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Acinetobacter baumanii resistent

Khine Swe Swe-Han, Koleka P Mlisana, Manormoney Pillay
Drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) poses serious treatment challenges and is on the rise worldwide. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America recommends preauthorization of antibiotics to ensure successful antibiotic stewardship programs (ASWPs). This study estimates and analyzes the microbiological and clinical characteristics of A. baumanii strains with differentiating criteria for sepsis versus colonization, in order to support preauthorization and assist ASWPs at the patient level...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Narendra Pal Singh, Mayuri Rani, Kavita Gupta, Tanu Sagar, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Emerging antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bacterial isolates, limits the available treatment options for burn wound infections, among them multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi...
January 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Lida Shojaei, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Mahsa Doomanlou, Alireza Abdollahi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi, Hossein Khalili
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp. infections is increasing in Iran. Considering availability of limited therapeutic options, clinical response and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multi-drug resistant A.baumannii were evaluated in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 29 patients with carbapenem resistance A. baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia were enrolled...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Hualiang Wang, Jinghua Wang, Peijuan Yu, Ping Ge, Yanqun Jiang, Rong Xu, Rong Chen, Xuejie Liu
This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumanii) strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole‑genome sequencing (WGS). The antibiotic resistance of MDR-SHH02 isolated from a patient with breast cancer to 19 types of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby‑Bauer method. WGS of MDR-SHH02 was then performed. Following quality control and transcriptome assembly, functional annotation of genes was conducted, and the phylogenetic tree of MDR-SHH02, along with another 5 A...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Annalia Asti, Elio Marmondi, Carmine Tinelli, Marta Corbella, Annalisa De Silvestri, Gaetano Bernardi, Franco Andreini, Anna Preti, Monica Bricchi
The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological surveillance of microbiological sentinel events (SEs) carried out between 2012 and 2014 at the Neurological Hospital Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy. The setting is inpatient care with multidrug-resistant infections. The aim of the procedure is to formalize the management mode, reporting and transmission of SEs. Categorical variables were described by counts and percentages, as mean and sd or median and interquartile range. The incidence rates of SE were calculated per 1000 patient-days and for 100 admissions using Poisson distribution...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Maddalena Peghin
The isolation of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens has progressively increased worldwide and has been associated with important delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment, resulting in increased mortality rates. Patient's stratification for MDRGN infections to optimize the prescription of an adequate empiric antimicrobial regimen is crucial. Areas covered: This article covers MDRGN epidemiology, with a specific focus on risk factors for harbouring infections sustained by extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii...
January 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Brian A Renda, Cindy Chan, Kristin N Parent, Jeffrey E Barrick
Bacterial genomes commonly contain prophage sequences as a result of past infections with lysogenic phages. Many of these integrated viral sequences are believed to be cryptic, but prophage genes are sometimes coopted by the host, and some prophages may be reactivated to form infectious particles when cells are stressed or mutate. We found that a previously uncharacterized filamentous phage emerged from the genome of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 during a laboratory evolution experiment. This phage has a genetic organization similar to that of the Vibrio cholerae CTXϕ phage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christopher G Chapman, Uzma D Siddiqui, Maricarmen Manzano, Vani J Konda, Cynthia Murillo, Emily M Landon, Irving Waxman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The complex design of the elevator mechanism in duodenoscopes has been recognized as a challenge for disinfection and recently implicated as a potential source of persistent bacterial contamination. Curvilinear array (CLA) echoendoscopes also have an elevator mechanism; however, there are no recommendations or data regarding the risk of persistent bacterial contamination of echoendoscopes. Here we hoped to determine the yield of microbial growth with routine bacterial surveillance cultures of reprocessed CLA echoendoscopes...
February 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Rasha Elsherif, Dalia Ismail, Sanaa Elawady, Samyah Jastaniah, Saad Al-Masaudi, Steve Harakeh, Gamal Karrouf
BACKGROUND: The Middle East is regarded as a secondary reservoir for OXA-48 and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) carbapenemases. One of the main challenges in clinical microbiology diagnostics is the detection of carbapenemases. For this reason simple screening methods have been sought to detect carbapenemase producers to determine appropriate therapeutic measures and implement infection control interventions. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Hodge test (MHT) and a boronic acid-based combined disk test using carbapenems as substrates for the phenotypic determination of OXA-48 and NDM type carbapenemases in 45 epidemiologically unrelated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (13 isolates), Acinetobacter baumanii (20 isolates), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 isolates)...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Murat Haliloglu, Beliz Bilgili, Ozlem Haliloglu, Dilek Gogas Yavuz, Ismail Cinel
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D plays a role in host defense and is known to be associated with mortality in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the relationships between vitamin D levels and predictors of mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (XDR A. baumanii). METHODOLOGY: A retrospective single-center study was conducted in an 18-bed adult ICU of a teaching hospital, including all patients with VAP due to XDR A...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Amandeep Kumar, Deepak Agrawal, Bhawani S Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Ventriculitis is a serious infection associated with high mortality even when both intravenous (IV) and intrathecal (IT) antibiotics are administered. Poor outcome in patients with ventriculitis indicates the need to be more aggressive in our attempts to expeditiously eradicate the infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endoscopic lavage (EL) in patients with severe purulent ventriculitis, unresponsive to IV and IT antibiotics. METHODS: All consecutive patients with severe ventriculitis caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, undergoing EL after failure of prolonged courses of IV and IT antibiotics, were included in the study...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Eleftherios Mylonakis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Maged Muhammed, Andreas Vilcinskas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families...
May 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
C Guth, Z Cavalli, C Pernod, C Lhopital, Pf Wey, P Gerome, J Turc
OBJECTIVE: to describe the management and control of a limited outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (CRAB) outbreak in a French intensive care unit. METHODS: Careful review of the contact's and carrier's files and outbreak management procedures. RESULTS: An undiagnosed CRAB carrier was admitted to our intensive care unit after medical evacuation from Turkey. Despite preventive isolation and contact precautions, a secondary case was diagnosed 5 days after admission of the index case and resulted in the creation of a crisis unit...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Serkan Atici, Ahmet Soysal, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayşe Karaaslan, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Feyza İnceköy Girgin, Gülcan Çulha, Gülşen Altınkanat, Nilüfer Öztürk, Güner Söyletir, Mustafa Bakır
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and distribution of HAIs, pathogens, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a newly opened pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODOLOGY: The infection control team detected and recorded HAI cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria in the PICU of Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital over a four-year period following its opening...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Shahper N Khan, Asad U Khan
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe threat to community wellbeing. Conventional antibiotics are getting progressively more ineffective as a consequence of resistance, making it imperative to realize improved antimicrobial options. In this review we emphasized the microorganisms primarily reported of being resistance, referred as ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) accentuating their capacity to "escape" from routine antimicrobial regimes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cynthia A Danquah, Arundhati Maitra, Simon Gibbons, Jane Faull, Sanjib Bhakta
Antibiotic resistance is one of the major threats to global health and well-being. The past decade has seen an alarming rise in the evolution and spread of drug-resistant strains of pathogenic microbes. The emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance among the ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) as well as fungal pathogens (such as certain species of Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton) poses a significant 21st century scientific challenge...
February 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Claudia-Elena Pleşca, Mihaela Cătălina Luca, A St Luca, Simona Constantinescu, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu
UNLABELLED: Microbial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health and it is linked to patient's age, immune status, and also antibiotic overuse or misuse and repeated hospitalizations. The high incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria requires rethinking the first-line therapeutic schemes. AIM: Retrospective study of the etiologic and antibiotic resistance profile of the bacterial strains isolated from immunocompromised hosts diagnosed with severe systemic infections, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the potential infectious sources and optimizing the antibiotic therapy...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
P Mao, Q Q Wan, Q F Ye
OBJECTIVE: We estimated species distribution and frequency of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract specimens of renal recipients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively collected patient demographics and clinical characteristics and microbiologic culture data with the use of standard microbiologic procedures and commercially available tests. RESULTS: From January 2001 to August 2014, 320 respiratory tract specimens were obtained from 94 renal recipients with ARDS...
December 2015: Transplantation Proceedings
Ling Wang, Ying Wang, Xing Fan, Wei Tang, Jiong Hu
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the causative bacteria and identify risk factors for BSI associated mortality in febrile neutropenia patients undergoing HSCT, we collected the clinical and microbiological data from patients underwent HSCT between 2008 and 2014 and performed a retrospective analysis. Throughout the study period, among 348 episodes of neutropenic fever in patients underwent HSCT, 89 episodes in 85 patients had microbiological defined BSI with a total of 108 isolates...
November 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
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