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"Immune tolerance"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348848/pd-l1-expression-in-tumor-tissue-and-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Manuel Weber, Falk Wehrhan, Christoph Baran, Abbas Agaimy, Maike Büttner-Herold, Raimund Preidl, Friedrich W Neukam, Jutta Ries
Background: Immune checkpoints like programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 are involved in immune escape mechanisms of solid tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Inhibitors of the pathway are successfully used for treating especially advanced disease. However, the physiological relevance of PD-1/PD-L1-signaling in OSCC is insufficiently understood. The aim of the study was to analyze if PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue and peripheral blood samples of OSCC patients is associated with histomorphological tumor parameters and if PD-L1 expression in patients is different from controls...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348497/rna-binding-proteins-control-gene-expression-and-cell-fate-in-the-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Martin Turner, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential for the development and function of the immune system. They interact dynamically with RNA to control its biogenesis and turnover by transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RBPs allow gene expression changes to occur at different speeds and to varying degrees, and which RBPs regulate the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. These proteins are nodes for integration of transcriptional and signaling networks and are intimately linked to intermediary metabolism...
January 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345713/synthetic-and-immunological-studies-on-trimeric-muc1-immunodominant-motif-antigen-based-anti-cancer-vaccine-candidates
#3
Mingjing Li, Fan Yu, Chao Yao, Peng George Wang, Yonghui Liu, Wei Zhao
Therapeutic vaccines have been regarded as a very promising treatment modality against cancer. Tumor-associated MUC1 is a promising antigen for the design of antitumor vaccines. However, body's immune tolerance and low immunogenicity of MUC1 glycopeptides limited their use as effective antigen epitopes of therapeutic vaccines. To solve this problem, we chose the immune dominant region of MUC1 VNTRs. We designed and synthesized its linear trivalent glycopeptide fragments and coupled the fragments with BSA. Immunological evaluation indicated that the antibodies induced by glycosylated MUC1 based vaccine 11 had a stronger binding than non-glycosylated 10...
January 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343645/crystal-structure-of-the-mammalian-lipopolysaccharide-detoxifier
#4
Alexei Gorelik, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
LPS is a potent bacterial endotoxin that triggers the innate immune system. Proper recognition of LPS by pattern-recognition receptors requires a full complement of typically six acyl chains in the lipid portion. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) is a host enzyme that removes secondary (acyloxyacyl-linked) fatty acids from LPS, rendering it immunologically inert. This activity is critical for recovery from immune tolerance that follows Gram-negative infection. To understand the molecular mechanism of AOAH function, we determined its crystal structure and its complex with LPS...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338551/the-regulatory-roles-of-b-cell-subsets-in-transplantation
#5
Zhulang Chu, Weilong Zou, Yanan Xu, Qiquan Sun, Yong Zhao
B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338074/adaptive-immune-education-by-gut-microbiota-antigens
#6
REVIEW
Qing Zhao, Charles O Elson
Host-microbiota mutualism has been established during long-term co-evolution. A diverse and rich gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and maturation of the host immune system. Education of the adaptive immune compartment by gut microbiota antigens is important in establishing immune balance. In particular, a critical time frame right after birth provides a "window of opportunity" for the development of lymphoid structures, differentiation and maturation of T and B cells, and most importantly, establishment of immune tolerance to gut commensals...
January 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337460/-rheumatology-checkpoint-induced-autoimmunity-birth-of-a-new-disease
#7
Diana Dan, Ludovic Tapparel, Thomas Hügle
Tumor cells express checkpoint proteins in order to prevent an immune reaction by T-cells. Checkpoint inhibitors are successfully used in oncology to unleash a cytotoxic immune response. Unfortunately this treatment increasingly leads to immune-related adverse events which resemble various primary autoimmune disorders known in rheumatology. Potentially, checkpoint dysfunction also underlies rheumatic diseases which would open the way for new treatment options to restore immune tolerance.
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336524/human-intestinal-dendritic-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
REVIEW
David Bernardo, María Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a serious, costly and persistent health problem with an estimated prevalence in Western countries around 0.5% of the general population; its socioeconomic impact is comparable with that for chronic diseases such as diabetes. Conventional treatment involves escalating drug regimens with concomitant side effects followed, in some cases, by surgical interventions which are often multiple, mainly in Crohn's disease. The goal of finding a targeted gut-specific immunotherapy for IBD patients is therefore an important unmet need...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335648/rapid-chromatin-repression-by-aire-provides-precise-control-of-immune-tolerance
#9
Andrew S Koh, Erik L Miller, Jason D Buenrostro, David M Moskowitz, Jing Wang, William J Greenleaf, Howard Y Chang, Gerald R Crabtree
Aire mediates the expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic epithelial cells to promote tolerance against self-reactive T lymphocytes. However, the mechanism that allows expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent harm is unknown. Here we show that Brg1 generates accessibility at tissue-specific loci to impose central tolerance. We found that Aire has an intrinsic repressive function that restricts chromatin accessibility and opposes Brg1 across the genome. Aire exerted this repressive influence within minutes after recruitment to chromatin and restrained the amplitude of active transcription...
January 15, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332927/the-response-of-common-marmoset-immunity-against-cedar-pollen-extract
#10
Yuko Yamada, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Kato, Kenji Ishiwata, Naohiro Watanabe, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The in vivo model of pollinosis has been established using rodents, but the model cannot completely mimic human pollinosis. We used Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset (CM), to establish a pollinosis animal model using intranasal weekly administration of cedar pollen extract with cholera toxin adjuvant. Some of the treated CMs exhibited the symptoms of snitching, excess nasal mucus and/or sneezing, but the period was very short, and the symptoms disappeared after several weeks. The CD4+CD25+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood increased in CMs quickly after the nasal administration of cedar pollen extract, but the timing was not parallel with the symptoms...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331947/response-to-prognosis-of-immune-tolerant-phase-chronic-hepatitis-b-by-chu-and-liaw
#11
Gi-Ae Kim, Young-Suk Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323870/cell-membrane-bioconjugation-and-membrane-derived-nanomaterials-for-immunotherapy
#12
Peter Y Li, Zhiyuan Fan, Hao Cheng
Cell membrane engineering, including live cell membrane bioconjugation and cell membrane-derived nanomaterials is a highly promising strategy to modulate immune responses for treating diseases. Many cell membrane engineering methods have potential for translation for human clinical use in the near future. In this Topical Review, we summarize the cell membrane conjugation strategies that have been investigated for cancer immunotherapy, the prevention of immune rejection to donor cells and tissues, and the induction of antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmune diseases...
January 11, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321370/activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-deficiency-accelerates-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#13
Qiyuan Tan, Ningwen Tai, Yangyang Li, James Pearson, Sean Pennetti, Zhiguang Zhou, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
B cells play an important role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the role of B cell activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in diabetes development is not clear. We hypothesized that AID is important in the immunopathogenesis of T1D. To test this hypothesis, we generated AID-deficient (AID-/-) NOD mice. We found that AID-/-NOD mice developed accelerated T1D, with worse insulitis and high levels of anti-insulin autoantibody in the circulation. Interestingly, neither maternal IgG transferred through placenta, nor IgA transferred through milk affected the accelerated diabetes development...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313221/myeloid-cells-and-chronic-liver-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Min Lian, Carlo Selmi, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Myeloid cells play a major role in the sensitization to liver injury, particularly in chronic inflammatory liver diseases with a biliary or hepatocellular origin, and the interplay between myeloid cells and the liver may explain the increased incidence of hepatic osteodystrophy. The myeloid cell-liver axis involves several mature myeloid cells as well as immature or progenitor cells with the complexity of the liver immune microenvironment aggravating the mist of cell differentiation. The unique positioning of the liver at the junction of the peripheral and portal circulation systems underlines the interaction of myeloid cells and hepatic cells and leads to immune tolerance breakdown...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311317/tolerogenic-nanoparticles-restore-the-antitumor-activity-of-recombinant-immunotoxins-by-mitigating-immunogenicity
#15
Ronit Mazor, Emily M King, Masanori Onda, Nicolas Cuburu, Selamawit Addissie, Devorah Crown, Xiu-Fen Liu, Takashi Kei Kishimoto, Ira Pastan
Protein-based drugs are very active in treating cancer, but their efficacy can be limited by the formation of neutralizing antidrug antibodies (ADAs). Recombinant immunotoxins are proteins that are very effective in patients with leukemia, where immunity is suppressed, but induce ADAs, which compromise their activity, in patients with intact immunity. Here we induced a specific, durable, and transferable immune tolerance to recombinant immunotoxins by combining them with nanoparticles containing rapamycin (SVP-R)...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306503/a-mouse-model-with-age-dependent-immune-response-and-immune-tolerance-for-hbv-infection
#16
Xuerui Yi, Youcheng Yuan, Na Li, Lu Yi, Cuiling Wang, Ying Qi, Liang Gong, Guangze Liu, Xiangping Kong
BACKGROUND: Viral clearance of human HBV infection largely depends on the age of exposure. Thus, a mouse model with age-dependent immune response and immune-tolerance for HBV infection was established. METHODS: HBVRag1 mice were generated by crossing Rag1-/- mice with HBV-Tg mice. Following adoptive transfer of splenocytes adult (8-9 weeks old) and young (3 weeks old) HBVRag1 mice were named as HBVRag-ReA and HBVRag-ReY mice respectively. The biochemical parameters that were associated with viral load and immune function, as well as the histological evaluation of the liver tissues between the two mouse models were detected...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305654/spontaneous-regression-of-neuroblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Garrett M Brodeur
Neuroblastomas are characterized by heterogeneous clinical behavior, from spontaneous regression or differentiation into a benign ganglioneuroma, to relentless progression despite aggressive, multimodality therapy. Indeed, neuroblastoma is unique among human cancers in terms of its propensity to undergo spontaneous regression. The strongest evidence for this comes from the mass screening studies conducted in Japan, North America and Europe and it is most evident in infants with stage 4S disease. This propensity is associated with a pattern of genomic change characterized by whole chromosome gains rather than segmental chromosome changes but the mechanism(s) underlying spontaneous regression are currently a matter of speculation...
January 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303057/integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-is-essential-for-maintenance-of-decidua-tissue-homeostasis-and-of-natural-killer-cell-immune-tolerance-during-pregnancy
#18
Shaojuan Wang, Xiaoli Zhou, Jing Yang
Physiological functions of villous trophoblasts are essential for normal implantation and pregnancy, which are under fine regulations. Integrin αvβ3 has been shown to mediate cellular attachment of villous trophoblasts; however, the physiological functions of integrin αvβ3 in pregnancy have not been revealed. Here, we found that suppression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo by a small molecule inhibitor, SB-273005, resulted in abnormal pregnancy in mice. Mechanistically, suppression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo broke down the tissue homeostasis of the decidua, as revealed by disorganized histology and compromised cellular proliferation in the decidua...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300924/differentially-expressed-intrahepatic-genes-contribute-to-control-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-the-inactive-carrier-phase
#19
Hongyan Liu, Fahong Li, Xiaoyong Zhang, Jie Yu, Jinyu Wang, Jia Jia, Xueping Yu, Zhongliang Shen, Zhenghong Yuan, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Lungen Lu, Hai Li, Mengji Lu, Jiming Zhang
Background: The natural history of chronic HBV infection was divided into four phases. Patients in the inactive carrier status (IC) and immune tolerant (IT) phase had normal ALT levels but huge different viral loads. The mechanism underlying low viral replication status in IC phase is unknown. Methods: We determined the intrahepatic transcriptomes of 83 chronic hepatitis B patients by microarray analysis of liver biopsies, and screened the effect of differentially regulated genes on HBV replication using specific siRNAs in vitro...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299667/genetic-alterations-and-tumor-immune-attack-in-yo-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration
#20
Mathilde Small, Isabelle Treilleux, Coline Couillault, Daniel Pissaloux, Géraldine Picard, Sandrine Paindavoine, Valery Attignon, Qing Wang, Véronique Rogemond, Stéphanie Lay, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Jacobus Pfisterer, Florence Joly, Andreas Du Bois, Dimitri Psimaras, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare, Christophe Caux, Bertrand Dubois, Jérôme Honnorat, Virginie Desestret
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations with anti-Yo antibodies (Yo-PCD) are rare syndromes caused by an auto-immune response against neuronal antigens (Ags) expressed by tumor cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for such immune tolerance breakdown are unknown. We characterized 26 ovarian carcinomas associated with Yo-PCD for their tumor immune contexture and genetic status of the 2 onconeural Yo-Ags, CDR2 and CDR2L. Yo-PCD tumors differed from the 116 control tumors by more abundant T and B cells infiltration occasionally organized in tertiary lymphoid structures harboring CDR2L protein deposits...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
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