Read by QxMD icon Read


Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Tzipporah M Kormos, Joachim D Pleil
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Jean Krutmann, Anne Bouloc, Gabrielle Sore, Bruno A Bernard, Thierry Passeron
The term "exposome" describes the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected from conception to death. It includes both external and internal factors as well as the human body's response to these factors. Current exposome research aims to understand the effects all factors have on specific organs, yet today, the exposome of human skin has not received major attention and a corresponding definition is lacking. This review was compiled with the collaboration of European scientists, specialized in either environmental medicine or skin biology...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Pavel Hamet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, Ken Liu, Shuzhao Li, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
"Sola dosis facit venenum." These words of Paracelsus, "the dose makes the poison", can lead to a cavalier attitude concerning potential toxicities of the vast array of low abundance environmental chemicals to which humans are exposed. Exposome research teaches that 80-85% of human disease is linked to environmental exposures. The human exposome is estimated to include >400,000 environmental chemicals, most of which are uncharacterized with regard to human health. In fact, mass spectrometry measures >200,000 m/z features (ions) in microliter volumes derived from human samples; most are unidentified...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Kirsten S Traynor, Jeffery S Pettis, David R Tarpy, Christopher A Mullin, James L Frazier, Maryann Frazier, Dennis vanEngelsdorp
This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gang Shao, Michael MacNeil, Yuanyuan Yao, Roger W Giese
RATIONALE: A method was needed to accomplish solid phase extraction of a large urine volume in a convenient way where resources are limited, towards a goal of metabolome and xenobiotic exposome analysis at another, distant location. METHODS: A porous extraction paddle (PEP) was set up, comprising a porous nylon bag containing extraction particles that is flattened and immobilized between two stainless steel meshes. Stirring the PEP after attachment to a shaft of a motor mounted on the lid of the jar containing the urine accomplishes extraction...
September 14, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Dean G Assimos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Urology
Erik Portelius, Emilie Durieu, Marion Bodin, Morgane Cam, Josef Pannee, Charlotte Leuxe, Aloϊse Mabondzo, Nassima Oumata, Hervé Galons, Jung Yeol Lee, Young-Tae Chang, Kathrin Stϋber, Philipp Koch, Gaëlle Fontaine, Marie-Claude Potier, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Spiros D Garbis, Adrian Covaci, Debby Van Dam, Peter De Deyn, Frank Karg, Marc Flajolet, Chiori Omori, Saori Hata, Toshiharu Suzuki, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Laurent Meijer
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by secretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Increased production of Aβ42 over Aβ40 and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifying products of the 'human chemical exposome' (HCE) able to induce Aβ42 production may be a key to understanding some of the initiating causes of AD and to generate non-genetic, chemically-induced AD animal models. A cell model was used to screen HCE libraries for Aβ42 inducers...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
P Vineis, M Chadeau-Hyam, H Gmuender, J Gulliver, Z Herceg, J Kleinjans, M Kogevinas, S Kyrtopoulos, M Nieuwenhuijsen, D Phillips, N Probst-Hensch, A Scalbert, R Vermeulen, C P Wild
EXPOsOMICS is a European Union funded project that aims to develop a novel approach to the assessment of exposure to high priority environmental pollutants, by characterizing the external and the internal components of the exposome. It focuses on air and water contaminants during critical periods of life. To this end, the project centres on 1) exposure assessment at the personal and population levels within existing European short and long-term population studies, exploiting available tools and methods which have been developed for personal exposure monitoring (PEM); and 2) multiple "omic" technologies for the analysis of biological samples (internal markers of external exposures)...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Yuanyuan Yao, Poguang Wang, Gang Shao, Liza V Anzalota Del Toro, Jose Codero, Roger W Giese
RATIONALE: Testing the urine nonpolar sulfateome can enable discovery of xenobiotics that are most likely to be bioactive. This is based on the fact that nonpolar xenobiotics are more likely to enter cells where they tend to undergo metabolism, in part, to sulfates that are then largely excreted into the urine. METHODS: The following sequence of steps, with conditions that achieve high reproducibility, was applied to large human urine samples: (1) competitive nonpolar extraction with a porous extraction paddle; (2) weak anion-exchange extraction with strong organic washing; and (3) ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometery (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) with recording of ions with signal-to-noise (S/N) ≥ 20 that yielded M-1-80 (loss of SO3 ) or m/z 97 (HSO4(-) ) upon fragmentation...
November 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Geneviève A Derumeaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
D Gayle DeBord, Tania Carreón, Thomas J Lentz, Paul J Middendorf, Mark D Hoover, Paul A Schulte
The exposome has been defined as the totality of exposures individuals experience over the course of their lives and how those exposures affect health. Three domains of the exposome have been identified: internal, specific external, and general external. Internal factors are those that are unique to the individual, and specific external factors include occupational exposures and lifestyle factors. The general external domain includes sociodemographic factors such as educational level and financial status. Eliciting information on the exposome is daunting and not feasible at present; the undertaking may never be fully realized...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Bessonneau Vincent, Ings Jennifer, McMaster Mark, Smith Richard, Bragg Leslie, Servos Mark, Pawliszyn Janusz
Fish are widely used for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and water contamination by organic toxicants from natural and anthropogenic sources. However, most of these studies only focused on the measurement of specific toxicants and did not examine the impact of chemical mixtures. In this study, we examined whether the tissue exposome captured in vivo with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) without lethal sampling and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry can detect differences between Catostomus commersonii exhibiting a significant induction of CYP1A1, through case/control comparisons, controlling for false discovery rates...
August 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Yuxia Cui, David M Balshaw, Richard K Kwok, Claudia L Thompson, Gwen W Collman, Linda S Birnbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Evangelina López de Maturana, Sílvia Pineda, Angela Brand, Kristel Van Steen, Núria Malats
Primary and secondary prevention can highly benefit a personalized medicine approach through the accurate discrimination of individuals at high risk of developing a specific disease from those at moderate and low risk. To this end precise risk prediction models need to be built. This endeavor requires a precise characterization of the individual exposome, genome, and phenome. Massive molecular omics data representing the different layers of the biological processes of the host and the nonhost will enable to build more accurate risk prediction models...
July 18, 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
Kristine K Dennis, Elizabeth Marder, David M Balshaw, Yuxia Cui, Michael A Lynes, Gary J Patti, Stephen M Rappaport, Daniel T Shaughnessy, Martine Vrijheid, Dana Boyd Barr
BACKGROUND: The term "exposome" was coined in 2005 to underscore the importance of the environment to human health and bring research efforts in line with those on the human genome. The ability to characterize environmental exposures through biomonitoring is key to exposome research efforts. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe why traditional and non-traditional (exposomic) biomonitoring are both critical in studies aiming to capture the exposome and make recommendations on how to transition exposure research toward exposomic approaches...
July 6, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Dries S Martens, Tim S Nawrot
Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors...
September 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Elliott M Antman, Joseph Loscalzo
The cardiovascular research and clinical communities are ideally positioned to address the epidemic of noncommunicable causes of death, as well as advance our understanding of human health and disease, through the development and implementation of precision medicine. New tools will be needed for describing the cardiovascular health status of individuals and populations, including 'omic' data, exposome and social determinants of health, the microbiome, behaviours and motivations, patient-generated data, and the array of data in electronic medical records...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
M Schootman, E J Nelson, K Werner, E Shacham, M Elliott, K Ratnapradipa, M Lian, A McVay
Adverse neighborhood conditions play an important role beyond individual characteristics. There is increasing interest in identifying specific characteristics of the social and built environments adversely affecting health outcomes. Most research has assessed aspects of such exposures via self-reported instruments or census data. Potential threats in the local environment may be subject to short-term changes that can only be measured with more nimble technology. The advent of new technologies may offer new opportunities to obtain geospatial data about neighborhoods that may circumvent the limitations of traditional data sources...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"