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Posaconazol in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544987/pharmacokinetics-of-posaconazole-oral-suspension-in-children-dosed-according-to-body-surface-area
#1
Kim Vanstraelen, Anca Colita, Ana Maria Bica, Raf Mols, Patrick Augustijns, Nele Peersman, Pieter Vermeersch, Pieter Annaert, Isabel Spriet
BACKGROUND: Antifungal prophylaxis remains challenging in immunocompromised children as no clear consensus has yet been reached about which drug to be used. Posaconazole has a broad spectrum of activity, a favorable safety profile and excellent prophylactic activity in adults. However, a lack of pharmacokinetic studies in pediatric patients hampers routine implementation. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of a newly introduced posaconazole dosing regimen based on the body surface area in pediatric hematologic patients...
February 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26216395/magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-the-ventricular-system-in-the-brains-of-adult-and-juvenile-beagle-dogs-treated-with-posaconazole-iv-solution
#2
C D G Hines, X Song, S Kuruvilla, G Farris, C G Markgraf
INTRODUCTION: Noxafil® (posaconazole; POS) is a potent, selective triazole antifungal approved for use in adults as an oral suspension, oral tablet and intravenous (IV) Solution. In support of pediatric administration of POS IV Solution to children<two years of age, a nonclinical study in juvenile pre-weaning Beagle dogs was conducted, which showed enlarged lateral ventricles in the brain at the conclusion of a 6 week dosing period. METHODS: To evaluate the impact of this finding on older age dogs, which would support administration to children>two years of age, two studies were undertaken using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor brain ventricle size longitudinally during three months administration of POS IV in adult and juvenile dogs...
November 2015: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973938/posaconazole-promising-but-problematic-in-practice-in-pediatric-patients
#3
REVIEW
Amanda Gwee, Noel Cranswick, Nigel Curtis
Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent used for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections. It is currently only licensed for use in children greater than 12 years of age. Absorption of the oral formulation is unpredictable and affected by mucositis and concomitant medications. We reviewed studies of posaconazole use in children younger than 12 years in relation to attainment of target serum concentrations.
June 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913290/management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-acute-leukemia-and-the-appropriate-time-for-restarting-chemotherapy
#4
Özlem Tüfekçi, Şebnem Yılmaz Bengoa, Fatma Demir Yenigürbüz, Erdem Şimşek, Tuba Hilkay Karapınar, Gülersu İrken, Hale Ören
OBJECTIVE: Rapid and effective treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with leukemia is important for survival. In this study, we aimed to describe variations regarding clinical features, treatment modalities, time of restarting chemotherapy, and outcome in children with IFI and acute leukemia (AL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of all pediatric AL patients in our clinic between the years of 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received prophylactic fluconazole during the chemotherapy period...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25512681/anti-fungal-resistance-in-candida-isolated-from-oral-and-diaper-rash-candidiasis-in-neonates
#5
Jasem Mohamadi, Mahsa Motaghi, Jafar Panahi, Mohamad Reza Havasian, Ali Delpisheh, Mitra Azizian, Iraj Pakzad
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and posaconazole were determined using the CLSI M44-A standard disk diffusion method...
2014: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25492394/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-trichophyton-violaceum-isolated-from-tinea-capitis-patients
#6
S Deng, G S de Hoog, P E Verweij, J Zoll, M Ilkit, F Morsali, P Abliz, X Wang, P Zhan, L Yang, H Hasimu, W Liao, W Pan, S Seyedmousavi
OBJECTIVES: Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic dermatophyte that is endemic to parts of Africa and Asia and is sporadic in Europe. T. violaceum mainly causes tinea capitis in both children and adolescents. Although the infections caused by T. violaceum are of considerable medical importance, its antifungal susceptibility profile remains poorly examined. METHODS: In this study, we tested the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of a set of clinical T. violaceum isolates obtained from tinea capitis patients, using the CLSI broth microdilution method...
April 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24762093/fungemia-in-a-spanish-hospital-the-role-of-candida-parapsilosis-over-a-15-year-period
#7
Mar Martí-Carrizosa, Ferran Sánchez-Reus, Francesca March, Pere Coll
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is one of the main causes of fungemia in tertiary-care hospitals. Few studies have analysed the changes in its distribution over a long period. We compared the distribution of C. parapsilosis with that of other fungi over a 15-y period in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: The susceptibility of C. parapsilosis was analysed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints. The C. parapsilosis complex species were differentiated molecularly...
June 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24595533/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antifungals-in-children-and-their-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Chris Stockmann, Jonathan E Constance, Jessica K Roberts, Jared Olson, Elizabeth H Doby, Krow Ampofo, Justin Stiers, Michael G Spigarelli, Catherine M T Sherwin
Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Successful management of these systemic infections requires identification of the causative pathogen, appropriate antifungal selection, and optimisation of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties to maximise its antifungal activity and minimise toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This review highlights salient scientific advancements in paediatric antifungal pharmacotherapies and focuses on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies that underpin current clinical decision making...
May 2014: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24479848/escmid-and-ecmm-joint-clinical-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-mucormycosis-2013
#9
O A Cornely, S Arikan-Akdagli, E Dannaoui, A H Groll, K Lagrou, A Chakrabarti, F Lanternier, L Pagano, A Skiada, M Akova, M C Arendrup, T Boekhout, A Chowdhary, M Cuenca-Estrella, T Freiberger, J Guinea, J Guarro, S de Hoog, W Hope, E Johnson, S Kathuria, M Lackner, C Lass-Flörl, O Lortholary, J F Meis, J Meletiadis, P Muñoz, M Richardson, E Roilides, A M Tortorano, A J Ullmann, A van Diepeningen, P Verweij, G Petrikkos
These European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and European Confederation of Medical Mycology Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis. Only a few of the numerous recommendations can be summarized here. To diagnose mucormycosis, direct microscopy preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended. Pathogen identification to species level by molecular methods and susceptibility testing are strongly recommended to establish epidemiological knowledge...
April 2014: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24294271/breakthrough-filamentous-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoetic-stem-cell-transplant-and-oncology-patients-receiving-caspofungin
#10
Shaun K Morris, Upton D Allen, Sumit Gupta, Susan E Richardson
BACKGROUND: Caspofungin is an echinocandin class antifungal medication that is commonly used empirically in immunocompromised patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of breakthrough fungal infections in pediatric hematopoetic stem cell transplant recipients, and oncology and hematology patients receiving caspofungin. METHODS: A five-year retrospective review, from 2004 through 2008, of all cases of proven invasive filamentous fungal infection of children admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario) was conducted...
2012: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24209593/candidiasis-oropharyngeal
#11
REVIEW
Caroline L Pankhurst
INTRODUCTION: Candida is a fungus present in the mouths of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroid use. In most people, untreated candidiasis persists for months or years unless associated risk factors are treated or eliminated. In neonates, spontaneous cure of oropharyngeal candidiasis usually occurs after 3 to 8 weeks. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in: adults undergoing treatments that cause immunosuppression; infants and children; people with dentures; and people with HIV infection? Which antifungal treatments reduce the risk of acquiring resistance to antifungal drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
2013: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24198097/azole-based-chemoprophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-with-acute-leukaemia-an-internal-audit
#12
Sara Yunus, Stephanie Pieper, Hedwig Kolve, Grazyna Goletz, Heribert Jürgens, Andreas H Groll
OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and recurrent acute leukaemias (RALs) are at high risk of life-threatening invasive fungal infections (IFIs). We analysed implementation, safety and efficacy of a standard operating procedure for oral, azole-based, mould-active antifungal prophylaxis. METHODS: Patients with AML and RALs aged ≥13 years received 200 mg of posaconazole three times daily and patients aged 2-12 years received 200 mg of voriconazole two times daily from the completion of chemotherapy until haematopoietic recovery...
March 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24173819/comparison-of-itraconazole-voriconazole-and-posaconazole-as-oral-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-patients-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
M Döring, O Blume, S Haufe, U Hartmann, A Kimmig, C-P Schwarze, P Lang, R Handgretinger, I Müller
Oral antifungal prophylaxis with extended-spectra azoles is widely used in pediatric patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), while controlled studies for oral antifungal prophylaxis after bone marrow transplantation in children are not available. This survey analyzed patients who had received either itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. We focused on the safety, feasibility, and initial data of efficacy in a cohort of pediatric patients and adolescents after high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT...
April 2014: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23869052/species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-bloodstream-fungal-isolates-in-paediatric-patients-in-mexico-a-nationwide-surveillance-study
#14
Gloria M González, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, José P Palma-Nicolás, César Martínez, J Gerardo González, Jacobo Ayala, Amílcar Caballero, Rayo Morfín-Otero, E Rodríguez-Noriega, Fernando Velarde, Elba P Ascencio, Juan C Tinoco, Jorge A Vázquez, Manuel A Cano, Nidia León-Sicairos, Rocío González, Joaquín Rincón, Miguel A Elías, Alexandro Bonifaz
OBJECTIVES: To establish the species distribution and in vitro susceptibilities of 358 bloodstream fungal isolates from paediatric patients in Mexico. METHODS: Isolates were collected during a 2 year surveillance programme in 14 medical centres in 10 Mexican states. A molecular approach was used to determine the Candida parapsilosis species complex. In vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin was determined according to CLSI procedures...
December 2013: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23809344/old-and-new-appropriate-dosing-for-neonatal-antifungal-drugs-in-the-nursery
#15
REVIEW
Jessica Ericson, Paolo Manzoni, Daniel K Benjamin
Candida infections are a source of significant mortality and morbidity in the neonatal intensive care unit. Treatment strategies continue to change as additional antifungals become available and studies in neonates are performed. Amphotericin B deoxycholate has been favored for many years, but fluconazole has the most data supporting its use in neonatal Candida infections and is often employed for prophylaxis as well as treatment. Voriconazole and posaconazole have limited utility in the nursery and are rarely used...
June 2013: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23737511/posaconazole-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#16
Valeria A Bernardo, Shane J Cross, Kristine R Crews, Patricia M Flynn, James M Hoffman, Katherine M Knapp, Jennifer L Pauley, Alejandro R Molinelli, William L Greene
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists regarding the use of posaconazole for treating systemic fungal infections in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer. At St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, the recommended posaconazole dose in patients weighing less than 34 kg is 18-24 mg/kg daily, given in 4 divided doses. For patients aged 13 years or older or those weighing 34 kg or more, the recommended dose is 800 mg daily, given orally in 4 divided doses. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the current posaconazole dosing guidelines achieve target posaconazole plasma concentrations of 0...
July 2013: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23463636/treatment-of-pediatric-refractory-coccidioidomycosis-with-combination-voriconazole-and-caspofungin-a-retrospective-case-series
#17
Emily R Levy, James M McCarty, Andi L Shane, Peggy S Weintrub
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is a spectrum of diseases caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides. Current regimens for severe or disseminated disease include fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin; newer triazoles (ie, voriconazole, posaconazole) have been demonstrated to be useful in refractory disease. Previous reported experience with combination triazole and caspofungin therapy has been very limited; however, the utility of this combination for treatment of other invasive fungal diseases suggests potential benefit in refractory coccidioidomycosis...
June 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23312726/posaconazole-as-rescue-therapy-in-african-histoplasmosis
#18
Daniel Gonçalves, Catarina Ferraz, Luisa Vaz
African histoplasmosis is a granulomatous mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii. Treatment is usually extrapolated from guidelines for classical histoplasmosis, and includes 2-4 weeks of amphotericin B followed by a step-down maintenance therapy with itraconazole. Pediatric usage of posaconazole, an oral second-generation azole, remains off-label, but recent surveys show that it is safe and well tolerated in children. We report a case of disseminated African histoplasmosis in a 12-year-old boy from Guinea-Bissau...
January 2013: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23307250/liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-surgery-as-successful-therapy-for-pulmonary-lichtheimia-corymbifera-zygomycosis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-on-antifungal-prophylaxis-with-posaconazole
#19
Grazina Kleinotiene, Gintas Posiunas, Juozas Raistenskis, Edvardas Zurauskas, Sigita Stankeviciene, Valentina Daugelaviciene, Maciej Machaczka
Pulmonary zygomycosis, also referred to as mucormycosis, is a fungal infection of lungs caused by fungi of the order Mucorales in the class of Zygomycetes. It is usually associated with high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old girl with pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) on antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole, who developed pulmonary Lichtheimia corymbifera (formerly Absidia corymbifera) zygomycosis. She was successfully treated by means of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and surgery...
March 2013: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23137136/escmid-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-candida-diseases-2012-prevention-and-management-of-invasive-infections-in-neonates-and-children-caused-by-candida-spp
#20
W W Hope, E Castagnola, A H Groll, E Roilides, M Akova, M C Arendrup, S Arikan-Akdagli, M Bassetti, J Bille, O A Cornely, M Cuenca-Estrella, J P Donnelly, J Garbino, R Herbrecht, H E Jensen, B J Kullberg, C Lass-Flörl, O Lortholary, W Meersseman, G Petrikkos, M D Richardson, P E Verweij, C Viscoli, A J Ullmann
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a relatively common syndrome in neonates and children and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These guidelines provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of IC in neonates and children. Appropriate agents for the prevention of IC in neonates at high risk include fluconazole (A-I), nystatin (B-II) or lactoferrin ± Lactobacillus (B-II). The treatment of IC in neonates is complicated by the high likelihood of disseminated disease, including the possibility of infection within the central nervous system...
December 2012: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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