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"Immune tolerance"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906131/effects-of-immunomodulators-on-the-response-induced-by-vaccines-against-autoimmune-diseases
#1
Dante J Marciani
A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity...
September 14, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904123/unveiling-the-peptide-motifs-of-hla-c-and-hla-g-from-naturally-presented-peptides-and-generation-of-binding-prediction-matrices
#2
Moreno Di Marco, Heiko Schuster, Linus Backert, Michael Ghosh, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Stefan Stevanović
The classical HLA-C and the nonclassical HLA-E and HLA-G molecules play important roles both in the innate and adaptive immune system. Starting already during embryogenesis and continuing throughout our lives, these three Ags exert major functions in immune tolerance, defense against infections, and anticancer immune responses. Despite these important roles, identification and characterization of the peptides presented by these molecules has been lacking behind the more abundant HLA-A and HLA-B gene products...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901434/sinulariolide-suppresses-lps%C3%A2-induced-phenotypic-and-functional-maturation-of-dendritic-cells
#3
Ting-Wen Chung, Yi-Rong Li, Wei Yuan Huang, Jui-Hsin Su, Hong-Lin Chan, Sheng-Hao Lin, Chin-San Liu, Shih-Chao Lin, Chi-Chien Lin, Ching-Hsiung Lin
The dendritic cell (DC) maturation process is essential for the development of T cell responses and immune tolerance. Accordingly, DCs are considered a major target in the development of immunomodulating agents. In the present study, the effect of sinulariolide, an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced murine bone marrow‑derived DCs was evaluated. The different phenotypes, cytokine secretion and the mix‑lymphocyte reaction of DCs were detected using flow cytometry and ELISA...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900681/regulatory-dendritic-cells
#4
Katsuaki Sato, Tomofumi Uto, Tomohiro Fukaya, Hideaki Takagi
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895120/inflammation-treatment-progress-and-limitations
#5
EDITORIAL
Ingolf Cascorbi
There is an increasing understanding on the etiology of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), psoriasis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Large consortia contributed to the elucidation of the genetics, for instance, of IBD identifying a number of genes involved in innate mucosal defense and immune tolerance (most prominent, e.g., NOD2) and other related processes. For a number of such diseases, common genetic susceptibility loci were identified, suggesting overlapping immune response pathways, although there is no causality of single genetic traits...
October 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889947/an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-dependent-lineage-specific-transcriptional-program-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-identity-and-function
#6
Hyunju Oh, Yenkel Grinberg-Bleyer, Will Liao, Dillon Maloney, Pingzhang Wang, Zikai Wu, Jiguang Wang, Dev M Bhatt, Nicole Heise, Roland M Schmid, Matthew S Hayden, Ulf Klein, Raul Rabadan, Sankar Ghosh
Both conventional T (Tconv) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are activated through ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, leading to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB. In Tconv cells, NF-κB regulates expression of genes essential for T cell activation, proliferation, and function. However the role of NF-κB in Treg function remains unclear. We conditionally deleted canonical NF-κB members p65 and c-Rel in developing and mature Treg cells and found they have unique but partially redundant roles...
September 1, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889921/pd-1-checkpoint-inhibition-toxicities-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Andrew W Hahn, David M Gill, Neeraj Agarwal, Benjamin L Maughan
PURPOSE: With the recent approval of 5 PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for a number of malignancies, PD-1 axis inhibition is drastically changing the treatment landscape of immunotherapy in cancer. As PD-1/PD-L1 are involved in peripheral immune tolerance, inhibition of this immune checkpoint has led to novel immune-related adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, and endocrinopathies among many others. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this seminar, we will analyze the incidence of immune-related adverse events for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab...
September 7, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888176/novel-mechanisms-in-immune-tolerance-to-allergens-during-natural-allergen-exposure-and-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Willem van de Veen, Oliver F Wirz, Anna Globinska, Mübeccel Akdis
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a clinical tolerance-inducing and immune tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms including early desensitization of basophils and mast cells, regulating T-cell and B-cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing activation, mediator release and affected tissue migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887632/multipeptide-coupled-nanoparticles-induce-tolerance-in-humanised-hla-transgenic-mice-and-inhibit-diabetogenic-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-type-1-diabetes
#9
Xinyu Xu, Lingling Bian, Min Shen, Xin Li, Jing Zhu, Shuang Chen, Lei Xiao, Qingqing Zhang, Heng Chen, Kuanfeng Xu, Tao Yang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance may provide an attractive immunotherapy in the NOD mouse model but the conditions that lead to the successful translation to human type 1 diabetes are limited. In this study, we covalently linked 500 nm carboxylated polystyrene beads (PSB) with a mixture of immunodominant HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes (peptides-PSB) that may have high clinical relevance in humans as they promote immune tolerance; we then investigated the effect of the nanoparticle-peptide complexes on T cell tolerance...
September 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886713/increased-activated-regulatory-t-cells-proportion-correlate-with-the-severity-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
Ziliang Hou, Qiao Ye, Meihua Qiu, Yu Hao, Junyan Han, Hui Zeng
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial in maintaining immune tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear. This study was designed to explore the role of Tregs in IPF. METHODS: Percentages of Tregs and their subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were determined by flow cytometry in 29 patients with IPF, 19 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome-related interstitial pneumonia (pSS-IP), and 23 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886587/distinct-pattern-of-immune-tolerance-in-dendritic-cells-treated-with-lipopolysaccharide-or-lipoteichoic-acid
#11
Hyo Shin Yoon, Girak Kim, Young Jun Ju, In Su Cheon, Sun Woong Hong, Dong Wook Kim, Byung-Chul Park, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun
Cytokine induction is often critical for the host defense during acute immune responses while, if not tightly regulated, it may cause an immunological pathology coincident with tissue damage. Despite the fact that gram-positive bacterial infection has become increasingly prevalent, immune modulation induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), the major cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria has not been studied thoroughly at the cellular level. In the current study, tolerance induction in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with single or repeated stimulation of Staphylococcus aureus LTA was compared with those of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877635/two-is-better-than-one-advances-in-pathogen-boosted-immunotherapy-and-adoptive-t-cell-therapy
#12
Gang Xin, David M Schauder, Ryan Zander, Weiguo Cui
The recent tremendous successes in clinical trials take cancer immunotherapy into a new era and have attracted major attention from both academia and industry. Among the variety of immunotherapy strategies developed to boost patients' own immune systems to fight against malignant cells, the pathogen-based and adoptive cell transfer therapies have shown the most promise for treating multiple types of cancer. Pathogen-based therapies could either break the immune tolerance to enhance the effectiveness of cancer vaccines or directly infect and kill cancer cells...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874845/m2-like-macrophages-in-the-fibrotic-liver-protect-mice-against-lethal-insults-through-conferring-apoptosis-resistance-to-hepatocytes
#13
Li Bai, Xin Liu, Qingfen Zheng, Ming Kong, Xiaohui Zhang, Richard Hu, Jinli Lou, Feng Ren, Yu Chen, Sujun Zheng, Shuang Liu, Yuan-Ping Han, Zhongping Duan, Stephen J Pandol
Acute injury in the setting of liver fibrosis is an interesting and still unsettled issue. Most recently, several prominent studies have indicated the favourable effects of liver fibrosis against acute insults. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms governing this hepatoprotection remain obscure. In the present study, we hypothesized that macrophages and their M1/M2 activation critically involve in the hepatoprotection conferred by liver fibrosis. Our findings demonstrated that liver fibrosis manifested a beneficial role for host survival and apoptosis resistance...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868628/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-promote-tumour-immune-privilege-and-invasion-via-ccl5-and-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Yanan You, Yiying Li, Ming Li, Lei Mi, Mengyao Wu, Ying Qu, Yan Yuan, Tong Chen, Hua Jiang
Emerging evidence indicates a link between the increased proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and reduced survival in patients who have been diagnosed with cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been indicated to play a vital role in tumour initiation, drug resistance and recurrence. However, the relationship between Tregs and CSCs remains largely unknown. Here, we sorted out ovarian cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells and CD133(+) cells to investigate the influence of ovarian CSCs on Tregs. Among the various immune-related molecules that we assessed, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) was the most elevated in ovarian CSCs relative to that in the non-CSCs...
September 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866278/precise-immune-tolerance-for-hpsc-derivatives-in-clinical-application
#15
Wenliang Zhu, Mengqi Li, Yihui Wu, Baoyang Hu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) promise a foreseeing future for regeneration medicine and cell replacement therapy with their abilities to produce almost any types of somatic cells of the body. The complicated immunogenicity of hPSC derivatives and context dependent responses in variable transplantations greatly hurdle the practical application of hPSCs in clinic. Especially for applications of hPSCs, induction of immune tolerance at the same time increases the risks of tumorigenesis. Over the past few years, thanks to the progress in immunology and practices in organ transplantation, endeavors on exploring strategies to induce long term protection of allogeneic transplants have shed light on overcoming this barrier...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864263/mechanism-of-chimeric-vaccine-stimulation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-biosynthesis-in-human-dendritic-cells-is-independent-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#16
Grace E Esebanmen, William H R Langridge
Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs...
August 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861951/encapsulation-of-hydrophilic-and-hydrophobic-peptides-into-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-enhancement-of-antitumor-immune-response
#17
Jun Xie, Chaohua Yang, Qianqian Liu, Jun Li, Ruijing Liang, Chen Shen, Yi Zhang, Ke Wang, Liping Liu, Khurram Shezad, Martin Sullivan, Yong Xu, Guanxin Shen, Juan Tao, Jintao Zhu, Zhiping Zhang
Codelivery of combinational antigenic peptides and adjuvant to antigen presenting cells is expected to amplify tumor specific T lymphocytes immune responses while minimizing the possibility of tumor escaping and reducing immune tolerance to single antigenic peptide. However, the varied hydrophobicities of these multivariant derived short antigenic peptides limit their codelivery efficiency in conventional delivery systems. Here, a facile yet effective route is presented to generate monodisperse and stable hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for codelivering of HGP10025-33 and TRP2180-188 , two melanoma-derived peptides with varied hydrophobicities...
September 1, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861873/role-of-the-pregnancy-specific-glycoprotein-in-regulation-of-the-cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-of-intact-mononuclear-cells
#18
M B Rayev, L S Litvinova, K A Yurova, N A Dunets, O G Khaziakhmatova, V P Timganova, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, S A Zamorina
The effect of human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) on the cytokine and chemokine production in vitro by intact mononuclear cells was studied by the method of flow fluorimetry. PSG inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CCL2/MCP-1; at the same time, PSG stimulated IL-12(p70) production. Simultaneously with increasing the VEGF level, PSG inhibited production of IL-9, IL-13, G-CSF, and GM-CSF. The PSG effect discovered can be interpreted as a contribution into the immune tolerance formation during pregnancy...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861153/peripheral-blood-th9-cells-reconstitution-and-its-relationship-with-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-after-matched-sibling-peripheral-blood-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Nannan Pang, Jianli Xu, Jianhua Qu, Xianlin Duan, Hailong Yuan, Gang Chen, Ming Jiang, Jianbing Ding
T helper type 9 (Th9) cells have recently been identified as a new effector T cell subset. This study is to analyze the reconstitution of Th9 cell after matched sibling peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (MS-PBSCT) and the relationship between Th9 cell and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to analyze the percentages of Th9 cell, levels of IL-9, TGF-β, IFN-γ, and IL-4. The results showed that for patients without aGVHD, Th9 cells recovery started from day 60 after transplantation and reached normal level on day 90...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860951/cytokine-signaling-in-tumor-progression
#20
REVIEW
Myungmi Lee, Inmoo Rhee
Cytokines are molecules that play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of normal functions leading to cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as in specialized cellular functions enabling host resistance to pathogens. Cytokines released in response to infection, inflammation or immunity can also inhibit cancer development and progression. The predominant intracellular signaling pathway triggered by cytokines is the JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway...
August 2017: Immune Network
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