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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454158/adding-a-spin-to-kerker-s-condition-angular-tuning-of-directional-scattering-with-designed-excitation
#1
Lei Wei, Nandini Bhattacharya, H Paul Urbach
We describe a method to control the directional scattering of a high-index dielectric nanosphere, which utilizes the unique focusing properties of an azimuthally polarized phase vortex and a radially polarized beam to independently excite inside the nanosphere a spinning magnetic dipole and a linearly polarized electric dipole mode normal to the magnetic dipole. We show that by simply adjusting the phase and amplitude of the field on the exit pupil of the optical system, the scattering of the nanosphere can be tuned to any direction within a plane, and the method works over a broad wavelength range...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454150/selective-propagation-and-beam-splitting-of-surface-plasmons-on-metallic-nanodisk-chains
#2
Yuhui Hu, Di Zhao, Zhenghan Wang, Fei Chen, Xiang Xiong, Ruwen Peng, Mu Wang
Manipulating the propagation of surface plasmons (SPs) on a nanoscale is a fundamental issue of nanophotonics. By using focused electron beam, SPs can be excited with high spatial accuracy. Here we report on the propagation of SPs on a chain of gold nanodisks with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. Experimental evidence for the propagation of SPs excited by the focused electron beam is demonstrated. The wavelength of the transmitted SPs depends on the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk chain. Furthermore, we design and fabricate a beam splitter, which selectively transmits SPs of certain wavelengths to a specific direction...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454106/different-patterns-of-age-related-central-olfactory-decline-in-men-and-women-as-quantified-by-olfactory-fmri
#3
Brittany Martinez, Prasanna Karunanayaka, Jianli Wang, Michael J Tobia, Megha Vasavada, Paul J Eslinger, Qing X Yang
Age-related olfactory decline, or presbyosmia, is a prevalent condition with potentially devastating consequences on both quality of life and safety. Despite clear evidence for this decline, it is unknown whether presbyosmia is sex-dependent and also whether it is due to central or peripheral olfactory system deterioration. Therefore, the goals of this study were to investigate the neurofunctional substrate of olfactory decline and examine its relationship to age and sex in thirty-seven (18 women, 19 men) healthy older participants using olfactory functional MRI (fMRI)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453971/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-th17-inducers-and-helpers-in-a-hostile-world
#4
REVIEW
Pamela Schnupf, Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Philippe J Sansonetti, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
The Th17 cell composition in the murine gut is strikingly dependent on the presence of the commensal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). SFB potently stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses and protects the host from pathogens both in and outside of the gut, partly due to its unique ability to promote a Th17-fostering environment. Recent work has highlighted the role of the tight adherence of SFB to the intestinal surface in mediating the potent immunostimulatory potential of SFB. Progress has also been made in our understanding of how SFB fosters this protective immune environment on the cellular and molecular level...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453956/molecular-imaging-of-activated-platelets-via-antibody-targeted-ultra-small-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-displaying-unique-dual-mri-contrast
#5
Hang T Ta, Zhen Li, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Gary Cowin, Shaohua Zhang, Jathushan Palasubramaniam, Karen Alt, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter, Andrew K Whittaker
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful and indispensable tool in medical research, clinical diagnosis, and patient care due to its high spatial resolution and non-limited penetration depth. The simultaneous use of positive and negative MRI imaging that employs the same contrast agents will significantly improve detection accuracy. Here we report the development of functional multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted MRI of atherothrombosis using a combination of chemical and biological conjugation techniques...
April 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453914/the-shape-of-things-to-come-the-formation-of-modulated-nematic-mesophases-at-various-length-scales
#6
Richard J Mandle
The twist-bend nematic phase is a recently discovered liquid-crystalline phase that exhibits macroscopic chirality even when formed from achiral materials, and as such presents a unique testbed for studies concerning the spontaneous breaking of mirror symmetry in soft matter. It is primarily exhibited by materials whose molecular structure is composed of two rigid aromatic units (such as biphenyl connected by a flexible spacer). The local structure of the NTB phase is nematic-like - with molecules having an average orientational order but no positional order - with a nanoscale helix where the pitch is of the order of several nanometres...
April 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453905/transdiagnostic-neural-correlates-of-affective-face-processing-in-anxiety-and-depression
#7
Annmarie MacNamara, Heide Klumpp, Amy E Kennedy, Scott A Langenecker, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether there are neurobiologic differences between various anxiety and depressive disorders, or whether they are characterized by shared neurobiologic variation that cuts across diagnostic boundaries. For instance, multiple anxiety disorders and depression may be characterized by abnormalities in blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response during the processing of affective scenes and faces. To interrogate the shared or unique nature of these aberrations, research that examines the influence of transdiagnostic, dimensional predictors across multiple diagnoses is needed...
April 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453901/quasi-static-acoustic-tweezing-thromboelastometry
#8
R G Holt, D Luo, N Gruver, D B Khismatullin
BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of surgical patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. OBJECTIVES: To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a noncontact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453887/self-management-strategies-used-by-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors-following-completion-of-primary-treatment-a-directed-content-analysis
#9
Simon Dunne, Orla Mooney, Laura Coffey, Linda Sharp, Aileen Timmons, Deirdre Desmond, Rachael Gooberman-Hill, Eleanor O'Sullivan, Ivan Keogh, Conrad Timon, Pamela Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Head & Neck Cancer (HNC) survivors encounter unique challenges following treatment. This study aimed to identify self-management strategies that HNC survivors use to overcome these post-treatment challenges. METHODS: Twenty-seven individuals from four designated cancer centres in Ireland were interviewed about self-management strategies that helped them overcome challenges following HNC treatment. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using directed content analysis...
April 28, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453674/ntcard-a-streaming-algorithm-for-cardinality-estimation-in-genomics-data
#10
Hamid Mohamadi, Hamza Khan, Inanc Birol
Motivation: Many bioinformatics algorithms are designed for the analysis of sequences of some uniform length, conventionally referred to as k -mers. These include de Bruijn graph assembly methods and sequence alignment tools. An efficient algorithm to enumerate the number of unique k -mers, or even better, to build a histogram of k -mer frequencies would be desirable for these tools and their downstream analysis pipelines. Among other applications, estimated frequencies can be used to predict genome sizes, measure sequencing error rates, and tune runtime parameters for analysis tools...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453661/photoreceptor-outer-segment-as-a-sink-for-membrane-proteins-hypothesis-and-implications-in-retinal-ciliopathies
#11
Seongjin Seo, Poppy Datta
The photoreceptor outer segment (OS) is a unique modification of the primary cilium, specialized for light perception. Being homologous organelles, the primary cilium and the OS share common building blocks and molecular machinery to construct and maintain them. The OS, however, has several unique structural features that are not seen in primary cilia. Although these unique features of the OS have been well documented, their implications in protein localization have been under-appreciated. In this review, we compare the structural properties of the primary cilium and the OS, and propose a hypothesis that the OS can act as a sink for membrane proteins...
April 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453644/traitrateprop-a-web-server-for-the-detection-of-trait-dependent-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-sequence-sites
#12
Eli Levy Karin, Haim Ashkenazy, Susann Wicke, Tal Pupko, Itay Mayrose
Understanding species adaptation at the molecular level has been a central goal of evolutionary biology and genomics research. This important task becomes increasingly relevant with the constant rise in both genotypic and phenotypic data availabilities. The TraitRateProp web server offers a unique perspective into this task by allowing the detection of associations between sequence evolution rate and whole-organism phenotypes. By analyzing sequences and phenotypes of extant species in the context of their phylogeny, it identifies sequence sites in a gene/protein whose evolutionary rate is associated with shifts in the phenotype...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453622/the-impact-of-exercise-on-cancer-mortality-recurrence-and-treatment-related-adverse-effects
#13
Prue Cormie, Eva M Zopf, Xiaochen Zhang, Kathryn H Schmitz
The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer...
April 27, 2017: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453559/evaluation-of-the-reproducibility-of-amplicon-sequencing-with-illumina-miseq-platform
#14
Chongqing Wen, Liyou Wu, Yujia Qin, Joy D Van Nostrand, Daliang Ning, Bo Sun, Kai Xue, Feifei Liu, Ye Deng, Yuting Liang, Jizhong Zhou
Illumina's MiSeq has become the dominant platform for gene amplicon sequencing in microbial ecology studies; however, various technical concerns, such as reproducibility, still exist. To assess reproducibility, 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 soil samples of a reciprocal transplantation experiment were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene from each sample was sequenced in triplicate with each replicate having a unique barcode. The average OTU overlap, without considering sequence abundance, at a rarefaction level of 10,323 sequences was 33...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453521/soy-moratorium-impacts-on-soybean-and-deforestation-dynamics-in-mato-grosso-brazil
#15
Jude H Kastens, J Christopher Brown, Alexandre Camargo Coutinho, Christopher R Bishop, Júlio César D M Esquerdo
Previous research has established the usefulness of remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterize the spatial dynamics of agriculture in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. With these data it has become possible to track MT agriculture, which accounts for ~85% of Brazilian Amazon soy production, across periods of several years. Annual land cover (LC) maps support investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of agriculture as they relate to forest cover and governance and policy efforts to lower deforestation rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453509/self-image-and-sexuality-issues-among-young-women-with-breast-cancer-practical-recommendations
#16
Clara Hungr, Veronica Sanchez-Varela, Sharon L Bober
BACKGROUND: Younger breast cancer survivors face a unique set of treatment-related issues that have enormous impact on quality of life and psychological well-being. Although there is often a profound and distressing impact of treatment on self-image and sexual function, women rarely receive any attention for these issues. Unfortunately, most clinicians receive no training on how to inquire about these problems and most clinicians feel unprepared to discuss them. Often this silence is due to a lack of ready resources and uncertainty of appropriate strategies for rehabilitation...
March 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453472/the-2002-nimh-provisional-diagnostic-criteria-for-depression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pdc-dad-gauging-their-validity-over-a-decade-later
#17
Amir A Sepehry, Philip E Lee, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, B Lynn Beattie, Howard H Feldman, Claudia Jacova
Presented herein is evidence for criterion, content, and convergent/discriminant validity of the NIMH-Provisional Diagnostic Criteria for depression of Alzheimer's Disease (PDC-dAD) that were formulated to address depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using meta-analytic and systematic review methods, we examined criterion validity evidence in epidemiological and clinical studies comparing the PDC-dAD to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV), and International Classification of Disease (ICD 9) depression diagnostic criteria...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453470/three-repeat-tau-with-grain-like-structures-and-distribution-in-an-83-year-old-man
#18
Naoki Kasahata, Tomohide Sato, Iichiroh Onishi, Masanobu Kitagawa, Toshiki Uchihara, Katsuiku Hirokawa
We encountered an 83-year-old man with 3-repeat dominant grain-like tau deposition. Tau-positive lesions exhibited apparent similarity to argyrophilic grains in terms of their distribution in the ambient gyrus, amygdala, and dorsomedial temporal tip and the characteristic comma-like morphology. The abundant oligodendroglial tau immunoreactivities were 3-repeat dominant. Tuft-shaped astrocytes showed partial 3-repeat tau immnoreactivities. These grain-like structures, as well as tuft-shaped astrocytes and oligodendroglia, exhibited predominant 3-repeat tau immunoreactivity, suggesting that grain-like structures and their characteristic distribution are mutually linked and not unique to 4-repeat tau deposition...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453349/chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-of-the-hand-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
C Liam Dwyer, Maximillian C Soong, N George Kasparyan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is characterized by activity-induced pain, swelling, and decreased muscle function due to increased pressure and decreased circulation within a confined muscle compartment. Although well-known to occur in the leg, involvement of the hand has rarely been reported in the literature. METHODS: We present a 44 year old male with CECS involving bilateral thenar and hypothenar compartments. Symptoms were reproduced on exam by driving screws into wood with a screwdriver...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453297/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-use-and-its-association-with-emotional-status-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-a-solid-tumor-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Aelee Jang, Duck-Hee Kang, Dong Uk Kim
OBJECTIVES: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used widely in various populations for various purposes, including emotional support and improvement of quality of life (QOL). However, CAM use and purposes for using CAM are less clear among Korean patients with a solid tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of CAM use, and the association between CAM use and anxiety, depression, and QOL in patients with a solid tumor. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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