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Acinetobacter baumanii resistent

Brian A Renda, Cindy Chan, Kristin N Parent, Jeffrey E Barrick
: Bacterial genomes commonly contain prophage sequences as a result of past infections with lysogenic phages. Many of these integrated viral sequences are believed to be cryptic, but prophage genes are sometimes co-opted by the host, and some prophages may be re-activated to form infectious particles when cells are stressed or mutate. We found that a previously uncharacterized filamentous phage emerged from the genome of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 during a laboratory evolution experiment...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christopher G Chapman, Uzma D Siddiqui, Maricarmen Manzano, Vani J Konda, Cynthia Murillo, Emily M Landon, Irving Waxman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The complex design of the elevator mechanism in duodenoscopes has been recognized as a challenge for disinfection and recently implicated as a potential source of persistent bacterial contamination. Curvilinear array (CLA) echoendoscopes also have an elevator mechanism; however, there are no recommendations or data regarding the risk of persistent bacterial contamination of echoendoscopes. Here we hoped to determine the yield of microbial growth with routine bacterial surveillance cultures of reprocessed CLA echoendoscopes...
July 28, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Rasha Elsherif, Dalia Ismail, Sanaa Elawady, Samyah Jastaniah, Saad Al-Masaudi, Steve Harakeh, Gamal Karrouf
BACKGROUND: The Middle East is regarded as a secondary reservoir for OXA-48 and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) carbapenemases. One of the main challenges in clinical microbiology diagnostics is the detection of carbapenemases. For this reason simple screening methods have been sought to detect carbapenemase producers to determine appropriate therapeutic measures and implement infection control interventions. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Hodge test (MHT) and a boronic acid-based combined disk test using carbapenems as substrates for the phenotypic determination of OXA-48 and NDM type carbapenemases in 45 epidemiologically unrelated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (13 isolates), Acinetobacter baumanii (20 isolates), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 isolates)...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Murat Haliloglu, Beliz Bilgili, Ozlem Haliloglu, Dilek Gogas Yavuz, Ismail Cinel
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D plays a role in host defense and is known to be associated with mortality in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the relationships between vitamin D levels and predictors of mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (XDR A. baumanii). METHODOLOGY: A retrospective single-center study was conducted in an 18-bed adult ICU of a teaching hospital, including all patients with VAP due to XDR A...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Amandeep Kumar, Deepak Agrawal, Bhawani S Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Ventriculitis is a serious infection associated with high mortality even when both intravenous (IV) and intrathecal (IT) antibiotics are administered. Poor outcome in patients with ventriculitis indicates the need to be more aggressive in our attempts to expeditiously eradicate the infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endoscopic lavage (EL) in patients with severe purulent ventriculitis, unresponsive to IV and IT antibiotics. METHODS: All consecutive patients with severe ventriculitis caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, undergoing EL after failure of prolonged courses of IV and IT antibiotics, were included in the study...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Eleftherios Mylonakis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Maged Muhammed, Andreas Vilcinskas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families...
May 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
C Guth, Z Cavalli, C Pernod, C Lhopital, Pf Wey, P Gerome, J Turc
OBJECTIVE: to describe the management and control of a limited outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (CRAB) outbreak in a French intensive care unit. METHODS: Careful review of the contact's and carrier's files and outbreak management procedures. RESULTS: An undiagnosed CRAB carrier was admitted to our intensive care unit after medical evacuation from Turkey. Despite preventive isolation and contact precautions, a secondary case was diagnosed 5 days after admission of the index case and resulted in the creation of a crisis unit...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Serkan Atici, Ahmet Soysal, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayşe Karaaslan, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Feyza İnceköy Girgin, Gülcan Çulha, Gülşen Altınkanat, Nilüfer Öztürk, Güner Söyletir, Mustafa Bakır
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and distribution of HAIs, pathogens, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a newly opened pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODOLOGY: The infection control team detected and recorded HAI cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria in the PICU of Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital over a four-year period following its opening...
March 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Shahper N Khan, Asad U Khan
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe threat to community wellbeing. Conventional antibiotics are getting progressively more ineffective as a consequence of resistance, making it imperative to realize improved antimicrobial options. In this review we emphasized the microorganisms primarily reported of being resistance, referred as ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) accentuating their capacity to "escape" from routine antimicrobial regimes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cynthia A Danquah, Arundhati Maitra, Simon Gibbons, Jane Faull, Sanjib Bhakta
Antibiotic resistance is one of the major threats to global health and well-being. The past decade has seen an alarming rise in the evolution and spread of drug-resistant strains of pathogenic microbes. The emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance among the ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) as well as fungal pathogens (such as certain species of Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton) poses a significant 21st century scientific challenge...
2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Claudia-Elena Pleşca, Mihaela Cătălina Luca, A St Luca, Simona Constantinescu, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu
UNLABELLED: Microbial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health and it is linked to patient's age, immune status, and also antibiotic overuse or misuse and repeated hospitalizations. The high incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria requires rethinking the first-line therapeutic schemes. AIM: Retrospective study of the etiologic and antibiotic resistance profile of the bacterial strains isolated from immunocompromised hosts diagnosed with severe systemic infections, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the potential infectious sources and optimizing the antibiotic therapy...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
P Mao, Q Q Wan, Q F Ye
OBJECTIVE: We estimated species distribution and frequency of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract specimens of renal recipients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively collected patient demographics and clinical characteristics and microbiologic culture data with the use of standard microbiologic procedures and commercially available tests. RESULTS: From January 2001 to August 2014, 320 respiratory tract specimens were obtained from 94 renal recipients with ARDS...
December 2015: Transplantation Proceedings
Ling Wang, Ying Wang, Xing Fan, Wei Tang, Jiong Hu
Bloodstream infection (BSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the causative bacteria and identify risk factors for BSI associated mortality in febrile neutropenia patients undergoing HSCT, we collected the clinical and microbiological data from patients underwent HSCT between 2008 and 2014 and performed a retrospective analysis. Throughout the study period, among 348 episodes of neutropenic fever in patients underwent HSCT, 89 episodes in 85 patients had microbiological defined BSI with a total of 108 isolates...
November 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arkadiusz Kuziemski, Krystyna Frankowska, Ewa Gonia, Beata Czerniak, Olena Bakhurynska, Zbigniew Sobociński
UNLABELLED: The Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) of Dr Jan Biziel University Hospital No 2 in Bydgoszcz developed and implemented the principles of a rational antibiotic therapy in 2008. A behavior algorithm has worked since 01.10.2008. Implementation of the principles of a rational antibiotic therapy was part of the hospital antibiotic policy. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: is to evaluate either introductory principles of the rational antibiotic therapy, after five-year experience lived up to expectations in the range specified by the authors...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Paolo Zucca, Manuela Pintus, Giorgia Manzo, Mariella Nieddu, Daniela Steri, Andrea C Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Cytinus is an endophytic parasitic plant occurring in South Africa, Madagascar, and in the Mediterranean region. We have extracted the inflorescences (the only visible part of the plant, emerging from the host roots at the time of blossom) of Cytinus hypocistis collected in Sardinia, Italy, and explored the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and cytotoxic activities of the extracts. METHODS: Extracts from C. hypocistis were prepared using increasing polarity solvents: cyclohexane, ethanol, and water...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Sikandar Aziz Afridi, Hamid Fazeel Alvi, Fahad Saqib Lodhi, Gul Muhammad, Zaheer Uddin Qureshi, Raffat Ullah, Taj Muhammad, Bakhtiar Ullah Afridi
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, are increasingly detected. This study reports the case of a 50-year-old man with blisters on the right knee for 8 months, first admitted through the outpatient department for incisional biopsy. Microbiological and histo-pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of blisters extending deeply up to the knee joint caused by MDR- A. baumannii. A broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was administered and later readjusted according to the results of microbiological culture and biopsy report...
April 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Qiquan Wan, Aijing Luo, Qifa Ye, Shan Liu, Jiandang Zhou
BACKGROUND: More data on bacteremia due to non-lactose fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NLF GNB) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are needed. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors for mortality and septic shock due to NLF GNB bacteremia in SOT recipients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, double-center study over a 12-year study period. The risk factors for mortality and septic shock in SOT recipients with NLF GNB bacteremia were assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Ayşe Kalkancı, Ali Adil Fouad, Merve Erdoğan, Aylin Altay, Zemfira Aliyeva, Gülendam Bozdayı, Kayhan Çağlar
Non-vertebrate hosts, such as Galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. This organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. Here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of Galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing and non-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colistin resistant and susceptible Acinetobacter baumanii clinical strains; Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Scedosporium aurantiacum (CBS 136047) and Pseudallescheria boydii (CBS 117410) reference strains, and Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium oxysporum clinical strains were used as pathogens...
July 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing rates of life-threatening infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria, such as carbapenemase-producer strains, as well as pathogens that are resistant to all current therapeutic options, have been reported. The number of compounds that are currently being developed is still insufficient to control this global threat. We have reviewed the current available options for the treatment of MDR gram-negative infections, including combination regimens employing older antimicrobials and new compounds...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Rachel McKay, Colleen Bamford
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of bacterial infections differs in community and hospital settings. Regular surveillance and reporting of pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility can assist in appropriate management of BSIs. OBJECTIVES: To describe the distribution of organisms and of antibiotic susceptibility among isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary academic hospital during a 1-year period, stratifying by place of infection acquisition...
May 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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