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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535477/the-effect-of-crash-characteristics-on-cyclist-injuries-an-analysis-of-virginia-automobile-bicycle-crash-data
#1
Erin Robartes, T Donna Chen
This paper examines bicyclist, automobile driver, vehicle, environmental, and roadway characteristics that influence cyclist injury severity in order to determine which factors should be addressed to mitigate the worst bicyclist injuries. An ordered probit model is used to examine single bicycle-single vehicle crashes from Virginia police crash report data from 2010 to 2014. Five injury severity levels are considered: fatalities, severe injuries, minor or possible injuries, no apparent injuries, and no injury...
May 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530476/time-trials-versus-time-to-exhaustion-tests-effects-on-critical-power-w-and-oxygen-uptake-kinetics
#2
Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, Alfred Nimmerichter
PURPOSE: To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time trial (TT) based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), Wprime (W') and respective oxygen kinetics responses. METHODS: Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by three TTE and three TT efforts interspersed by a 60-min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake was measured during all trials. The mean response time (MRT) was calculated as a description of the overall V̇O2 kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503242/surgical-excision-of-perineal-nodular-induration-a-cyclist-s-third-testicle
#3
Mohannad A Awad, Gregory P Murphy, Thomas W Gaither, E Charles Osterberg, Thomas A Sanford, Andrew E Horvai, Benjamin N Breyer
Perineal nodular induration (PNI), or biker's nodule, is a rare, bothersome, pseudotumour. Herein, we describe the surgical technique used to treat a healthy cyclist who developed an enlarging PNI for five years that grew into a perineal mass. The mass prevented him from cycling due to worsening discomfort and heaviness. The PNI-associated mass was successfully removed by wide surgical excision and a local advancement flap. Subsequently, the patient resumed cycling. Histopathology report demonstrated a benign lesion with abundant ropy collagen with native smooth muscle, vessels, and rare fibroblast-like spindle cells...
May 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497286/the-influence-of-drinking-fluid-on-endurance-cycling-performance-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Justin J Holland, Tina L Skinner, Christopher G Irwin, Michael D Leveritt, Eric D B Goulet
BACKGROUND: Fluid replacement during cycling exercise evolves on a spectrum from simply drinking to thirst to planned structured intake, with both being appropriate recommendations. However, with mixed findings suggesting fluid intake may or may not improve endurance cycling performance (ECP) in a diverse range of trained individuals, there is a clear need for summarised evidence regarding the effect of fluid consumption on ECP. OBJECTIVES: (1) Determine the magnitude of the effect of drinking fluid on performance during cycling exercise tasks of various durations, compared with no drinking; (2) examine the relationship between rates of fluid intake and ECP; and (3) establish fluid intake recommendations based on the observations between rates of fluid intake and ECP...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495846/dispelling-the-myth-that-habitual-caffeine-consumption-influences-the-performance-response-to-acute-caffeine-supplementation
#5
Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Vitor de Salles Painelli, Guilherme Yamaguchi, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bryan Saunders, Rafael Pires da Silva, Erika Maciel, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Hamilton Roschel, Bruno Gualano
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of habitual caffeine intake on exercise performance to acute caffeine supplementation. METHODS: A double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced study was performed. Forty endurance-trained cyclists were allocated into tertiles according to their daily caffeine intake: low (58 ± 29 mg(.)d(-1)), moderate (143 ± 25 mg(.)d(-1)), and high consumers (351 ± 139 mg(.)d(-1)). Participants completed three trials in which they performed simulated cycling time-trials in the fastest time possible following ingestion of: caffeine (CAF: 6 mg(...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494259/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-conspicuity-in-the-detection-of-cyclists-by-car-drivers
#6
Joceline Rogé, Daniel Ndiaye, Isabelle Aillerie, Stéphane Aillerie, Jordan Navarro, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the visibility of cyclists for motorists in a simulated car driving task. BACKGROUND: In several cases involving collisions between cars and cyclists, car drivers failed to detect the latter in time to avoid collision because of their low conspicuity. METHOD: 2 groups of motorists (29.2 years old), including 12 cyclist-motorists and 13 non-cyclist-motorists, performed a vulnerable road user detection task in a car-driving simulator...
May 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493819/the-choice-of-freely-preferred-cadence-by-trained-nonprofessional-cyclists-may-not-be-characterized-by-mechanical-efficiency
#7
Yitzhak Weinstein, Ron Mor-Unikowski, Shachar Nice, Shraga Hocherman, Omri Inbar
BACKGROUND: Most cycling studies involve professional cyclists. Because training may affect riding style, it is of interest to determine the physiological basis for the personal choice of cycling cadence in nonprofessional cyclists. METHODS: Eleven nonprofessional (5.2±1.7-year-riding experience) male road cyclists, aged 35.0±11.0 years, underwent four separate laboratory test sessions. The first two sessions included habituation, anthropometry, V˙O2max,$\dot V{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{max}},$ and lactate threshold (LaTH) measurements...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482367/accuracy-of-cycling-power-meters-against-a-mathematical-model-of-treadmill-cycling
#8
Thomas Maier, Lucas Schmid, Beat Müller, Thomas Steiner, Jon Peter Wehrlin
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy among a high number of current mobile cycling power meters used by elite and recreational cyclists against a first principle-based mathematical model of treadmill cycling. 54 power meters from 9 manufacturers used by 32 cyclists were calibrated. While the cyclist coasted downhill on a motorised treadmill, a back-pulling system was adjusted to counter the downhill force. The system was then loaded 3 times with 4 different masses while the cyclist pedalled to keep his position...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482177/-outta-my-way-individual-and-environmental-correlates-of-interactions-between-pedestrians-and-vehicles-during-street-crossings
#9
Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Ugo Lachapelle, Andrée-Anne d'Amours-Ouellet, Jacques Bergeron, Sébastien Lord, Juan Torres
Because pedestrian crash rates remain lower than other collision types, surrogate measures such as traffic interactions are now used in road safety research to complement crash history. Using naturalistic data collection, we sought to assess 1) the likelihood of occurrence of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles based on individual and crossing characteristics; and 2) differences in interaction characteristics between children, adult and senior pedestrians. Observations of pedestrian crossing behaviours (n=4687) were recorded at 278 crossings...
May 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474871/effects-of-hydrogen-rich-water-on-prolonged-intermittent-exercise
#10
Alessandro DA Ponte, Nicola Giovanelli, Daniele Nigris, Stefano Lazzer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a positive effect of Hydrogen Rich Water (HRW) intake on acid-basic homeostasis at rest. We investigated 2-weeks of HRW intake on repeated sprint performance and acid-base status during prolonged intermittent cycling exercise. METHODS: In a cross over single-blind protocol, eight trained male cyclists (age [mean ± SD] 41±7 years, body mass 72.3±4.4 kg, height 1.77±0.04 m, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇ O2max] 52.6±4.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) were provided daily with 2 liters of placebo normal water (PLA, pH 7...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467857/one-night-of-sleep-restriction-following-heavy-exercise-impairs-3-km-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-morning
#11
John D Chase, Paul A Roberson, Michael J Saunders, Trent A Hargens, Christopher J Womack, Nicholas D Luden
The goal of this project was to examine the influence of a single night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise on cycling time trial performance (TT) and skeletal muscle function in the morning. Seven recreational cyclists (age, 24 ± 7 yrs; VO2peak, 62 ± 4 ml・kg-1・min-1) completed two phases, each consisting of evening (EX1) and next-morning (EX2) exercise sessions. EX1 and EX2 were separated by an assigned sleep condition; a full night of rest (CON, 7.1 ± 0.3 hrs of sleep) or sleep restriction through early waking (SR, 2...
May 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462577/comparison-of-physiological-measures-obtained-using-the-lode-excalibur-sport-cycle-ergometer-and-the-tacx-i-magic-home-training-device
#12
Kevin L Merry
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare several physiological measures obtained using a criterion cycle ergometer (Lode Excalibur Sport) and a commercially available home training device (Tacx i--Magic). METHODS: In a randomised, counterbalanced order, eight male amateur club level cyclists (age 30.4 ± 3.5 years, body mass 75.8 ± 8.1 kg, stature 1.75 ± 0.06 m) completed a submaximal and maximal incremental test on both the Lode Excalibur Sport and the Tacx i-Magic...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460405/validity-and-reliability-of-the-garmin-vector-power-meter-in-laboratory-and-field-cycling
#13
Alfred Nimmerichter, Lukas Schnitzer, Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Klaus Wirth
To assess the validity and reliability of the Garmin Vector against the SRM power meter, 6 cyclists completed 3 continuous trials at power outputs from 100-300 W at 50-90 rev·min(-1) and a 5-min time trial in laboratory and field conditions. In field conditions only, a 30-s sprint was performed. Data were compared with paired samples t-tests, with the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and the typical error. Reliability was calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV). There was no significant difference between the devices in power output in laboratory (p=0...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459286/the-maximally-achievable-cycling-cadence-affects-carbohydrate-management-at-moderate-and-heavy-exercise-intensity
#14
Ralph Beneke, Tobias G J Weber, Renate M Leithäuser
Effects of different cycling cadences (RPM) on metabolic rate, blood lactate concentration (BLC), and reliance on carbohydrate (CHO) defined as the fraction of oxygen uptake used for CHO oxidation (relCHO) are highly individual. Whether this depends on the individually maximal achievable RPM obtained at minimized cycling resistance (RPMmax), is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the individual freely chosen RPM at an incremental cycle ergometer test (ILT), and 2) relCHO at given BLC levels both depend on RPMmax...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455199/upper-body-compression-garment-physiological-effects-while-cycling-in-a-hot-environment
#15
Iker Leoz-Abaurrea, Roberto Aguado-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of an upper body compression garment (UBCG) on physiologic and perceptual responses while cycling in a hot environment. METHODS: Twenty recreational road cyclists were pair-matched for age, anthropometric data, and fitness level (V̇O2max) and randomly assigned to a control (CON) group (n=10) of cyclists who wore a conventional t-shirt or to a group (n=10) of cyclists who wore UBCG. Test session consisted of cycling at a fixed load (~50% V̇O2max) for 30 minutes at an ambient temperature of ~40ºC (39...
April 25, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452866/effects-of-dopamine-and-norepinephrine-on-exercise-induced-oculomotor-fatigue
#16
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Alexa Srzich, Nicholas Gant
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue-induced impairments in the control of eye movements are detectable via reduced eye movement velocity following a bout of prolonged, strenuous exercise. Slower eye movements caused by neural fatigue within the oculomotor system can be prevented by caffeine and upregulation of central catecholamines may be responsible for this effect. This study explored the individual contribution of dopamine and norepinephrine to fatigue-related impairments in oculomotor control...
April 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441164/information-acquisition-differences-between-experienced-and-novice-time-trial-cyclists
#17
Manhal Boya, Tom Foulsham, Florentina Hettinga, David Parry, Emily Williams, Hollie Jones, Andrew Sparks, David Marchant, Paul Ellison, Craig Bridge, Lars McNaughton, Dominic Micklewright
PURPOSE: To use eye-tracking technology to directly compare information acquisition behavior of experienced and novice cyclists during a self-paced 10 mile (16.1 km) time-trial. METHOD: Two groups of novice (N=10) and experienced cyclists (N=10) performed a 10-mile self-paced time-trial (TT) on two separate occasions during which a number of feedback variables (speed, distance, power output, cadence, heart rate, and time) were projected within their view. A large RPE scale was also presented next to the projected information and participants...
April 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437638/motor-expertise-and-performance-in-spatial-tasks-a-meta-analysis
#18
Daniel Voyer, Petra Jansen
The present study aimed to provide a summary of findings relevant to the influence of motor expertise on performance in spatial tasks and to examine potential moderators of this effect. Studies of relevance were those in which individuals involved in activities presumed to require motor expertise were compared to non-experts in such activities. A final set of 62 effect sizes from 33 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed an overall advantage in favor of motor experts in spatial tasks (d=0...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436737/bicycle-helmet-effectiveness-is-not-overstated
#19
Jake Olivier, Igor Radun
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the challenges in estimating bicycle helmet effectiveness from case-control studies of injured cyclists and to estimate helmet effectiveness from cases and available exposure data. METHODS: Data were extracted from studies of cyclists in Seattle, USA, Victoria and New South Wales (NSW), Australia and the Netherlands. Estimates of helmet use were used as exposure to compute relative risks for Seattle and Victorian data. Cycling distance data are routinely collected in the Netherlands; however, this data cannot be disaggregated by helmet use which makes it unsuitable for estimating helmet effectiveness...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436731/fatal-and-serious-collisions-involving-pedal-cyclists-and-trucks-in-london-between-2007-and-2011
#20
Rachel Talbot, Steve Reed, Nicola Christie, Jo Barnes, Pete Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Increased numbers of people riding pedal cycles have led to a greater focus on pedal cycle safety. The aim of this article is to explore factors that are associated with fatal and a small number of serious-injury pedal cyclist crashes involving trucks that occurred in London between 2007 and 2011. METHODS: Data were collected from police collision files for 53 crashes, 27 of which involved a truck (≥3.5 tonnes) and a pedal cycle. A systematic case review approach was used to identify the infrastructure, vehicle road user, and management factors that contributed to these crashes and injuries and how these factors interacted...
February 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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