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Matteo Donadon, Antonio Mimmo, Guido Costa, Matteo Cimino, Luca Viganò, Angela Palmisano, Guido Torzilli
BACKGROUND: The assessment of liver volume (LV) is important before surgical resection or transplantation to reduce the risk of hepatic insufficiency. LV is usually measured using computed tomography or with some formulas. The aim of this study was to develop a new dynamic formula to predict LV. METHODS: Using computed tomography, LV was calculated in 101 patients without liver disease. LV was correlated with patient metabolic status, calculated with the Harris-Benedict equation for basal energy expenditure (BEE)...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Yulia V Astafurova, Maxim Yu Proshchalykin
The type specimens of Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 deposited in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) are reviewed. Primary types of 69 taxa are illustrated and detailed information is provided (taxa include 33 described by F. Morawitz; 16 by P. Blüthgen; 15 by Yu. Pesenko (one of them with N. Davydova); four by E. Eversmann; and one by T.D.A. Cockerell). Lectotypes are designated here for the following eleven nominal taxa: Halictus anguliceps Morawitz, 1893, H. corvinus Morawitz, 1877, H...
April 13, 2018: Zootaxa
Kelli S Ramos
Protandrenini includes approximately 420 species of short-tongued bees, which are exclusively distributed in the Americas (Michener 2007; Moure et al. 2007; Ascher Pickering 2017). Members of this tribe are mostly found in xeric and temperate areas in South America, and their diversity is still greatly underestimated. In fact, a major challenge to the systematics of Protandrenini is the outstanding number of species unplaced in genera or awaiting formal description (Ruz Chiappa 2004; Ramos Melo 2006; Michener 2007; Moure et al...
February 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Gideon Pisanty, Erwin Scheuchl, Netta Dorchin
Andrena (Poecilandrena) Hedicke is a subgenus of small solitary bees, with the greatest diversity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region-an important but understudied biodiversity hotspot for bees. We studied Andrena (Poecilandrena) collected mostly in Israel and the West Bank, and make several additions to the regional fauna. We provide the first comprehensive review of Andrena (Poecilandrena) species currently known from Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, including diagnostic keys to females and males, descriptions of new species and unknown sexes, and detailed information for each taxon regarding distribution, phenology and flower visitation...
January 18, 2018: Zootaxa
Christian W W Pirk
A new study shows that, in honey bees, the main role of certain proteins in royal jelly is to ensure that the larva stays in its cell, thereby allowing it to develop into a queen.
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
J Williamson, C G Adams, R Isaacs, L J Gut
Declines in the number of commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and some wild bee species around the world threaten fruit, nut, and vegetable production and have prompted interest in developing methods for gaining efficiencies in pollination services. One possible approach would be to deploy attractants within the target crop to increase the number of floral visits. In this study, we evaluate two new pollinator attractants, Polynate and SPLAT Bloom, for their ability to increase pollinator visitation and fruit set in apple (Malus pumila Mill...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Christopher A Varnon, Christopher W Dinges, Tim E Black, Harrington Wells, Charles I Abramson
BACKGROUND: Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning is a highly specialized form of conditioning found across taxa that leads to avoidance of an initially neutral stimulus, such as taste or odor, that is associated with, but is not the cause of, a detrimental health condition. The present study examines if honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) develop ethanol-induced CTA. METHODS: Restrained bees were first administered a sucrose solution that was cinnamon scented, lavender scented, or unscented, and contained either 0%, 2...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Cory S Sheffield, Jennifer Heron
Background: Epeoloides pilosulus , one of the rarest bees in North America, is a cleptoparasite of Macropis bees which themselves are uncommon oligoleges of oil-producing Lysimachia flowers. Only two specimens of the cleptoparasite have been reported from Canada since the 1960s, both from Nova Scotia. New information: A recently collected specimen of Epeoloides pilosulus from Alberta, Canada confirms this species from that province and greatly increases its known range in western North America...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
I Tlak Gajger, J Ribarić, M Smodiš Škerl, J Vlainić, P Sikirić
Nosema ceranae can cause major problems, such as immune suppression, gut epithelial cell degeneration, reduced honeybee lifespan, or suddenly colony collapse. As a novel approach in therapy, we hypothesize the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in honeybee therapy, to control N. ceranae invasions in apiary conditions: BPC 157 treated sugar syrup (0.25 L sugar syrup supplemented with 0.1 μg/ml BPC 157), as well as the pure sugar syrup (0.25 L sugar syrup; control), was administered to honeybee colonies in feeders situated under the roof of the hives, during 21 consecutive days, at the end of beekeeping season...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Angelo Pirrone, Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden, Tom Stafford, James A R Marshall
Complex natural systems from brains to bee swarms have evolved to make adaptive multifactorial decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that many evolved systems may take advantage of common motifs across multiple domains. We are particularly interested in value sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity to the magnitude or intensity of the stimuli or reward under consideration) as a mechanism to resolve deadlocks adaptively. This mechanism favours long-term reward maximization over accuracy in a simple manner, because it avoids costly delays associated with ambivalence between similar options; speed-value trade-offs have been proposed to be evolutionarily advantageous for many kinds of decision...
April 2018: Decision (Washington)
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Jaspreet Kaur, Raghu Adya, Alexander D Miras, Harman S Mattu, John G Hattersley, Gregory Kaltsas, Bee K Tan, Harpal S Randeva
Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein, acts via a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, i.e. Chemokine like Receptor 1/ChemR23; levels of which are elevated in pro-inflammatory states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have reported that chemerin induces human endothelial cell angiogenesis and since dysregulated angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction are hallmarks of vascular disease; we sought to determine the effects of chemerin on monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a critical pro-inflammatory transcription factor...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Yoonmi Lee, Sung-Geun Kim, In-Su Kim, Hwa-Dong Lee
Background: Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Bee Wah Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of allergic diseases in childhood may be attributed to influences of early environmental stimuli on fetal and neonatal immune regulation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is common in the Asian population and up to 20% of infants require phototherapy. We examined the hypothesis that phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia modulates the infant's risk of developing eczema, rhinitis and wheeze in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort...
March 24, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Elisabeth Farhat, Elizabeth Tegg, Soma Mohammed, Elzbieta Grzechnik, Emmanuel J Favaloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Joanne L Emery, Tim Coleman, Stephen Sutton, Sue Cooper, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Matthew Jones, Felix Naughton
BACKGROUND: Smoking in pregnancy is a major public health concern. Pregnant smokers are particularly difficult to reach, with low uptake of support options and few effective interventions. Text message-based self-help is a promising, low-cost intervention for this population, but its real-world uptake is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the uptake and cost-effectiveness of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers ("MiQuit") when advertised on the internet...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Cassiana R de Góes, André Luis Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious condition with high mortality. The presence of hypermetabolism may be a factor related to poorer prognosis. This study evaluated the resting energy expenditure (REE) of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe AKI using indirect calorimetry (IC) and identified factors associated with metabolism categories. Patients were evaluated through measurement of REE and estimation of basal energy expenditure (BEE) using the Harris⁻Benedict equation. Metabolism categories were as follows: hypermetabolism (REE/BEE > 1...
April 19, 2018: Nutrients
Yanru Zhao, Dongsheng Wang, Jin Tong, Jiyu Sun, Jin Zhang
The structures combining the veins and membranes of membranous wings of the Chinese bee Apis cerana cerana Fabricius into a whole have excellent load-resisting capacity. The membranous wings of Chinese bees were taken as research objects and the mechanical properties of a biomimetic model of membranous wings as targets. In order to understand and learn from the biosystem and then make technical innovation, the membranous wings of Chinese bees were simulated and analysed with reverse engineering and finite element method...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Vaheh Oganesyan, Li Peng, Jared S Bee, John Li, Samuel R Perry, Frank Comer, Linda Xu, Kimberly Cook, Kannaki Senthil, Lori Clarke, Kim Rosenthal, Chanshou Gao, Melissa Damschroder, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua
Pathways of human EGF receptors are activated upon ligand dependent or independent homo or heterodimerization and their subsequent transphosphorylation. Overexpression of these receptors positively correlates with transphosphorylation rates and increased tumor growth rates. MEDI4276, an anti human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) biparatopic antibody drug conjugate, has two paratopes within each of antibody arms. One, 39S, is aiming at the HER2 site involved in receptor dimerization and the second, single chain fragment (scFv) mimicking trastuzumab...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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