Suzuki, Frank Karg, Patrick Gizzi, Vesna Erakovic Haber, Vlatka Bencetic Mihaljevic, Branka Tavcar, Erik Portelius, Josef Pannee, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Spiros D Garbis, Pierrick Auvray, Hermeto Gerber, Jeremy Fraering, Patrick C Fraering, Laurent Meijer
Generation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), especially increased production of Aβ42/Aβ43 over Aβ40, and their aggregation as oligomers and plaques, represent a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In familial AD (FAD), altered Aβ production originates from specific mutations of AβPP or presenilins 1/2 (PS1/PS2), the catalytic subunits of γ-secretase. In sporadic AD, the origin of altered production of Aβs remains unknown...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501168/a-review-of-nanoscale-lc-esi-for-metabolomics-and-its-potential-to-enhance-the-metabolome-coverage
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Chetwynd, Arthur David
Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) platforms are widely used to perform high throughput untargeted profiling of biological samples for metabolomics-based approaches. However, these LC-ESI platforms usually favour the detection of metabolites present at relatively high concentrations because of analytical limitations such as ion suppression, thus reducing overall sensitivity. To counter this issue of sensitivity, the latest in terms of analytical platforms can be adopted to enable a greater portion of the metabolome to be analysed in a single analytical run...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464404/assessing-and-enhancing-the-utility-of-low-cost-activity-and-location-sensors-for-exposure-studies
#17
Stamatelopoulou Asimina, D Chapizanis, S Karakitsios, P Kontoroupis, D N Asimakopoulos, T Maggos, D Sarigiannis
Nowadays, the advancement of mobile technology in conjunction with the introduction of the concept of exposome has provided new dynamics to the exposure studies. Since the addressing of health outcomes related to environmental stressors is crucial, the improvement of exposure assessment methodology is of paramount importance. Towards this aim, a pilot study was carried out in the two major cities of Greece (Athens, Thessaloniki), investigating the applicability of commercially available fitness monitors and the Moves App for tracking people's location and activities, as well as for predicting the type of the encountered location, using advanced modeling techniques...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438164/the-autoimmune-ecology-an-update
#18
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431528/targeting-the-exposome-does-correcting-vitamin-d-deficiency-have-potential-to-treat-and-prevent-asthma
#19
Paul E Pfeffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429279/-biomonitoring-application-in-the-exposome-assessment
#20
G P Hu, Z J Chen, S C Tang, G Jia
Biomonitoring can be applied to assess internal exposure and environmental exposure by exposure markers with providing internal exposure to biological characterization and individual exposure information, which is a key tool to evaluate the risk exposure to disease by biological alternation information. With the development of high throughput, broad spectrum and high efficiency screening and detection technology, biomonitoring is defined as traditional biological monitoring (targeted monitoring) and non targeted monitoring analysis (exposomic approaches)...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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