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transverse myelitis neuromyelitis optica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141830/post-herpes-zoster-infection-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#1
Thomas Mathew, Kurian Thomas, Sonia Shivde, Shruthi Venkatesh, Smitha Mary Rockey
Neuromyelitis optica is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease; however, the trigger for autoimmunity in an individual patient is unclear. Here, we report the case of a 48 year old female presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical region of the spinal cord two weeks post herpes zoster infection in right C6 dermatome. Though post herpetic myelitis was provisionally diagnosed, serological evaluation revealed aquaporin-4 antibody positivity, confirming the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141816/optic-neuritis-with-radiological-longitudinal-spinal-cord-involvement-and-seronegative-anti-aquaporin-antibody-evidence-from-a-case-study
#2
Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
In recent years, not only the incidence of brain demyelinating disease has increased, but also it seems that the world is facing new forms of autoimmune diseases of the brain. Distinguishing these diseases from each other is very important, since each requires a different treatment. The new criteria that were put forward in 2015 were meant to pave the way for better diagnosis of these diseases called neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). However, too much emphasis on the criteria based on the convergence and association of radiological findings with the clinical symptoms actually causes confusion in the diagnosis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136091/clinical-presentation-and-prognosis-in-mog-antibody-disease-a-uk-study
#4
Maciej Jurynczyk, Silvia Messina, Mark R Woodhall, Naheed Raza, Rosie Everett, Adriana Roca-Fernandez, George Tackley, Shahd Hamid, Angela Sheard, Gavin Reynolds, Saleel Chandratre, Cheryl Hemingway, Anu Jacob, Angela Vincent, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Jacqueline Palace
A condition associated with an autoantibody against MOG has been recently recognized as a new inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, but the disease course and disability outcomes are largely unknown. In this study we investigated clinical characteristics of MOG-antibody disease on a large cohort of patients from the UK. We obtained demographic and clinical data on 252 UK patients positive for serum immunoglobulin G1 MOG antibodies as tested by the Autoimmune Neurology Group in Oxford. Disability outcomes and disease course were analysed in more detail in a cohort followed in the Neuromyelitis Optica Oxford Service (n = 75), and this included an incident cohort who were diagnosed at disease onset (n = 44)...
November 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133107/paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Ádám Annus, Krisztina Bencsik, Izabella Obál, Zsigmond Tamás Kincses, László Tiszlavicz, Romana Höftberger, László Vécsei
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are demyelinating, autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system. Typically, recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis dominates the clinical picture. In most cases NMOSD are associated with autoantibodies targeting the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). NMOSD usually present in young adults. Clinical findings suggestive of NMOSD in elderly patients should raise the suspicion of a paraneoplastic etiology. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a 66 year-old female patient with paraneoplastic NMOSD that is associated with squamous cell lung carcinoma...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118581/complexity-and-wide-range-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-more-than-typical-manifestations
#6
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Meng-Ge Yang, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term "NMO spectrum disorders" (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103426/the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#7
Rinze Neuteboom, Colin Wilbur, Danielle Van Pelt, Moses Rodriguez, Ann Yeh
Acquired demyelinating syndromes in childhood comprise a spectrum of monophasic and recurrent inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. Examples of monophasic conditions include, clinically isolated syndromes such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, as well as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas recurrent disorders include entities such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Knowledge about these disorders has expanded due to rigorously evaluated diagnostic criteria, magnetic resonance imaging features, outcomes, and serum biomarkers in these disorders...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102045/-myelitis-as-a-differential-diagnosis-of-spinal-cord-tumors
#8
P Vermersch, O Outteryck, D Ferriby, H Zéphir
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelitis is common, related to multiple aetiologies and constitute in some cases a differential diagnosis for spinal cord tumors. Our objective was to review the clinical and paraclinical aspects of the main aetiologies of myelitis. METHODS: These aetiologies will be reviewed based on data not only from the scientific literature but also from our personal experience reported in different cohorts of patients. RESULTS: Multiple sclerosis is the main cause of partial myelitis in young adults...
November 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064441/pattern-recognition-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Rana K Zabad, Renee Stewart, Kathleen M Healey
During recent decades, the autoimmune disease neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), once broadly classified under the umbrella of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been extended to include autoimmune inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), which are now diagnosable with serum serological tests. These antibody-mediated inflammatory diseases of the CNS share a clinical presentation to MS. A number of practical learning points emerge in this review, which is geared toward the pattern recognition of optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, brainstem/cerebellar and hemispheric tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)-associated MS, aquaporin-4-antibody and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody NMOSD, overlap syndrome, and some yet-to-be-defined/classified demyelinating disease, all unspecifically labeled under MSsyndrome...
October 24, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061244/neuromyelitis-optica
#10
REVIEW
Sarah L Patterson, Sarah E Goglin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly known as Devic disease, is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disease characterized by transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Most patients demonstrate a relapsing course with incomplete recovery between attacks, resulting in progressive disability. The pathogenesis involves production of aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) by plasmablasts in peripheral circulation, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, complement-mediated astrocyte injury, and secondary demyelination. The diagnosis relies on characteristic clinical manifestations in the presence of serum AQP4-IgG positivity or specific neuroimaging findings, and exclusion of alternative etiologies...
November 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055475/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Lucas C van Rooij, Mike P Wattjes, Brigit A de Jong, Bob W van Oosten
BACKGROUND: MS is a demyelinating CNS disease and has distinct clinical and radiological features. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an antibody related auto-immune disease known for invalidating episodes of myelitis and optic neuritis. OBJECTIVE: Reporting the case of a 29-year old woman with a disease course typical for relapsing remitting MS with consistent radiological and spinal fluid findings, who developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) with positive aquaporin 4 antibodies, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for NMOSD...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049805/health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-demyelinating-diseases-relevance-of-disability-relapsing-presentation-and-fatigue
#12
Mariella M Self, Aaron Fobian, Katherine Cutitta, Arianne Wallace, Timothy E Lotze
Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis is established, but little research has examined HRQOL in the broader pediatric demyelinating disease population, and predictors of reduced HRQOL are largely unexplored. We sought to (1) compare generic HRQOL and fatigue of pediatric patients with relapsing (i.e., multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica) versus monophasic demyelinating diseases (i.e., acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, clinically isolated syndrome) and (2) examine the extent to which disability, relapsing disease, and fatigue predict HRQOL...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#13
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991690/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-with-antibodies-to-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-or-aquaporin-4-clinical-and-paraclinical-characteristics-in-algerian-patients
#14
Melissa Bouzar, Smail Daoudi, Samira Hattab, Amel A Bouzar, Kumaran Deiva, Brigitte Wildemann, Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. NMO and its abortive forms are referred to as NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD). NMOSD are mostly associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). However, recent studies have demonstrated antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) in a subset of patients. Data on NMOSD in North Africa are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG among patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis in Algeria as well as the clinical and paraclinical features associated with these antibodies...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967297/predictors-of-outcome-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-patients-with-transverse-myelitis
#15
Matteo Gastaldi, Enrico Marchioni, Paola Banfi, Valeria Mariani, Laura Di Lodovico, Roberto Bergamaschi, Enrico Alfonsi, Paola Borrelli, Ottavia Eleonora Ferraro, Elisabetta Zardini, Anna Pichiecchio, Andrea Cortese, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Mauro Ceroni, Marco Mauri, Diego Franciotta
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an inflammatory disorder that can be idiopathic or associated with central nervous system autoimmune/dysimmune inflammatory diseases, connective tissue autoimmune diseases, or post-infectious neurological syndromes. Prognosis of initial TM presentations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To identify outcome predictors in TM. METHODS: Retrospective study on isolated TM at onset. Scores ⩾3 on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) marked high disability...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920766/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-aquaporin-4-antibodies
#16
Maria Sepúlveda, Nuria Sola-Valls, Domingo Escudero, Bojan Rojc, Manuel Barón, Luis Hernández-Echebarría, Begoña Gómez, Josep Dalmau, Albert Saiz, Francesc Graus
BACKGROUND: In a minority of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG), the disease has a paraneoplastic origin. It is unknown whether these patients have distinctive clinical features. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features of a series of patients with paraneoplastic NMOSD and AQP4-IgG and to review previously reported cases. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of 156 patients with NMOSD and AQP4-IgG and review of previously reported patients with paraneoplastic NMOSD and AQP4-IgG...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904454/rituximab-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-our-experience
#17
Jui Dilip Jade, Srishti Bansi, Bhim Singhal
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease, with recurrent attacks of severe bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Aggressive immunosuppression is essential to prevent clinical relapses and permanent disability. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody to CD20, has been found effective in several reports and small uncontrolled studies. There is a paucity of data regarding its use in Indian patients...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780848/-clinical-characteristics-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-associated-with-syringomyelia
#18
Y G Wang, Y Q Wang, W Qiu, X Q Hu, Z Z Lu
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) associated with syringomyelia (SML). Methods: The clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters and imaging findings of 7 patients with NMOSD associated with SML during June 2008 to August 2016 from The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Six patients were female and 1 was male, with ages ranging from 27-67 years, the course of the disease was 3-12 years, recurrence was 2-7 times, all the patients were cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (CSF OCB) negative, 5 patients were positive for aquaporin-4-antibody/NMO-IgG...
August 1, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748851/insights-into-initial-demyelinating-episodes-of-central-nervous-system-during-puerperium
#19
Qian Wu, Bo Chen, Na Liu, Yang Hu, Chao Pan, Ping Zhang, Zhou-Ping Tang, Bi-Tao Bu
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a high childbearing female predominance. Labor-related alterations for postpartum demyelinating attacks are not entirely clear. This study aimed to summarize clinical features of female patients of reproductive age with initial CNS inflammatory demyelinating attacks during puerperium. METHODS: Fourteen female patients with initial demyelinating events during puerperium between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively studied...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639937/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-compared-with-standard-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-transverse-myelitis-in-adults-and-children-strive
#20
Michael Absoud, Peter Brex, Olga Ciccarelli, Onyinye Diribe, Gavin Giovannoni, Jennifer Hellier, Rosemary Howe, Rachel Holland, Joanna Kelly, Paul McCrone, Caroline Murphy, Jackie Palace, Andrew Pickles, Michael Pike, Neil Robertson, Anu Jacob, Ming Lim
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord that affects adults and children and that causes motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. There is a prolonged recovery phase, which may continue for many years. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an uncommon relapsing inflammatory central nervous system condition in which TM can be the first presenting symptom. As TM and NMO affect many patients in the prime of their working life, the disorder can impose a significant demand on health resources...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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