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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294185/antimicrobial-peptides-at-work-interaction-of-myxinidin-and-its-mutant-wmr-with-lipid-bilayers-mimicking-the-p-aeruginosa-and-e-coli-membranes
#1
Lucia Lombardi, Marco Ignazio Stellato, Rosario Oliva, Annarita Falanga, Massimiliano Galdiero, Luigi Petraccone, Geradino D'Errico, Augusta De Santis, Stefania Galdiero, Pompea Del Vecchio
Antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates as future therapeutics in order to face the problem of antibiotic resistance caused by pathogenic bacteria. Myxinidin is a peptide derived from the hagfish mucus displaying activity against a broad range of bacteria. We have focused our studies on the physico-chemical characterization of the interaction of myxinidin and its mutant WMR, which contains a tryptophan residue at the N-terminus and four additional positive charges, with two model biological membranes (DOPE/DOPG 80/20 and DOPE/DOPG/CL 65/23/12), mimicking respectively Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane bilayers...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242306/characteristics-of-the-brown-hagfish-paramyxine-atami-transthyretin-metal-ion-dependent-thyroid-hormone-binding
#2
Shunsuke Suzuki, Kentaro Kasai, Norihito Nishiyama, Akinori Ishihara, Kiyoshi Yamauchi
Transthyretin (TTR) is a vertebrate-specific protein involved in thyroid hormone distribution in plasma, and its gene is thought to have emerged by gene duplication from the gene for the ancient TTR-related protein, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, at some early stage of chordate evolution. We investigated the molecular and hormone-binding properties of the brown hagfish Paramyxine atami TTR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned hagfish TTR cDNA shared 33-50% identities with those of other vertebrate TTRs but less than 24% identities with those of vertebrate and deuterostome invertebrate 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolases...
February 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214856/the-central-nervous-system-of-jawless-vertebrates-encephalization-in-lampreys-and-hagfishes
#3
Carlos A Salas, Kara E Yopak, Thomas J Lisney, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole surviving representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution, which has previously been regarded as the least encephalized group of all vertebrates. Very little is known, however, about the extent of interspecific variation in relative brain size in these fishes, as previous studies have focused on only a few species, even though lampreys exhibit a variety of life history traits. While some species are parasitic as adults, with varying feeding behaviors, others (nonparasitic species) do not feed after completing their macrophagous freshwater larval phase...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190727/the-origin-of-vertebrate-gills
#4
J Andrew Gillis, Olivia R A Tidswell
Pharyngeal gills are a fundamental feature of the vertebrate body plan [1]. However, the evolutionary history of vertebrate gills has been the subject of a long-standing controversy [2-8]. It is thought that gills evolved independently in cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish) and gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates-cartilaginous and bony fishes), based on their distinct embryonic origins: the gills of cyclostomes derive from endoderm [9-12], while gnathostome gills were classically thought to derive from ectoderm [10, 13]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126345/regulation-of-plasma-glucose-and-sulfate-excretion-in-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii-is-not-mediated-by-11-deoxycortisol
#5
Alexander M Clifford, Nicolas R Bury, Aaron G Schultz, James D Ede, Brendan L Goss, Greg G Goss
The goal of this study was to identify whether Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) possess glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses and to examine the potential role(s) of four key steroids in these responses. Pacific hagfish were injected with varying amounts of cortisol, corticosterone or 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) using coconut oil implants and plasma glucose and gill total-ATPase activity were monitored as indices of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses. Furthermore, we also monitored plasma glucose and 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOC) levels following exhaustive stress (30 min of agitation) or following repeated infusion with SO4(2-)...
January 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109837/interspecific-variation-and-plasticity-in-hemoglobin-nitrite-reductase-activity-and-its-correlation-with-oxygen-affinity-in-vertebrates
#6
Frank B Jensen, Rasmus A H Kolind, Natashia S Jensen, Gabriella Montesanti, Tobias Wang
Deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) is a nitrite reductase that reduces naturally occurring nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), supplying physiological relevant NO under hypoxic conditions. The nitrite reductase activity is modulated by the allosteric equilibrium between the R and T structures of Hb that also determines oxygen affinity. In the present study we investigated nitrite reductase activity and O2 affinity in Hbs from ten different vertebrate species under identical conditions to disclose interspecific variations and allow an extended test for a correlation between the rate constant for nitrite reduction and O2 affinity...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108670/retinal-temporal-resolution-and-contrast-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-lamprey-mordacia-mordax-and-its-non-parasitic-derivative-m-praecox
#7
Rachael E Warrington, Nathan S Hart, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin, Jan M Hemmi
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole extant representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) vertebrates. We compared retinal function of fully-metamorphosed, immature Mordacia mordax (which are about to commence parasitic feeding) with those of sexually-mature individuals of its non-parasitic derivative M praecox We focused on elucidating the retinal adaptations to dim-light environments in these nocturnally-active lampreys, using electroretinography to determine the temporal resolution (flicker fusion frequency, FFF) and temporal contrast sensitivity (CS) of enucleated eyecups at different temperatures and light intensities...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100797/hagfish-pump-some-iron
#8
Molly H B Amador
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#9
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915150/effect-of-environmental-salinity-manipulation-on-uptake-rates-and-distribution-patterns-of-waterborne-amino-acids-in-the-pacific-hagfish
#10
Chris N Glover, Tamzin A Blewett, Chris M Wood
Among vertebrates, hagfish are the only known iono- and osmoconformers, and the only species thus far documented to absorb amino acids directly across the skin. In the current study, short-term (6h) manipulations of exposure salinities (75-125% seawater) were conducted to determine whether changes in osmotic demands influenced the uptake and tissue distribution of waterborne amino acids (alanine, glycine and phenylalanine), in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. No changes in erythrocyte or muscle amino acid accumulation rates were noted, but the patterns of plasma amino acid accumulation were suggestive of regulation...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777046/crh-peptide-evolution-occurred-in-three-phases-evidence-from-characterizing-sea-lamprey-crh-system-members
#11
Matthew J Endsin, Ola Michalec, Lori A Manzon, David A Lovejoy, Richard G Manzon
The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system, which includes the CRH family of peptides, their receptors (CRHRs) and a binding protein (CRHBP), has been strongly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. The identification of invertebrate homologues suggests this system evolved over 500 million years ago. However, the early vertebrate evolution of the CRH system is not understood. Current theory indicates that agnathans (hagfishes and lampreys) are monophyletic with a conservative evolution over the past 500million years and occupy a position at the root of vertebrate phylogeny...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746317/evolution-of-the-rh-gene-family-in-vertebrates-revealed-by-brown-hagfish-eptatretus-atami-genome-sequences
#12
Akinori Suzuki, Hidero Komata, Shogo Iwashita, Shotaro Seto, Hironobu Ikeya, Mitsutoshi Tabata, Takashi Kitano
In vertebrates, there are four major genes in the RH (Rhesus) gene family, RH, RHAG, RHBG, and RHCG. These genes are thought to have been formed by the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R-WGD) in the common ancestor of all vertebrates. In our previous work, where we analyzed details of the gene duplications process of this gene family, three nucleotide sequences belonging to this family were identified in Far Eastern brook lamprey (Lethenteron reissneri), and the phylogenetic positions of the genes were determined...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732626/high-frequency-patterns-in-the-abundance-of-benthic-species-near-a-cold-seep-an-internet-operated-vehicle-application
#13
Damianos Chatzievangelou, Carolina Doya, Laurenz Thomsen, Autun Purser, Jacopo Aguzzi
Three benthic megafaunal species (i.e. sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria; pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii and a group of juvenile crabs) were tested for diel behavioral patterns at the methane hydrates site of Barkley Canyon (890 m depth), off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada). Fluctuations of animal counts in linear video-transects conducted with the Internet Operated Deep-Sea Crawler "Wally" in June, July and December of 2013, were used as proxy of population activity rhythms. Count time series and environmental parameters were analyzed under the hypothesis that the environmental conditioning of activity rhythms depends on the life habits of particular species (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610240/palaeospondylus-as-a-primitive-hagfish
#14
Tatsuya Hirasawa, Yasuhiro Oisi, Shigeru Kuratani
BACKGROUND: The taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal has been classified into nearly all of the major vertebrate taxa over a century of heuristic taxonomic research, despite the lack of conclusive morphological evidence. RESULTS: Here we report the first comparative morphological analysis of hagfish embryos and Palaeospondylus, and a hitherto overlooked resemblance in the chondrocranial elements of these animals; i...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510962/introducing-a-novel-mechanism-to-control-heart-rate-in-the-ancestral-pacific-hagfish
#15
Christopher M Wilson, Jinae N Roa, Georgina K Cox, Martin Tresguerres, Anthony P Farrell
While neural modulation of heart rate is well established among chordate animals, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) lacks any cardiac innervation yet can increase its heart rate from the steady, depressed heart rate seen in prolonged anoxia to almost double its normal normoxic heart rate, an almost four-fold overall change during the 1-h recovery from anoxia. The present study sought mechanistic explanations for these regulatory changes in heart rate. We provide evidence for a bicarbonate-activated, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)-dependent mechanism to control heart rate, a mechanism never previously implicated in chordate cardiac control...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488650/pigmented-anatomy-in-carboniferous-cyclostomes-and-the-evolution-of-the-vertebrate-eye
#16
Sarah E Gabbott, Philip C J Donoghue, Robert S Sansom, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Mark A Purnell
The success of vertebrates is linked to the evolution of a camera-style eye and sophisticated visual system. In the absence of useful data from fossils, scenarios for evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate eye have been based necessarily on evidence from development, molecular genetics and comparative anatomy in living vertebrates. Unfortunately, steps in the transition from a light-sensitive 'eye spot' in invertebrate chordates to an image-forming camera-style eye in jawed vertebrates are constrained only by hagfish and lampreys (cyclostomes), which are interpreted to reflect either an intermediate or degenerate condition...
August 17, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460842/hagfish-slime-and-mucin-flow-properties-and-their-implications-for-defense
#17
Lukas Böni, Peter Fischer, Lukas Böcker, Simon Kuster, Patrick A Rühs
When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444128/immunohistochemical-detection-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-in-the-brain-and-pituitary-of-the-hagfish-eptatretus-burgeri
#18
Masafumi Amano, Noriko Amiya, Takehiko Yokoyama, Kengo Onikubo, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Akiyoshi Takahashi
The distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri, representing the earliest branch of vertebrates, was examined by immunohistochemistry to better understand the neuroendocrine system of hagfish. CRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were detected in the preoptic nucleus, periventricular preoptic nucleus, infundibular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and in the nucleus "A" of Kusunoki et al. (1982) in the medulla oblongata. In the brain, CRH-ir fibers were detected in almost all areas except for the olfactory bulb and telencephalon...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401763/it-s-all-in-the-gills-evaluation-of-o2-uptake-in-pacific-hagfish-refutes-a-major-respiratory-role-for-the-skin
#19
Alexander M Clifford, Alex M Zimmer, Chris M Wood, Greg G Goss
Hagfish skin has been reported as an important site for ammonia excretion and as the major site of systemic oxygen acquisition. However, debate remains whether cutaneous O2 uptake is the dominant route of uptake; all evidence supporting this hypothesis has been derived using indirect measurements. Here we use separating chambers and direct measurements of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion to quantify cutaneous and branchial exchanges in Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) at rest and following exhaustive exercise...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378052/mechanisms-of-anguilliform-locomotion-in-fishes-studied-using-simple-three-dimensional-physical-models
#20
Jeanette L Lim, George V Lauder
Physical models enable researchers to systematically examine complex and dynamic mechanisms of underwater locomotion in ways that would be challenging with freely swimming animals. Previous research on undulatory locomotion, for example, has used rectangular flexible panels that are effectively two-dimensional as proxies for the propulsive surfaces of swimming fishes, but these bear little resemblance to the bodies of elongate eel-like swimming animals. In this paper we use a polyurethane rod (round cross-section) and bar (square cross-section) to represent the body of a swimming Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii)...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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