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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785315/a-very-rare-case-of-hypereosinophilic-syndrome-secondary-to-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma
#1
Takanori Yamamoto, Atsushi Kamijo, Tadao Nakazawa, Kei Nakajima, Keita Kirito, Norio Komatsu, Keisuke Masuyama
Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a systemic disease characterized by an increased peripheral blood eosinophil count accompanied by systemic organ dysfunction. HES is classified into idiopathic HES, primary (neoplastic) HES (HESN ), and secondary (reactive) HES (HESR ). In this case report, a patient who developed peripheral blood eosinophilia and granulation tissue in the pharynx and paranasal sinus, which was initially diagnosed as chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), categorized as HESN , but was eventually identified after the patient had died as natural killer/T-cell (NK/T) lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), categorized as HESR , is presented...
2018: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258786/genetic-and-immune-determinants-of-immune-activation-in-hiv-exposed-seronegative-individuals-and-their-role-in-protection-against-hiv-infection
#3
Claudio Fenizia, Jean-François Rossignol, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Soon thereafter infection is established, hosts strive for an efficient eradication of microorganisms, with as limited tissue damage as possible, and durable immunological protection against re-infection. On the other hand, pathogens have developed countermeasures to escape host surveillance and to warrant diffusion to other hosts. In this molecular arms race the final results relies on multiple variables, including the genetic and immunologic e correlates of protection available for the host. In the field of HIV-infection, natural protection has been repeatedly associated to the presence of an immune activation state, at least in some cohorts of HESN (HIV-exposed seronegative)...
December 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938026/hiv-exposed-seronegative-hesn-compared-to-hiv-infected-individuals-have-higher-frequencies-of-telomeric-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-b-motifs-contribution-of-kir-b-motif-encoded-genes-to-nk-cell-responsiveness
#4
Elise Jackson, Cindy Xinyu Zhang, Zahra Kiani, Irene Lisovsky, Benjamin Tallon, Alexa Del Corpo, Louise Gilbert, Julie Bruneau, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Côté, Benoit Trottier, Roger LeBlanc, Danielle Rouleau, Cécile Tremblay, Christos M Tsoukas, Jean-Pierre Routy, Xiaoyan Ni, Tsoarello Mabanga, Nicole F Bernard
Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DS1 homozygotes (hmz) are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) than in recently HIV infected (HIV+) individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKR). The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913374/comparison-of-the-nutritional-values-of-infant-formulas-available-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Abdulhadi Hesn Almazrooy, Abdulrahman Mohammad Alturki, Afaf Mubarak Aljohani, Abeer Alraddadi, Abdulrahman Muslim Allogmani
Introduction. Optimum growth and development are best achieved by breastfeeding, which is the safest source for infant feeding. Mothers in Saudi Arabia start to breastfeed their infants but soon introduce formula brands. Objective. To assess the safety and nutritional adequacy of the oldest formula brands available in the Saudi market. Methods. An observational study has compared between 5 types of infant formula brands; they were chosen based on their international popularity. Also, they are considered as the oldest formula brands available in the Saudi market...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#6
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam D Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed, yet, persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
August 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323750/humoral-responses-against-hiv-in-male-genital-tract-role-in-sexual-transmission-and-perspectives-for-preventive-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Nicolas Rochereau, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Frédéric Lucht, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
: Most new HIV infections occur via sexual routes. The induction of protective anti-HIV antibodies in genital mucosa is an important step toward reducing HIV transmission. Mucosal anti-HIV antibodies may play a dual role by either protecting against HIV transmission or facilitating it. Protective properties against HIV of mucosal IgGs and IgAs exhibiting neutralizing or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activities have been described in highly exposed seronegative individuals. Conversely, some IgGs may facilitate the crossing of HIV free-particles through epithelial barriers by transcytosis...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262752/highly-exposed-hiv-1-seronegative-female-commercial-sex-workers-sustain-in-their-genital-mucosa-increased-frequencies-of-tolerogenic-myeloid-and-regulatory-t-cells
#8
V Thibodeau, L Fourcade, A-C Labbé, M Alary, F Guédou, J Poudrier, M Roger
We and others have shown that HIV-1 highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) female commercial sex workers (CSWs) maintain low genital inflammatory conditions to prevent HIV infection. HIV-1 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLR)-7/8 to induce interferon (IFN)-α, an important antiviral and immunomodulatory cytokine, which act together with interleukin (IL)-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-4 to initiate a "tolerogenic/regulatory" anti-inflammatory loop. In view of further unravelling elements associated with natural immunity to HIV-1, we have characterised TLR-7, IFN-α, IL-10, HLA-G and ILT-4 expression profiles in the genital tract of female CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs from Benin...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243241/high-expression-of-antiviral-and-vitamin-d-pathway-genes-are-a-natural-characteristic-of-a-small-cohort-of-hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-individuals
#9
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Irma Saulle, Daria Trabattoni, Francesca Vichi, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesco Mazzotta, Maria T Rugeles, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Natural resistance to HIV-1 infection is influenced by genetics, viral-exposure, and endogenous immunomodulators such as vitamin D (VitD), being a multifactorial phenomenon that characterizes HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). We compared mRNA expression of 10 antivirals, 5 immunoregulators, and 3 VitD pathway genes by qRT-PCR in cells of a small cohort of 11 HESNs, 16 healthy-controls (HCs), and 11 seropositives (SPs) at baseline, in response to calcidiol (VitD precursor) and/or aldithriol-2-(AT2)-inactivated HIV-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218480/human-leucocyte-antigen-hla-dqb1-03-02-and-hla-a-02-01-have-opposite-patterns-in-their-effects-on-susceptibility-to-hiv-infection
#10
N Rallón, C Restrepo, J L Vicario, J Del Romero, C Rodríguez, J García-Samaniego, M García, A Cabello, M Górgolas, J M Benito
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to seek correlates of immune protection in HIV infection. We sought to elucidate the association between the presence of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, as well as killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) genotypes, and the susceptibility to HIV infection in a Spanish cohort of HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals. METHODS: A total of 152 individuals were evaluated: 29 HESN individuals in stable heterosexual relationships with an HIV-infected partner admitting high-risk sexual intercourse for at least 12 months prior to inclusion in the study, 61 HIV-infected patients and 62 healthy controls...
September 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846662/-the-lymphoid-variant-of-hes-l-hes-as-differential-diagnose-of-severe-asthma-in-childhood
#11
T Leu, S Rauthe, C Wirth, H-U Simon, V Kunzmann, H Hebestreit, S Kunzmann
Based on a case report an overview on the differential diagnostic considerations with respect to blood hypereosinophilia (HE) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) in childhood is given. A 13-year-old boy was admitted for the clarification of an asthma. In the blood count an increased HE with 3 500/µl (30%) was found along with elevated total serum IgE and IL-5 level (2 000 IU/ml and 17 pg/ml). Lung function showed an obstruction (FEV1 38%). Radiologically the picture of bronchiectasis and mucus pluggine appeared...
November 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450662/development-of-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-sero-negative-hesn-individuals-in-jos-nigeria
#12
Sophia Osawe, Evaezi Okpokoro, Ruth Datiri, Grace Choji, Felicia Okolo, Pam Datong, Alash'le Abimiku
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a global health problem. With currently no cure, it is critical to get an effective vaccine to add to the arsenal of prevention and treatment tools. HIV Exposed Sero-Negative (HESN) individuals were enrolled and followed for 2 years. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study to enroll HESN volunteers and their partners was developed with a 2-year follow up. This was a vaccine preparedness study and designed as a Phase IIb trial...
July 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250526/thiazolides-elicit-anti-viral-innate-immunity-and-reduce-hiv-replication
#13
Daria Trabattoni, Federica Gnudi, Salomè V Ibba, Irma Saulle, Simone Agostini, Michela Masetti, Mara Biasin, Jean-Francois Rossignol, Mario Clerici
Nitazoxanide (Alinia(®), NTZ) and tizoxanide (TIZ), its active circulating metabolite, belong to a class of agents known as thiazolides (TZD) endowed with broad anti-infective activities. TIZ and RM-4848, the active metabolite of RM-5038, were shown to stimulate innate immunity in vitro. Because natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is suggested to be associated with strong innate immune responses, we verified whether TIZ and RM-4848 could reduce the in vitro infectiousness of HIV-1...
June 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171739/identification-of-a-specific-mirna-profile-in-hiv-exposed-seronegative-individuals
#14
Sara Yahyaei, Mara Biasin, Irma Saulle, Federica Gnudi, Mariacristina De Luca, Karen I Tasca, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesco Mazzotta, Mario Clerici
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression that play important roles in viral infections. Alterations of specific miRNAs are described in HIV infection, suggesting a role for miRNAs in pathogenesis of this disease. We verified whether a particular miRNA signature could be identified in natural resistance to HIV-1. METHODS: Expression level of 84 miRNAs was analyzed by RT-qPCR in plasma and unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of 30 seronegative individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 (HESN), 30 HIV seropositive subjects (HIV+), and 30 healthy controls (HC)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083474/antiviral-molecules-correlate-with-vitamin-d-pathway-genes-and-are-associated-with-natural-resistance-to-hiv-1-infection
#15
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Wildeman Zapata, María T Rugeles
The relationship between the immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D (VitD) and the expression of anti-HIV-1 molecules has not been explored in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). Higher mRNA levels of cathelicidin and HAD-4 in oral-mucosa and peripheral-blood, along with higher CYP24A1 mRNA in vaginal-mucosa and lower TLR2 mRNA in endocervical-mucosa were found in HESNs compared to non-exposed controls. Furthermore, the mRNA of anti-HIV molecules Elafin, TRIM5, Cathelicidin, HAD-4 and RNase7, previously associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, positively correlated with the mRNA expression of VDR in HESNs, suggesting the potential participation of VitD in natural resistance to HIV-1...
July 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879184/the-impact-of-sex-work-interruption-on-blood-derived-t-cells-in-sex-workers-from-nairobi-kenya
#16
Kenneth Omollo, Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Julie Lajoie, Makobu Kimani, Julianna Cheruiyot, Joshua Kimani, Julius Oyugi, Keith Raymond Fowke
BACKGROUND: Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya...
October 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690919/the-effects-of-rantes-polymorphisms-on-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-and-disease-progression-evidence-from-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Jiangyang Zhao, Shangyang She, Li Xie, Xiaopei Chen, Cuiju Mo, Li Huang, Wenqian Tang, Xuejie Chen
Associations of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) -403G/A, -28C/G, and In1.1T/C polymorphisms with HIV-1 infection and the progression of HIV-1 disease have been widely reported with inconsistent results. To clarify this situation, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all available studies from PubMed, EMBASE, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. A total of 24 eligible studies involving more than 10,000 subjects were included. By using the healthy controls, we found that -403G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in G/A+A/A versus GG (odds ratio [OR] = 0...
June 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616295/hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-individuals-show-alteration-in-tlr-expression-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-ex-vivo-an-innate-immune-quiescence-status
#18
Juan C Hernandez, Georges St Laurent, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in direct recognition of viruses, promoting cellular activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, despite the reduced systemic immune activation described in HIV-1-exposed seronegatives (HESNs), few studies have focused on determining the relationship between PRR expression and cytokine production. We have aimed here to evaluate the expression level of PRRs and cytokines in HESNs, HIV-1 patients and healthy donors. Basal PRR expression levels in PBMCs, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, and plasma cytokine levels as well as the PRR ligand-induced cytokine productions were determined by flow cytometry, qPCR and ELISA...
February 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548606/identification-of-innate-immune-antiretroviral-factors-during-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-exposure-to-hiv-1
#19
Wildeman Zapata, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez, Zhimin Feng, Aaron Weinberg, Aniello Russo, Nicoletta Potenza, Hernando Estrada, María T Rugeles
Defensins, RNases and cytokines are present at mucosal barriers, main ports of HIV entry, and are potential mediators of the resistant phenotype exhibited by HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) during sexual exposure. We aimed to determine the role of soluble factors in natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Vaginal/endocervical/oral mucosal samples were taken from 60 HESN, 60 seropositive (SP) and 61 healthy controls (HC). Human neutrophil peptide 1 (hNP-1), human beta defensin (hBD) 2 and 3, RNases, MIP-1β and RANTES mRNA transcripts were quantified by qPCR and in vitro single-round, recombinant-based viral infectivity assay was used to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of hBDs and RNases...
March 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506037/reducing-irf-1-to-levels-observed-in-hesn-subjects-limits-hiv-replication-but-not-the-extent-of-host-immune-activation
#20
Ruey-Chyi Su, Andrew Plesniarski, Zhujun Ao, Joshua Kimani, Aida Sivro, Walter Jaoko, Frank A Plummer, Xiaojian Yao, Terry Blake Ball
Cells from women who are epidemiologically deemed resistant to HIV infection exhibit a 40-60% reduction in endogenous IRF-1 (interferon regulatory factor-1), an essential regulator of host antiviral immunity and the early HIV replication. This study examined the functional consequences of reducing endogenous IRF-1 on HIV-1 replication and immune response to HIV in natural HIV target cells. IRF-1 knockdown was achieved in ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and monocytes with siRNA. IRF-1 level was assessed using flow cytometry, prior to infection with HIV-Bal, HIV-IIIB, or HIV-VSV-G...
2015: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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