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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#1
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926371/residential-agricultural-pesticide-exposures-and-risks-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#2
Gary M Shaw, Wei Yang, Eric M Roberts, Susan E Kegley, David K Stevenson, Suzan L Carmichael, Paul B English
BACKGROUND: Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. METHODS: The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858824/the-value-of-traditional-ecological-knowledge-for-the-environmental-health-sciences-and-biomedical-research
#3
Symma Finn, Mose Herne, Dorothy Castille
BACKGROUND: Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a term, relatively new to Western science, that encompasses a subset of traditional knowledge maintained by Indigenous nations about the relationships between people and the natural environment. The term was first shared by tribal elders in the 1980s to help raise awareness of the importance of TEK. TEK has become a construct that Western scientists have increasingly considered for conducting culturally relevant research with Tribal nations...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841522/human-biomonitoring-data-analysis-for-metals-in-an-italian-adolescents-cohort-an-exposome-approach
#4
Anna Pino, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei, Alberto Gotti, Spyros Karakitsios, Evangelos Handakas, Beatrice Bocca, Dimosthenis Sarigiannis, Alessandro Alimonti
The first Italian human biomonitoring survey (PROBE - PROgramme for Biomonitoring general population Exposure) considered a reference population of adolescents, aged 13-15 years, living in urban and rural areas and investigated their exposure to metals. The study was expanded up to 453 adolescents living in the same areas of Latium Region (Italy) and blood samples were analyzed for 19 metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and W) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836271/roadmap-for-investigating-epigenome-deregulation-and-environmental-origins-of-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Zdenko Herceg, Akram Ghantous, Christopher P Wild, Athena Sklias, Lavinia Casati, Susan J Duthie, Rebecca Fry, Jean-Pierre Issa, Richard Kellermayer, Igor Koturbash, Yukata Kondo, Johanna Lepeule, Sheila C S Lima, Carmen J Marsit, Vardhman Rakyan, Richard Saffery, Jack A Taylor, Andrew E Teschendorff, Toshikazu Ushijima, Paolo Vineis, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Robert A Waterland, Joe Wiemels, Srikant Ambatipudi, Davide Degli Esposti, Hector Hernandez-Vargas
The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene-environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific ("fingerprints") that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796633/developing-the-regulatory-utility-of-the-exposome-mapping-exposures-for-risk-assessment-through-lifestage-exposome-snapshots-lens
#6
Rachel M Shaffer, Marissa N Smith, Elaine M Faustman
BACKGROUND: Exposome-related efforts aim to document the totality of human exposures across the lifecourse. This field has advanced rapidly in recent years but lacks practical application to risk assessment, particularly for children's health. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to apply the exposome to children's health risk assessment by introducing the concept of Lifestage Exposome Snapshots (LEnS). Case studies are presented to illustrate the value of the framework...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777099/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-review-of-known-environmental-protective-and-risk-factors-involved
#7
Kimberley W J van der Sloot, Marzyeh Amini, Vera Peters, Gerard Dijkstra, Behrooz Z Alizadeh
Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743678/the-saliva-exposome-for-monitoring-of-individuals-health-trajectories
#8
Vincent Bessonneau, Janusz Pawliszyn, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental, rather than genetic, factors are the major causes of most chronic diseases. By measuring entire classes of chemicals in archived biospecimens, exposome-wide association studies (EWAS) are being conducted to investigate associations between a myriad of exposures received during life and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: Because the intraindividual variability in biomarker levels, arising from changes in environmental exposures from conception onwards, leads to attenuation of exposure-disease associations, we posit that saliva can be collected repeatedly in longitudinal studies to reduce exposure-measurement errors in EWAS...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711809/assessing-the-impact-of-hazardous-waste-on-children-s-health-the-exposome-paradigm
#9
D A Sarigiannis
Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709428/a-systematic-comparison-of-statistical-methods-to-detect-interactions-in-exposome-health-associations
#10
Jose Barrera-Gómez, Lydiane Agier, Lützen Portengen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Valérie Siroux, Oliver Robinson, Jelle Vlaanderen, Juan R González, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Paolo Vineis, Martine Vrijheid, Roel Vermeulen, Rémy Slama, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in examining the simultaneous effects of multiple exposures and, more generally, the effects of mixtures of exposures, as part of the exposome concept (being defined as the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onwards). Uncovering such combined effects is challenging owing to the large number of exposures, several of them being highly correlated. We performed a simulation study in an exposome context to compare the performance of several statistical methods that have been proposed to detect statistical interactions...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707677/-omics-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-new-paths-forward
#11
REVIEW
Carmen Messerlian, Rosie M Martinez, Russ Hauser, Andrea A Baccarelli
The emerging field of omics - large-scale data-rich biological measurements of the genome - provides new opportunities to advance and strengthen research into endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Although some EDCs have been associated with adverse health effects in humans, our understanding of their impact remains incomplete. Progress in the field has been primarily limited by our inability to adequately estimate and characterize exposure and identify sensitive and measurable outcomes during windows of vulnerability...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699353/radiation-hormesis-the-link-to-nanomolar-hydrogen-peroxide
#12
Helmut Sies, Ludwig E Feinendegen
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable product of water radiolysis, occurring at nanomolar concentration upon low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (<100 mGy). In view of the recent recognition of H2O2 as a central redox signaling molecule that, likewise, is maintained in the nanomolar range in cells, we propose a role for H2O2 in radiation hormesis. LDIR is capable of utilizing known molecular redox master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB to effect adaptive resistance. This leads to the hypothesis that, as a normal component of the exposome, LDIR mediates hormetic effects by H2O2 signaling...
August 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696913/linking-physiological-parameters-to-perturbations-in-the-human-exposome-environmental-exposures-modify-blood-pressure-and-lung-function-via-inflammatory-cytokine-pathway
#13
Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus, Tina Stevens, Michael C Madden
Human biomonitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluating the systemic effects derived from external stressors including environmental pollutants, chemicals from consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore consequences of environmental exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) and ultimately to interpret these parameters from the perspective of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. In particular, the objective was to use cytokine expression at the cellular level as a biomarker for physiological systemic responses such as blood pressure and lung function at the systemic level...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677960/factors-shaping-the-human-exposome-in-the-built-environment-opportunities-for-engineering-control
#14
Dongjuan Dai, Aaron J Prussin, Linsey C Marr, Peter J Vikesland, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
The "exposome" is a term describing the summation of one's lifetime exposure to microbes and chemicals. Such exposures are now recognized as major drivers of human health and disease. Because humans spend ∼90% of their time indoors, the built environment exposome merits particular attention. Herein we utilize an engineering perspective to advance understanding of the factors that shape the built environment exposome and its influence on human wellness and disease, while simultaneously informing development of a framework for intentionally controlling the exposome to protect public health...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673401/an-exposome-perspective-early-life-events-and-immune-development-in-a-changing-world
#15
REVIEW
Harald Renz, Patrick G Holt, Michael Inouye, Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Peter D Sly
Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system. The result is a transformed view of future prevention and treatment of chronic noncommunicable diseases, including allergy. Paradigm-shifting gains in scientific knowledge are occurring at a time of rapid global environmental change, urbanization, and biodiversity losses...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673399/environmental-determinants-of-allergy-and-asthma-in-early-life
#16
REVIEW
Allison J Burbank, Amika K Sood, Matthew J Kesic, David B Peden, Michelle L Hernandez
Allergic disease prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades. Primary prevention efforts are being guided by study of the exposome (or collective environmental exposures beginning during the prenatal period) to identify modifiable factors that affect allergic disease risk. In this review we explore the evidence supporting a relationship between key components of the external exposome in the prenatal and early-life periods and their effect on atopy development focused on microbial, allergen, and air pollution exposures...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667066/redox-theory-of-aging-implications-for-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
Genetics ultimately defines an individual, yet the phenotype of an adult is extensively determined by the sequence of lifelong exposures, termed the exposome. The redox theory of aging recognizes that animals evolved within an oxygen-rich environment, which created a critical redox interface between an organism and its environment. Advances in redox biology show that redox elements are present throughout metabolic and structural systems and operate as functional networks to support the genome in adaptation to environmental resources and challenges during lifespan...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621139/coupling-urinary-trihalomethanes-and-metabolomic-profiles-of-type-ii-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#18
Xanthi D Andrianou, Pantelis Charisiadis, Konstantinos C Makris
Abiding by the exposome paradigm, incorporation of external and internal exposure metrics using metabolomics tools is warranted to refine the etiology of type II diabetes (T2D). A small (n = 51) age- and sex-matched case-control study was conducted in Cyprus coupling urinary trihalomethanes (THMs) with T2D. The objectives were to (i) perform a comparative assessment of different deconvolution parameters in compound identification and (ii) evaluate the association between differentially expressed metabolites and either urinary THM or T2D status...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528799/a-multifactorial-obesity-model-developed-from-nationwide-public-health-exposome-data-and-modern-computational-analyses
#19
LisaAnn S Gittner, Barbara J Kilbourne, Ravi Vadapalli, Hafiz M K Khan, Michael A Langston
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Obesity is both multifactorial and multimodal, making it difficult to identify, unravel and distinguish causative and contributing factors. The lack of a clear model of aetiology hampers the design and evaluation of interventions to prevent and reduce obesity. METHODS: Using modern graph-theoretical algorithms, we are able to coalesce and analyse thousands of inter-dependent variables and interpret their putative relationships to obesity...
September 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520403/integrated-strategy-for-unknown-ei-ms-identification-using-quality-control-calibration-curve-multivariate-analysis-ei-ms-spectral-database-and-retention-index-prediction
#20
Teruko Matsuo, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Hiromi Miyagawa, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Compound identification using unknown electron ionization (EI) mass spectra in gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is challenging in untargeted metabolomics, natural product chemistry, or exposome research. While the total count of EI-MS records included in publicly or commercially available databases is over 900 000, efficient use of this huge database has not been achieved in metabolomics. Therefore, we proposed a "four-step" strategy for the identification of biologically significant metabolites using an integrated cheminformatics approach: (i) quality control calibration curve to reduce background noise, (ii) variable selection by hypothesis testing in principal component analysis for the efficient selection of target peaks, (iii) searching the EI-MS spectral database, and (iv) retention index (RI) filtering in combination with RI predictions...
May 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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