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Adaptor protein 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941732/the-adaptor-protein-alpha-syntrophin-is-reduced-in-human-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-but-is-unchanged-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Rein-Fischboeck Lisa, Pohl Rebekka, M Haberl Elisabeth, S Weiss Thomas, Buechler Christa
The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is differentially expressed in varying types of cancer and affects triglyceride levels, inflammatory response and cell proliferation. However, little is known about the expression of SNTA in liver diseases. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and eventually fibrosis, and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, SNTA mRNA was analyzed in liver tissues from 71 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients and 32 controls to assess associations with disease characteristics...
September 20, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941626/deletion-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-obliterates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-myocardial-dysfunction-through-regulation-of-autophagy
#2
Shuyi Wang, Xiyao Chen, Sreejayan Nair, Dongdong Sun, Xiaoming Wang, Jun Ren
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to prompt various cardiovascular risks although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) serves as an essential negative regulator for insulin signaling. This study examined the role of PTP1B in ER stress-induced myocardial anomalies and underlying mechanism involved with a focus on autophagy. WT and PTP1B knockout mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1mg/kg). Cardiac function was evaluated with echocardiography and an Ion-Optix MyoCam system...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930676/localized-phosphorylation-of-a-kinesin-1-adaptor-by-a-capsid-associated-kinase-regulates-hiv-1-motility-and-uncoating
#3
Viacheslav Malikov, Mojgan H Naghavi
Although microtubule motors mediate intracellular virus transport, the underlying interactions and control mechanisms remain poorly defined. This is particularly true for HIV-1 cores, which undergo complex, interconnected processes of cytosolic transport, reverse transcription, and uncoating of the capsid shell. Although kinesins have been implicated in regulating these events, curiously, there are no direct kinesin-core interactions. We recently showed that the capsid-associated kinesin-1 adaptor protein, fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1), regulates HIV-1 trafficking...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930532/neuroprotective-role-of-asiatic-acid-in-aluminium-chloride-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42, beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921811/a-role-for-the-non-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ack1-in-tnf-alpha-mediated-apoptosis-and-proliferation-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#5
Xinmei Zhao, Chaolan Lv, Shenbo Chen, Fachao Zhi
The roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its mediators in cellular processes related to intestinal diseases remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to determine the biological role of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis and proliferation in Caco-2 cells. ACK1 expression was knocked down using ACK1-specific siRNAs, and ACK1 activity was disrupted using a small molecule ACK1 inhibitor. The Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and the BrdU incorporation assays were used to measure apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912124/kindlin-2-recruits-paxillin-and-arp2-3-to-promote-membrane-protrusions-during-initial-cell-spreading
#6
Ralph T Böttcher, Maik Veelders, Pascaline Rombaut, Jan Faix, Marina Theodosiou, Theresa E Stradal, Klemens Rottner, Roy Zent, Franz Herzog, Reinhard Fässler
Cell spreading requires the coupling of actin-driven membrane protrusion and integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The integrin-activating adaptor protein kindlin-2 plays a central role for cell adhesion and membrane protrusion by directly binding and recruiting paxillin to nascent adhesions. Here, we report that kindlin-2 has a dual role during initial cell spreading: it binds paxillin via the pleckstrin homology and F0 domains to activate Rac1, and it directly associates with the Arp2/3 complex to induce Rac1-mediated membrane protrusions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904407/syk-dependent-tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-3bp2-is-required-for-optimal-fcr%C3%AE-mediated-phagocytosis-and-chemokine-expression-in-u937-cells
#7
Kazuyasu Chihara, Yuji Kato, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Kenji Takeuchi, Shigeharu Fujieda, Kiyonao Sada
The adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain binding protein-2 (3BP2) is tyrosine phosphorylated by Syk in response to cross-linking of antigen receptors, which in turn activates various immune responses. Recently, a study using the mouse model of cherubism, a dominant inherited disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding 3BP2, showed that 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of phagocytosis mediated by Fc receptor for IgG (FcγR) in macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying 3BP2-mediated regulation of phagocytosis and the physiological relevance of 3BP2 tyrosine phosphorylation remains elusive...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904192/the-role-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-%C3%AE-34-5-in-the-regulation-of-irf3-signaling
#8
Richard Manivanh, Jesse Mehrbach, David M Knipe, David A Leib
During viral infection, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their associated adaptors recruit TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), resulting in production of type I interferons (IFNs). ICP0 and ICP34.5 are amongst the proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) that modulate type I IFN signaling. We constructed a recombinant virus (ΔXX) which lacks amino acids 87 - 106, a portion of the previously described TBK1-binding domain of the γ34.5 gene (D. Verpooten, Y...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901492/interactions-between-hematopoietic-progenitor-kinase-1-and-its-adaptor-proteins-review
#9
Qing Zhang, Shu Ding, Huilin Zhang
Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), also known as mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase. It is involved in various cellular events, including mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling, nuclear factor‑κB signaling, cytokine signaling, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, T cell receptor/B cell receptor signaling and T/B/dendritic cell‑mediated immune responses. Therefore, HPK1 has variety of roles in immunity, and is associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, cancer, and the inflammatory response...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890421/the-mechanistic-link-between-arc-arg3-1-expression-and-ampa-receptor-endocytosis
#10
REVIEW
Mark J Wall, Sonia A L Corrêa
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) plays a key role in determining synaptic strength through facilitation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Although there is considerable data on the mechanism by which Arc induction controls synaptic plasticity and learning behaviours, several key mechanistic questions remain. Here we review data on the link between Arc expression and the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway which internalises AMPARs and discuss the significance of Arc binding to the clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) and to endophilin/dynamin...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887403/the-functions-of-reelin-in-membrane-trafficking-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-implications-for-neuronal-migration-polarization-and-differentiation
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Santana, María-Paz Marzolo
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix protein with relevant roles in mammalian central nervous system including neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration during development; and synaptic plasticity with its implications in learning and memory, in the adult. Dysfunctions in reelin signaling are associated with brain lamination defects such as lissencephaly, but also with neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, schizophrenia and depression as well with neurodegeneration. Reelin signaling involves a core pathway that activates upon reelin binding to its receptors, particularly ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2)/LRP8 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, followed by Src/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 (Disabled-1)...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877954/suppression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-proinflammatory-responses-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-rv3529c
#12
Upasana Bandyopadhyay, Attinder Chadha, Priya Gupta, Brijendra Tiwari, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Sonam Popli, Rajagopal Raman, Vani Brahamachari, Yogendra Singh, Pawan Malhotra, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
Microorganisms are known to devise various strategies to thwart protective responses by the host. One such strategy is to incorporate sequences and domains in their genes/proteins that have similarity to various domains of the host proteins. In this study, we report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c exhibits significant similarity to the death domain of the TLR pathway adaptor protein MyD88. Incubation of macrophages with Rv3529c specifically inhibited TLR2-mediated proinflammatory responses. This included attenuated oxidative burst, reduced phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK, reduced activation of transcription factor NF-κB and reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A with a concomitant increased secretion of suppressor cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874467/an-evolutionarily-conserved-pathway-essential-for-orsay-virus-infection-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Hongbing Jiang, Kevin Chen, Luis E Sandoval, Christian Leung, David Wang
Many fundamental biological discoveries have been made in Caenorhabditis elegans The discovery of Orsay virus has enabled studies of host-virus interactions in this model organism. To identify host factors critical for Orsay virus infection, we designed a forward genetic screen that utilizes a virally induced green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Following chemical mutagenesis, two Viro (virus induced reporter off) mutants that failed to express GFP were mapped to sid-3, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and B0280...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874458/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-usp48-stabilizes-traf2-and-reduces-e-cadherin-mediated-adherens-junctions
#14
Shuang Li, Dan Wang, Jing Zhao, Nathaniel M Weathington, Dong Shang, Yutong Zhao
The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a second messenger adaptor protein that plays an essential role in propagating TNF-α-mediated signaling pathways. Modulation of TRAF2 activity by ubiquitination is well studied; however, the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), which regulates TRAF2 stability, has not been identified. Here we reveal USP48 as the first identified DUB to deubiquitinate and stabilize TRAF2 in epithelial cells. Down-regulation of USP48 increases K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF2 and reduces TRAF2 protein levels...
September 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874189/intersectin-1s-deficiency-in-pulmonary-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Niranjan Jeganathan, Dan Predescu, Sanda Predescu
Intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s), a multidomain adaptor protein, plays a vital role in endocytosis, cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that deficiency of ITSN-1s is a crucial early event in pulmonary pathogenesis. In lung cancer, ITSN-1s deficiency impairs Eps8 ubiquitination and favors Eps8-mSos1 interaction which activates Rac1 leading to enhanced lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. Restoring ITSN-1s deficiency in lung cancer cells facilitates cytoskeleton changes favoring mesenchymal to epithelial transformation and impairs lung cancer progression...
September 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859855/degradation-of-phlpp2-by-kctd17-via-a-glucagon-dependent-pathway-promotes-hepatic-steatosis
#16
KyeongJin Kim, Dongryeol Ryu, Paola Dongiovanni, Lale Ozcan, Shruti Nayak, Beatrix Ueberheide, Luca Valenti, Johan Auwerx, Utpal B Pajvani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops, in part, via excess insulin-stimulated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which increases, paradoxically, in patients with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) terminates insulin signaling by dephosphorylating Akt; levels of PHLPP2 are reduced in livers from obese mice. We investigated whether loss of hepatic PHLPP2 is sufficient to induce fatty liver in mice, mechanisms of PHLPP2 degradation in fatty liver, and expression of genes that regulate PHLPP2 in livers of patients with NAFLD...
August 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854360/spatiotemporal-control-of-lipid-conversion-actin-based-mechanical-forces-and-curvature-sensors-during-clathrin-ap-1-coated-vesicle-biogenesis
#17
Mihaela Anitei, Christoph Stange, Cornelia Czupalla, Christian Niehage, Kai Schuhmann, Pia Sala, Aleksander Czogalla, Theresia Pursche, Ünal Coskun, Andrej Shevchenko, Bernard Hoflack
Clathrin/adaptor protein-1-coated carriers connect the secretory and the endocytic pathways. Carrier biogenesis relies on distinct protein networks changing membrane shape at the trans-Golgi network, each regulating coat assembly, F-actin-based mechanical forces, or the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers. How these different hubs are spatiotemporally coordinated remains largely unknown. Using in vitro reconstitution systems, quantitative proteomics, and lipidomics, as well as in vivo cell-based assays, we characterize the protein networks controlling membrane lipid composition, membrane shape, and carrier scission...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842501/stress-sensing-mechanisms-and-the-physiological-roles-of-the-keap1-nrf2-system-during-cellular-stress
#18
Takafumi Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a master regulator of cellular responses against environmental stresses. Nrf2 induces the expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes and suppresses the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) is an adaptor subunit of Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Keap1 regulates the activity of Nrf2 and acts as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the Keap1-Nrf2 system senses and regulates the cellular response to environmental stresses...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842472/the-constriction-and-scission-machineries-involved-in-mitochondrial-fission
#19
REVIEW
Felix Kraus, Michael T Ryan
A key event in the evolution of eukaryotic cells was the engulfment of an aerobic bacterium by a larger anaerobic archaebacterium, leading to a close relationship between the host and the newly formed endosymbiont. Mitochondria, originating from this event, have evolved to be the main place of cellular ATP production. Maintaining elements of their independence, mitochondria undergo growth and division in the cell, thereby ensuring that new daughter cells inherit a mitochondrial complement. Mitochondrial division is also important for other processes, including quality control, mitochondrial (mt)DNA inheritance, transport and cell death...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841444/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-of-t-cells-causes-vp11-12-dependent-phosphorylation-and-degradation-of-the-cellular-protein-dok-2
#20
Soumia Lahmidi, Ulrike Strunk, James R Smiley, Angela Pearson, Pascale Duplay
Previous studies have shown that HSV-1 infection of lymphocytes induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins that might correspond to viral or host proteins. VP11/12, a viral tegument protein, is the major HSV-induced tyrosine phosphorylated protein identified thus far. In this report, we demonstrated that the cellular adaptor proteins Dok-2 and Dok-1 are tyrosine phosphorylated upon HSV-1 infection. In addition, HSV-1 induced the selective degradation of Dok-2. Finally, we provide evidence that Dok-2 interacts with VP11/12, and that HSV-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and degradation of Dok-2 require VP11/12...
August 22, 2017: Virology
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