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Hao Guan, Yanhong Yan, Xiaoling Li, Xiaomei Li, Yang Shuai, Guangyan Feng, Qifan Ran, Yimin Cai, Ying Li, Xinquan Zhang
This study analyzed the variation of microbial communities, their achieved fermentation quality, and the association between microbial diversity and environmental factors after ensiling of 96 samples prepared with bunker-silo in Southwest China. Most of natural corn silages achieved good fermentation, e.g., low pH value (<4.2) and high levels of lactic acid (36.26-79.83 mg/g DM). Weissella species were the dominant epiphytic bacteria in raw material, while Lactobacillus and Acetobacter species were prevalent in silages...
June 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Elodie Vandelle, Alessandro Vannozzi, Darren Wong, Davide Danzi, Anne-Marie Digby, Silvia Dal Santo, Alessandra Astegno
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is an ubiquitous key second messenger in plants, where it modulates many developmental and adaptive processes in response to various stimuli. Several proteins containing Ca2+ binding domain have been identified in plants, including calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins, which play critical roles in translating Ca2+ signals into proper cellular responses. In this work, a genome-wide analysis conducted in Vitis vinifera identified three CaM- and 62 CML-encoding genes. We assigned gene family nomenclature, analyzed gene structure, chromosomal location and gene duplication, as well as protein motif organization...
June 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jane E Hamilton, Angela M Heads, Thomas D Meyer, Pratikkumar V Desai, Olaoluwa O Okusaga, Raymond Y Cho
U.S. Hispanics, now the single largest minority group in the country, face unique mental health disparities. The current study utilizes Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia or mood disorder diagnosis at psychiatric hospital admission. Our retrospective cohort study examined electronic health record data at an academic safety-net psychiatric hospital for adult patients (n = 5571) admitted between 2010 and 2013. Logistic regression with block-wise entry of predisposing, enabling and need variables was used to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia diagnosis at admission...
May 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Austin T Baker, Tyler J Homewood, Terry R Baker
INTRODUCTION: Cervical Sympathetic Chain Schwannomas (CSCS) of the carotid sheath are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed on imaging. The following case documents a rare incident of a misdiagnosed CSCS with unusual outcomes of permanent Horner's syndrome and facial pain. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 36-year-old female presented with a slow-growing neck mass. CT and MRI led to a preoperative diagnosis of vagus nerve schwannoma (VNS). However, surgical treatment revealed the mass to be involved with the cervical sympathetic chain rather than the vagus nerve...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Dalila Forte, Anabela Nabais, Carlos Pontinha, Manuela Mafra, Luís Mateus
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumour predisposing condition, being Pilocytic Astrocytomas (PA) a common benign central nervous system (CNS) tumour occurring in this setting. Although this is a common association, simultaneous development of multiple lesions is an infrequent finding, especially in non-optic or hypothalamic locations. CLINICAL CASE: A 41 year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection presents with a first generalized seizure and associated headache and ataxia...
June 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Charlotte E Melia, Tanmay A M Bharat
Electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) is an imaging technique uniquely suited to the study of bacterial ultrastructure and cell biology. Recent years have seen a surge in structural and cell biology research on bacteria using cryo-ET. This research has driven major technical developments in the field, with applications emerging to address a wide range of biological questions. In this review, we explore the diversity of cryo-ET approaches used for structural and cellular microbiology, with a focus on in situ localization and structure determination of macromolecules...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Eszter Szabo, Reka Mizsei, Piotr Wilk, Zsofia Zambo, Beata Torocsik, Manfred S Weiss, Vera Adam-Vizi, Attila Ambrus
We report the crystal structures of the human (dihydro)lipoamide dehydrogenase (hLADH, hE3) and its disease-causing homodimer interface mutant D444V-hE3 at 2.27 and 1.84Å resolution, respectively. The wild type structure is a unique uncomplexed, unliganded hE3 structure with the true canonical sequence. Based on the structural information a novel molecular pathomechanism is proposed for the impaired catalytic activity and enhanced capacity for reactive oxygen species generation of the pathogenic mutant. The mechanistic model involves a previously much ignored solvent accessible channel leading to the active site that might be perturbed also by other disease-causing homodimer interface substitutions of this enzyme...
June 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
G Jayanath, Sowmya P Mohandas, Bhavya Kachiprath, Solly Solomon, T P Sajeevan, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
A novel esterase, designated as EstSP was identified by function based screening from a soil metagenomic fosmid library of solar saltern of Goa. EstSP gene of 1065 bp encoding a putative esterase of 354 amino acids showing 55% identity to esterase from gamma proteobacterium HIMB55 was identified. The enzyme EstSP belongs to family IV hormone sensitive lipase with novel sequence characteristics and a unique motif GDSGG. EstSP was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified protein with molecular mass of 58...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mariana Rae, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Priti Chivers, Alexis Bailey, Rosana Camarini
Environmental conditions, such as stress and environmental enrichment (EE), influence predisposition to alcohol use/abuse; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To assess the effect of environmental conditions on the initial rewarding effects of alcohol, we examined conditioned place-preference (CPP) to alcohol following exposure to EE in mice. Since social context is a major factor contributing to initial alcohol-drinking, we also assessed the impact of EE on the levels of the "social neuropeptide" oxytocin (OT) and its receptor, OTR...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Tala Al-Rousan, Zaker Schwabkey, Lara Jirmanus, Brett D Nelson
Background: The United Nations has declared the Syrian refugee crisis to be the biggest humanitarian emergency of our era. Neighbouring countries, such as Jordan, strain to meet the health needs of Syrian refugees in addition to their own citizens given limited resources. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the perspectives of Syrian refugees in Jordan, Jordanian health care providers and other stakeholders in addressing the public health issues of the refugee crisis...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
T A M Datema, K G Roper, S Cognat, M D Saad, L Oskam, V Dolmazon, M F M Engelberts, P Hessels, P R Klatser
OBJECTIVES: To introduce the Laboratory Quality Stepwise Implementation (LQSI) tool and provide data about its roll-out, usage and effectiveness in assisting laboratories with quality improvement. METHODS: The LQSI tool, a freely available stepwise guide, was developed by WHO to assist laboratories in efficiently implementing a quality management system. RESULTS: Since the tool's launch in 2014, it has been accessed by 116,431 unique users from 195 of 206 listed states...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kodavati Manohar, Doureradjou Peroumal, Narottam Acharya
Polη, a unique TLS DNA polymerase that promotes efficient bypass of UV-induced CPDs and cisplatin adducts, has not been explored in Candida species yet. Here we show that CaPolη plays a vital role in protecting Candida albicans genome from diverse array of DNA damaging agents, not limited to UV and cisplatin. Polη deficient strain did not exhibit any hyphal development in the presence of UV and cisplatin while the wild type strain profusely developed DNA damage induced filamentation. The polarized growth induced by HU and MMS was found to be Polη independent...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Emily D Geyer, Candice Burrier, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes, Sylvester M Black, W Kenneth Washburn, Joseph D Tobias
INTRODUCTION: Domino liver transplantation (DLT) utilizes the explanted liver of one liver transplant recipient as a donor graft in another patient. While there may be unique risks associated with DLT, it is unclear if DLT has less favorable long term outcomes than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). We used a propensity score matching approach to compare the outcomes of DLT recipients to DDLT recipients in a large national registry. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for patients undergoing DLT or DDLT in 2002-2016...
June 15, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
D Cheng, L Bonato, C Leinkram
PURPOSE: Ventral hernias are a common surgical issue and a myriad of surgical mesh designs has been developed for their treatment. Many of these new mesh designs have not been extensively tested and their complications rates are largely unknown. The C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ combines a unique knit construction polypropylene mesh with an omega-3 fatty acid coating. There has only previously been one reported study investigating this mesh. METHODS: A multicentre cohort study, with a single surgeon, of 168 consecutive patients with ventral hernias underwent repair using a standardized open pre-peritoneal approach with the novel C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ between January 2013 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Abdallah Rothman, Adrian Coyle
A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key informants with relevant academic or religious expertise. The model elaborates aspects of a mechanism for the development of the soul that constitutes a potential foundation for an Islamic theory of human psychology and has particular relevance for Islamic approaches to psychotherapy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
David Beran, Margaret Ewen, Kasia Lipska, Irl B Hirsch, John S Yudkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the key issues with regard to the value, affordability, and availability of diabetes treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the medicines needed to manage diabetes are available as generics and, if purchased appropriately, can be made affordable to many individuals and systems. With new treatments for diabetes, additional costs to individuals and systems need to be assessed in terms of added clinical benefit and financial impact...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Ja-Young Kwon, Paulomi Aldo, Yuan You, Jiahui Ding, Karen Racicot, Xiaoyan Dong, John Murphy, Guy Glukshtad, Michelle Silasi, Jian Peng, Li Wen, Vikki M Abrahams, Roberto Romero, Gil Mor
Pregnancy is a unique immunologic and microbial condition that requires an adequate level of awareness to provide a fast and protective response against pathogens as well as to maintain a state of tolerance to paternal antigens. Dysregulation of inflammatory pathways in the placenta triggered by pathogens is one of the main factors responsible for pregnancy complications. Type I IFNs are key molecules modulating immune responses at the level of the placenta and are crucial for protection of the pregnancy via their antiviral and immune modulatory properties...
June 15, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
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