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"Immune tolerance"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527887/mst1-deficiency-promotes-b-cell-responses-by-cd4-t-cell-derived-il-4-resulting-in-hypergammaglobulinemia
#1
Eunchong Park, Myun Soo Kim, Ju Han Song, Kyung Min Cho, Kyung-Hye Roh, Rana Lee, Tae Sung Kim
MST1 deficiency causes T and B cell lymphopenia, resulting in combined immunodeficiency. However, MST1-deficient patients also exhibit autoimmune-like symptoms such as hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. Recent studies have shown that the autoimmune responses observed in MST1-deficient patients were most likely attributable to defective regulatory T (Treg) cells instead of intrinsic signals in MST1-lacking B cells. Nevertheless, it is not determined how MST1 deficiency in T cells breaks B cell tolerance and causes systemic autoimmune-like phenotypes...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#2
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514441/pd-1-expression-by-tumour-associated-macrophages-inhibits-phagocytosis-and-tumour-immunity
#3
Sydney R Gordon, Roy L Maute, Ben W Dulken, Gregor Hutter, Benson M George, Melissa N McCracken, Rohit Gupta, Jonathan M Tsai, Rahul Sinha, Daniel Corey, Aaron M Ring, Andrew J Connolly, Irving L Weissman
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor that is upregulated on activated T cells for the induction of immune tolerance. Tumour cells frequently overexpress the ligand for PD-1, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), facilitating their escape from the immune system. Monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, by binding to either the ligand or receptor, have shown notable clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511816/mechanisms-of-immune-tolerance-in-leukemia-and-lymphoma
#4
REVIEW
Emily K Curran, James Godfrey, Justin Kline
The mechanisms through which immune responses are generated against solid cancers are well characterized and knowledge of the immune evasion pathways exploited by these malignancies has grown considerably. However, for hematological cancers, which develop and disseminate quite differently than solid tumors, the pathways that regulate immune activation or tolerance are less clear. Growing evidence suggests that, while numerous immune escape pathways are shared between hematological and solid malignancies, several unique pathways are exploited by leukemia and lymphoma...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508475/functional-properties-of-peripheral-cd8-%C3%A2-t-cells-in-patients-with-repeated-implantation-failure
#5
Biao Yin, Yong Zeng, Tonghua Wu, Shuyi Yu, Jian Xu, Su Liu, Lianghui Diao, Zhenfu Zhao, Desheng Liang, Yuye Li
CD8(+) T cells are the main candidates to recognize and respond to fetal HLA-C at the fetal-maternal interface, but data on the amount of peripheral CD8(+) T cells and their functions during the window of implantation in recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients are limited. Peripheral blood was obtained from 56 women with RIF and 16 fertile women in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and the CD8(+) T cells were determined by FACS analysis. No statistical differences in the proportion of peripheral CD8(+) T cells were observed among the women with RIF and the control group...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507802/b-cells-and-the-humoral-response-in-melanoma-the-overlooked-players-of-the-tumor-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Giulia Chiaruttini, Silvia Mele, James Opzoomer, Silvia Crescioli, Kristina M Ilieva, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis
Evidence of tumor-resident mature B cell and antibody compartments and reports of associations with favorable prognosis in malignant melanoma suggest that humoral immunity could participate in antitumor defense. Likely striving to confer immunological protection while being subjected to tumor-promoting immune tolerance, B cells may engender multiple functions, including antigen processing and presentation, cytokine-mediated signaling, antibody class switching, expression and secretion. We review key evidence in support of multifaceted immunological mechanisms by which B cells may counter or contribute to malignant melanoma, and we discuss their potential translational implications...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506689/genetic-factors-interact-with-tobacco-smoke-to-modify-risk-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-humans-and-mice
#7
Pankaj Yadav, David Ellinghaus, Gaëlle Rémy, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Anabelle Cesaro, Frauke Degenhardt, Gabrielle Boucher, Myriam Delacre, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Muriel Pichavant, John D Rioux, Philippe Gosset, Andre Franke, L Philip Schumm, Michael Krawczak, Mathias Chamaillard, Astrid Dempfle, Vibeke Andersen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene-smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients and in mouse models of IBD. METHODS: We used 55 immunochip-wide data sets that included 19,735 IBD cases (10,856 CD cases and 8879 UC cases) of known smoking status. We performed 3 meta-analyses each for CD, UC, and IBD (CD and UC combined), comparing data for never vs ever smokers, never vs current smokers, and never vs former smokers...
May 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506355/-effects-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-non-methylated-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-on-peripheral-blood-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-in-young-mice-with-food-allergy
#8
Xu-Lin Chen, Cheng-Zhong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) and non-methylated CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on the expression of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in young mice with food allergy, as well as their immune intervention effects. METHODS: A total of 40 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group, allergic group, ADSC treatment group, and CpG-ODN treatment group, with 10 mice in each group. A mouse model of food allergy was established by intraperitoneal injection and intragastric administration of ovalbumin (OVA) for sensitization and challenge...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504685/spleen-derived-lipocalin-2-in-the-portal-vein-regulates-kupffer-cells-activation-and-attenuates-the-development-of-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#9
Tomonori Aoyama, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Hironao Okubo, Shunhei Yamashina, Kenichi Ikejima, Shigehiro Kokubu, Akihisa Miyazaki, Sumio Watanabe
The liver has an immune tolerance against gut-derived products from the portal vein (PV). A disruption of the gut-liver axis leads to liver injury and fibrosis. The spleen is connected to the PV and regulates immune functions. However, possible splenic effects on liver fibrosis development are unclear. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an antimicrobial protein that regulates macrophage activation. To clarify the role of the spleen in liver fibrosis development, we induced liver fibrosis in mice after splenectomy, and investigated liver fibrosis development...
May 15, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500077/alternative-start-sites-downstream-of-nonsense-mutations-drive-antigen-presentation-and-tolerance-induction-to-c-terminal-epitopes
#10
Scott N Ashley, Suryanarayan Somanathan, Christian Hinderer, Maxwell Arias, Deirdre McMenamin, Christine Draper, James M Wilson
CTL responses to the transgene product remain an active area of concern for the gene therapy field. A patient's underlying genetic mutation may influence the qualitative nature of these potentially destructive T cell responses. Individuals with a mutation that introduces a premature termination codon (PTC) that prevents synthesis of the full-length peptide are considered more likely to mount a transgene-specific T cell response because of a lack of immune tolerance to C-terminal epitopes as a consequence of absent endogenous Ag presentation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495553/the-expanding-repertoire-of-targets-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-bladder-cancer-what-lies-beneath-the-tip-of-the-iceberg-pd-l1
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Sankin, Deepa Narasimhulu, Peter John, Benjamin Gartrell, Mark Schoenberg, Xingxing Zang
Over the last decade, a new understanding of tumor-immune system interplay has been ushered in, lead in large part by the discovery of immune checkpoints mediated through B7-CD28 family interactions. Therapeutic blockade of the PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway has already shown great success as a cancer immunotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma, leading to durable clinical remissions in an otherwise incurable disease. There are newly described members of the B7-CD28 family including B7-H3, B7x, and HHLA2...
May 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494555/-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-regulate-adaptive-immune-tolerance-in-the-liver
#12
Y Q Du, C Sun, S M Huang, D L Yang, J Wu
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a major group of nonparenchymal cells in the liver and are involved in immunological surveillance of the liver through the expression of various scavenger receptors and pattern recognition receptors. However, in case of several physiological states, viral infections, and tumor environment, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells maintain immune tolerance in the liver through various mechanisms and cause persistent viral infection and tumor metastasis. This article reviews the mechanisms of immune tolerance of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the liver induced by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491062/a-kinetic-study-of-cd83-reveals-an-upregulation-and-higher-production-of-scd83-in-lymphocytes-from-pregnant-mice
#13
Katrin Regina Helene Packhäuser, Gleyder Roman-Sosa, Jens Ehrhardt, Diana Krüger, Marek Zygmunt, Damián Oscar Muzzio
For the normal development of pregnancy, a balance between immune tolerance and defense is crucial. However, the mechanisms mediating such a balance are not fully understood. CD83 is a transmembrane protein whose expression has been linked to anti-inflammatory functions of T and B cells. The soluble form of CD83, released by cleavage of the membrane-bound protein, has strong anti-inflammatory properties and was successfully tested in different mouse models. It is assumed that this molecule contributes to the establishment of immune tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483787/a-sting-agonist-given-with-ox40-receptor-and-pd-l1-modulators-primes-immunity-and-reduces-tumor-growth-in-tolerized-mice
#14
Jeremy B Foote, Marleen Kok, James M Leatherman, Todd D Armstrong, Bridget C Marcinkowski, Laureen S Ojalvo, David B Kanne, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Thomas W Dubensky, Leisha A Emens
STING signaling induces interferon-β (IFNβ) production by intratumoral dendritic cells (DCs), driving T-cell priming and recruitment into the tumor microenvironment (TME). We examined to what extent pre-existing antigen tolerance influenced the efficacy of in situ delivery of a potent STING-activating cyclic dinucleotide (CDN), ADU S-100, against established HER-2(+) breast tumors. ADU S-100 induced HER-2-specific CD8(+) T-cell priming and durable tumor clearance in 100% of nontolerant parental FVB/N mice...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479366/cholesterol-accumulation-in-dendritic-cells-links-the-inflammasome-to-acquired-immunity
#15
Marit Westerterp, Emmanuel L Gautier, Anjali Ganda, Matthew M Molusky, Wei Wang, Panagiotis Fotakis, Nan Wang, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Vivette D D'Agati, Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Alan R Tall
Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease and reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDL mediates cholesterol efflux from immune cells via the ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1). The significance of impaired cholesterol efflux pathways in autoimmunity is unknown. We observed that Abca1/g1-deficient mice develop enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) and glomerulonephritis suggestive of SLE. This lupus-like phenotype was recapitulated in mice with knockouts of Abca1/g1 in dendritic cells (DCs), but not in macrophages or T cells...
May 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475124/goblet-cells-contribute-to-ocular-surface-immune-tolerance-implications-for-dry-eye-disease
#16
Flavia L Barbosa, Yangyan Xiao, Fang Bian, Terry G Coursey, Byung Yi Ko, Hans Clevers, Cintia S de Paiva, Stephen C Pflugfelder
Conjunctival goblet cell (GC) loss in dry eye is associated with ocular surface inflammation. This study investigated if conjunctival GCs contribute to ocular surface immune tolerance. Antigens applied to the ocular surface, imaged by confocal microscopy, passed into the conjunctival stroma through goblet cell associated passages (GAPs) in wild type C57BL/6 (WT), while ovalbumin (OVA) was retained in the epithelium of SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (Spdef) knockout mice (Spdef(-)/(-)) that lack GCs and are a novel model of dry eye...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472471/successful-immunosuppressant-free-heterotopic-transplantation-of-tracheal-allografts-in-the-pig
#17
Julien De Wolf, Mathias Brieu, Christophe Zawadzki, Alexandre Ung, Eric Kipnis, Ramadan Jashari, Thomas Hubert, Pierre Fayoux, Christophe Mariette, Marie-Christine Copin, Alain Wurtz
OBJECTIVES: It has been demonstrated that both heterotopic and orthotopic transplants of epithelium-denuded cryopreserved tracheal allografts are feasible in immunosuppressant-free rabbits. Validation of these results in large animals is required before considering clinical applications. We evaluated the viability, immune tolerance and strain properties of such tracheal allografts heterotopically transplanted in a pig model. METHODS: Ten tracheal segments, 5 short (5 rings) and 5 long (10 rings), were obtained from male Landrace pigs...
May 2, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472426/chemical-or-drug-hypersensitivity-is-the-immune-system-clearing-the-danger
#18
Marc Pallardy, Rami Bechara
Hypersensitivity reaction or allergy, initially perceived as a secondary disorder, is now believed to be a major public health. For instance, contact dermatitis is a type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to skin allergens. An estimated 15-20% of the general population has acquired contact allergy. To maintain immune tolerance our immune system need to differentiate between harmful non-self and innocuous non-self. Living organisms have developed during their evolution a set of biological mechanisms to protect them from the "outside": physical barrier, inflammation, cell-based mechanisms, metabolism and elimination and biochemical pathways such as glutathione...
May 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471269/anti-pentraxin-antibodies-in-autoimmune-systemic-diseases-focus-on-anti-pentraxin-3-autoantibodies
#19
Jean-François Augusto, Caroline Poli, Céline Beauvillain, Jean-François Subra, Sebastien Jaillon, Gilles Renier, Alain Chevailler, Xavier Puéchal, Yves Delneste, Pascale Jeannin
Pentraxins are soluble pattern recognition molecules implicated not only in the opsonization and removal of microorganisms but also in the clearance of modified self (i.e., dying cells). Pentraxins can be classified into short pentraxins (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid-P component) and long pentraxins with pentraxin-3 (PTX3), the prototypic one of the latter. Pentraxins are involved in various physiological or pathophysiological processes such as inflammation and autoimmunity. A breakdown in immune tolerance to pentraxins has been reported in various autoimmune diseases...
May 4, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470572/tumor-associated-fibroblasts-and-microvessels-contribute-to-the-expression-of-immunosuppressive-factor-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-human-esophageal-cancers
#20
Guanglin Cui, Can Li, Gang Xu, Zhenglu Sun, Li Zhu, Zhengfen Li, Wei Zheng, Junling Li, Aping Yuan
Recent studies have provided considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that tumor stroma plays a crucial role in the induction of immune tolerance to human cancers. Here, we investigated the contribution of reactive stromal tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and microvessels to the immunosuppressive factor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in the ESCC microenvironment. The immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses demonstrated a significant increased densities of TAFs and microvessels in the ESCC stroma, double IHCs showed that these increased TAFs and microvessels were with a high proliferation activity...
May 3, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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