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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619721/hagfish-slime-exudate-stabilization-and-its-effect-on-slime-formation-and-functionality
#1
L J Böni, R Zurflüh, M Widmer, P Fischer, E J Windhab, P A Rühs, S Kuster
Hagfish produce record breaking amounts of slime when under attack, making it the most dilute hydrogel known to date and a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. The slime forms from a glandular secrete called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study the slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study we compared the two main stabilization methods, high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil and tested the influence of time, temperature, and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557992/seasonal-monitoring-of-deep-sea-megabenthos-in-barkley-canyon-cold-seep-by-internet-operated-vehicle-iov
#2
Carolina Doya, Damianos Chatzievangelou, Nixon Bahamon, Autun Purser, Fabio C De Leo, S Kim Juniper, Laurenz Thomsen, Jacopo Aguzzi
Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs), such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515081/flexible-ammonia-handling-strategies-using-both-cutaneous-and-branchial-epithelia-in-the-highly-ammonia-tolerant-pacific-hagfish
#3
Alexander M Clifford, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Susan L Edwards, Michael P Wilkie, Greg G Goss
Hagfish consume carrion, potentially exposing them to hypoxia, hypercarbia, and high environmental ammonia (HEA). We investigated branchial and cutaneous ammonia handling strategies by which Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) tolerate and recover from high ammonia loading. Hagfish were exposed to HEA (20 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h to elevate plasma total ammonia (TAmm) levels before placement into divided chambers for a 4 h recovery period in ammonia-free seawater where ammonia excretion (JAmm) was measured independently in the anterior and posterior compartments...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488783/light-adaptation-and-the-evolution-of-vertebrate-photoreceptors
#4
Ala Morshedian, Gordon L Fain
The earliest vertebrates were agnathans-fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468932/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-evolution-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-sequence-structure-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Michael E Baker, Yoshinao Katsu
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is descended from a corticoid receptor (CR), which has descendants in lamprey and hagfish, cyclostomes (jawless fish), a taxon that evolved at the base of the vertebrate line. A distinct MR and GR first appear in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), such as sharks, skates, rays and chimeras. Skate MR has a strong response to corticosteroids that are mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in humans. The half-maximal responses (EC50s) for skate MR for the mineralocorticoids aldosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone are 0...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447337/reconstructing-the-ancestral-vertebrate-brain
#6
REVIEW
Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain...
April 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412521/a-lamprey-view-on-the-origins-of-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-the-thyroid-axis
#7
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower, Krist N Hausken
This mini review summarizes the current knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine system in lampreys, jawless vertebrates. Lampreys and hagfish are the only two extant members of the class of agnathans, the oldest lineage of vertebrates. The high conservation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in lampreys makes the lamprey model highly appropriate for comparative and evolutionary analyses. However, there are still many unknown questions concerning the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in its regulation of thyroid activities in lampreys...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401294/drinking-and-water-permeability-in-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#8
Chris N Glover, Chris M Wood, Greg G Goss
Hagfish are osmoconformers, maintaining an internal osmolality that matches their seawater habitats. Hagfish would, therefore, appear to have no physiological need to drink, but previous studies are equivocal regarding whether drinking in hagfish occurs. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, by examining drinking and water permeability in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. One-third of analysed hagfish were shown to accumulate radiolabelled drinking rate markers (tritiated inulin and polyethylene glycol-4000) in their gut tissues; however, this was attributed to the presence of markers in the blood perfusing the digestive tract, following absorption through paracellular pathways at the gill...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294185/antimicrobial-peptides-at-work-interaction-of-myxinidin-and-its-mutant-wmr-with-lipid-bilayers-mimicking-the-p-aeruginosa-and-e-coli-membranes
#9
Lucia Lombardi, Marco Ignazio Stellato, Rosario Oliva, Annarita Falanga, Massimiliano Galdiero, Luigi Petraccone, Geradino D'Errico, Augusta De Santis, Stefania Galdiero, Pompea Del Vecchio
Antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates as future therapeutics in order to face the problem of antibiotic resistance caused by pathogenic bacteria. Myxinidin is a peptide derived from the hagfish mucus displaying activity against a broad range of bacteria. We have focused our studies on the physico-chemical characterization of the interaction of myxinidin and its mutant WMR, which contains a tryptophan residue at the N-terminus and four additional positive charges, with two model biological membranes (DOPE/DOPG 80/20 and DOPE/DOPG/CL 65/23/12), mimicking respectively Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane bilayers...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242306/characteristics-of-the-brown-hagfish-paramyxine-atami-transthyretin-metal-ion-dependent-thyroid-hormone-binding
#10
Shunsuke Suzuki, Kentaro Kasai, Norihito Nishiyama, Akinori Ishihara, Kiyoshi Yamauchi
Transthyretin (TTR) is a vertebrate-specific protein involved in thyroid hormone distribution in plasma, and its gene is thought to have emerged by gene duplication from the gene for the ancient TTR-related protein, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, at some early stage of chordate evolution. We investigated the molecular and hormone-binding properties of the brown hagfish Paramyxine atami TTR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned hagfish TTR cDNA shared 33-50% identities with those of other vertebrate TTRs but less than 24% identities with those of vertebrate and deuterostome invertebrate 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolases...
August 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214856/the-central-nervous-system-of-jawless-vertebrates-encephalization-in-lampreys-and-hagfishes
#11
Carlos A Salas, Kara E Yopak, Thomas J Lisney, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole surviving representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) stage in vertebrate evolution, which has previously been regarded as the least encephalized group of all vertebrates. Very little is known, however, about the extent of interspecific variation in relative brain size in these fishes, as previous studies have focused on only a few species, even though lampreys exhibit a variety of life history traits. While some species are parasitic as adults, with varying feeding behaviors, others (nonparasitic species) do not feed after completing their macrophagous freshwater larval phase...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190727/the-origin-of-vertebrate-gills
#12
J Andrew Gillis, Olivia R A Tidswell
Pharyngeal gills are a fundamental feature of the vertebrate body plan [1]. However, the evolutionary history of vertebrate gills has been the subject of a long-standing controversy [2-8]. It is thought that gills evolved independently in cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish) and gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates-cartilaginous and bony fishes), based on their distinct embryonic origins: the gills of cyclostomes derive from endoderm [9-12], while gnathostome gills were classically thought to derive from ectoderm [10, 13]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126345/regulation-of-plasma-glucose-and-sulfate-excretion-in-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii-is-not-mediated-by-11-deoxycortisol
#13
Alexander M Clifford, Nicolas R Bury, Aaron G Schultz, James D Ede, Brendan L Goss, Greg G Goss
The goal of this study was to identify whether Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) possess glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses and to examine the potential role(s) of four key steroids in these responses. Pacific hagfish were injected with varying amounts of cortisol, corticosterone or 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) using coconut oil implants and plasma glucose and gill total-ATPase activity were monitored as indices of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses. Furthermore, we also monitored plasma glucose and 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOC) levels following exhaustive stress (30 min of agitation) or following repeated infusion with SO4(2-)...
January 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109837/interspecific-variation-and-plasticity-in-hemoglobin-nitrite-reductase-activity-and-its-correlation-with-oxygen-affinity-in-vertebrates
#14
Frank B Jensen, Rasmus A H Kolind, Natashia S Jensen, Gabriella Montesanti, Tobias Wang
Deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) is a nitrite reductase that reduces naturally occurring nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), supplying physiological relevant NO under hypoxic conditions. The nitrite reductase activity is modulated by the allosteric equilibrium between the R and T structures of Hb that also determines oxygen affinity. In the present study we investigated nitrite reductase activity and O2 affinity in Hbs from ten different vertebrate species under identical conditions to disclose interspecific variations and allow an extended test for a correlation between the rate constant for nitrite reduction and O2 affinity...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108670/retinal-temporal-resolution-and-contrast-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-lamprey-mordacia-mordax-and-its-non-parasitic-derivative-m-praecox
#15
Rachael E Warrington, Nathan S Hart, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin, Jan M Hemmi
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole extant representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) vertebrates. We compared retinal function of fully-metamorphosed, immature Mordacia mordax (which are about to commence parasitic feeding) with those of sexually-mature individuals of its non-parasitic derivative M praecox We focused on elucidating the retinal adaptations to dim-light environments in these nocturnally-active lampreys, using electroretinography to determine the temporal resolution (flicker fusion frequency, FFF) and temporal contrast sensitivity (CS) of enucleated eyecups at different temperatures and light intensities...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100797/hagfish-pump-some-iron
#16
Molly H B Amador
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#17
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915150/effect-of-environmental-salinity-manipulation-on-uptake-rates-and-distribution-patterns-of-waterborne-amino-acids-in-the-pacific-hagfish
#18
Chris N Glover, Tamzin A Blewett, Chris M Wood
Among vertebrates, hagfish are the only known iono- and osmoconformers, and the only species thus far documented to absorb amino acids directly across the skin. In the current study, short-term (6h) manipulations of exposure salinities (75-125% seawater) were conducted to determine whether changes in osmotic demands influenced the uptake and tissue distribution of waterborne amino acids (alanine, glycine and phenylalanine), in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. No changes in erythrocyte or muscle amino acid accumulation rates were noted, but the patterns of plasma amino acid accumulation were suggestive of regulation...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777046/crh-peptide-evolution-occurred-in-three-phases-evidence-from-characterizing-sea-lamprey-crh-system-members
#19
Matthew J Endsin, Ola Michalec, Lori A Manzon, David A Lovejoy, Richard G Manzon
The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system, which includes the CRH family of peptides, their receptors (CRHRs) and a binding protein (CRHBP), has been strongly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. The identification of invertebrate homologues suggests this system evolved over 500 million years ago. However, the early vertebrate evolution of the CRH system is not understood. Current theory indicates that agnathans (hagfishes and lampreys) are monophyletic with a conservative evolution over the past 500million years and occupy a position at the root of vertebrate phylogeny...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746317/evolution-of-the-rh-gene-family-in-vertebrates-revealed-by-brown-hagfish-eptatretus-atami-genome-sequences
#20
Akinori Suzuki, Hidero Komata, Shogo Iwashita, Shotaro Seto, Hironobu Ikeya, Mitsutoshi Tabata, Takashi Kitano
In vertebrates, there are four major genes in the RH (Rhesus) gene family, RH, RHAG, RHBG, and RHCG. These genes are thought to have been formed by the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R-WGD) in the common ancestor of all vertebrates. In our previous work, where we analyzed details of the gene duplications process of this gene family, three nucleotide sequences belonging to this family were identified in Far Eastern brook lamprey (Lethenteron reissneri), and the phylogenetic positions of the genes were determined...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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