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Aerobic glycolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#1
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773495/metabolic-changes-in-bladder-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Matthew Ayres, John A Taylor
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is a common solid tumor. Outcomes are poor in advanced disease, with few novel clinical therapeutics introduced over the previous several decades. Otto Warburg's original hypothesis that cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP instead of traditional oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria was a landmark discovery in its time. Recent studies indicate metabolic changes in cancer are far more complex than originally anticipated though...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769417/lactate-in-cardiogenic-shock-current-understanding-and-clinical-implications
#3
G M Kubiak, A R Tomasik, K Bartus, R Olszanecki, P Ceranowicz
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential substrate metabolite in human beings. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides > 95% of ATP with the remainder derived from glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In normal hearts, acetyl-CoA is synthesized from the β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA) and the oxidation of pyruvate. Pyruvate is synthesized from glycolysis and can be submitted either for decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA or for dehydrogenation to lactate. Moreover, pyruvate, as well as lactate, plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism which is highly dependent on ubiquitous regulatory mechanisms...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768191/loss-of-a-negative-regulator-of-mtorc1-induces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-altered-fiber-composition-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
Paul A Dutchak, Sandi J Estill-Terpack, Abigail A Plec, Xiaozheng Zhao, Chendong Yang, Jun Chen, Bookyung Ko, Ralph J Deberardinis, Yonghao Yu, Benjamin P Tu
The conserved GATOR1 complex consisting of NPRL2-NPRL3-DEPDC5 inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. Here, we show that loss of NPRL2 and GATOR1 function in skeletal muscle causes constitutive activation of mTORC1 signaling in the fed and fasted states. Muscle fibers of NPRL2 knockout animals are significantly larger and show altered fiber-type composition, with more fast-twitch glycolytic and fewer slow-twitch oxidative fibers. NPRL2 muscle knockout mice also have altered running behavior and enhanced glucose tolerance...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767788/acute-maneb-exposure-significantly-alters-both-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#5
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764507/aldolase-a-promotes-proliferation-and-g-1-s-transition-via-the-egfr-mapk-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Hailu Fu, Huijun Gao, Xiaoyu Qi, Lei Zhao, Donghua Wu, Yuxin Bai, Huimin Li, Xuan Liu, Jun Hu, Shujuan Shao
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that aldolase A (ALDOA) is overexpressed in clinical human lung squamous cell carcinoma and that ALDOA promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to explore the function of ALDOA in the modulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) proliferation and cell cycle progression and the potential mechanism. METHODS: ALDOA was knocked down by short hairpin RNA in H520 and H1299 cells...
May 8, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764469/chibby-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-proliferation-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-lin28-let7-pdk1-cascade
#7
Cheng-Fu Cai, Guo-Dong Ye, Dong-Yan Shen, Wei Zhang, Mao-Li Chen, Xin-Xin Chen, Da-Xiong Han, Yan-Jun Mi, Qi-Cong Luo, Wang-Yu Cai, Shu-Yu Yang
BACKGROUND: Great progress has been achieved in the study of the aerobic glycolysis or the so-called Warburg effect in a variety of cancers; however, the regulation of the Warburg effect in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been completely defined. METHODS: Gene expression pattern of NPC cells were used to test associations between Chibby and β-catenin expression. Chibby siRNAs and over-expression vector were transfected into NPC cells to down-regulate or up-regulate Chibby expression...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764240/ferrous-glycinate-regulates-cell-energy-metabolism-by-restricting-hypoxia-induced-factor-1%C3%AE-expression-in-human-a549-cells
#8
Yung-Ting Kuo, Jhong-Huei Jheng, Mei-Chen Lo, Wei-Lu Chen, Shyang-Guang Wang, Horng-Mo Lee
Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. Addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells...
May 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763606/mir-216a-5p-hexokinase-2-axis-regulates-uveal-melanoma-growth-through-modulation-of-warburg-effect
#9
Ying Liu, Yan Huo, Dajiang Wang, Yanhong Tai, Jie Li, Dongbo Pang, Yan Zhang, Wei Zhao, Nan Du, Yifei Huang
Hexokinase-2 (HK2), the initial as well as the rate-limiting step in glycolysis, is overexpressed in many human cancers, and correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer, and drugs targeting its enzymes, including HK2, are being developed. However, the mechanisms of HK2 inhibition and the physiological significance of the HK2 inhibitors in cancer cells are rarely reported. Here, we show that microRNA-216a-5p (miR-216a-5p) inhibits HK2 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR in uveal melanoma cells...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760743/crosstalk-between-the-warburg-effect-redox-regulation-and-autophagy-induction-in-tumourigenesis
#10
REVIEW
Mokgadi Violet Gwangwa, Anna Margaretha Joubert, Michelle Helen Visagie
Tumourigenic tissue uses modified metabolic signalling pathways in order to support hyperproliferation and survival. Cancer-associated aerobic glycolysis resulting in lactic acid production was described nearly 100 years ago. Furthermore, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate quantities increase metabolic, survival and proliferation signalling, resulting in increased tumourigenesis. In order to maintain redox balance, the cell possesses innate antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759552/the-emerging-co-regulatory-role-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-the-warburg-effect-in-aggressive-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Qian Hua, Baoming Mi, Gang Huang
Malignant tumor cells have several unique characteristics, and their ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular gateway to invasive behavior. Rapid proliferation and increased invasiveness during EMT enhance aberrant glucose metabolism in tumor cells. Meanwhile, aerobic glycolysis provides energy, biosynthesis precursors, and an appropriate microenvironment to facilitate EMT. Reciprocal crosstalk between the processes synergistically contributes to malignant cancer behaviors, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752396/fueling-thought-management-of-glycolysis-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-neuronal-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Gary Yellen
The brain's energy demands are remarkable both in their intensity and in their moment-to-moment dynamic range. This perspective considers the evidence for Warburg-like aerobic glycolysis during the transient metabolic response of the brain to acute activation, and it particularly addresses the cellular mechanisms that underlie this metabolic response. The temporary uncoupling between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation led to the proposal of an astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle whereby during stimulation, lactate produced by increased glycolysis in astrocytes is taken up by neurons as their primary energy source...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751418/in-vitro-ppar%C3%AE-agonistic-potential-of-chitin-synthesis-inhibitors-and-their-energy-metabolism-related-hepatotoxicity
#13
Xia Ning, Tingting Ku, Rui Gao, Xiaotong Ji, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
The extensive use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in integrated pest management programs has a detrimental effect on the surrounding environment. Recent studies reveal that CSIs may affect non-target organisms at sublethal concentrations, highlighting the need for further ecological and health risk investigations of these compounds. In this study, we characterized the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonistic activity of fourteen CSIs in HepG2 cells using an in vitro reporter gene assay...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748591/mir-3662-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-through-inhibition-of-hif-1%C3%AE-mediated-warburg-effect
#14
Zhiqiang Chen, Xueliang Zuo, Yao Zhang, Guoyong Han, Long Zhang, Jindao Wu, Xuehao Wang
Glucose metabolic reprogramming from oxidative to aerobic glycolysis, referred as the Warburg effect, is a hallmark of tumor cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subset of microRNAs play pivotal roles in modulating such reprogramming of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. miR-3662 has been implicated previously in both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects in several types of cancer. The expression level of miR-3662 is downregulated in acute myeloid leukemia, whereas increased miR-3662 expression is observed in lung adenocarcinoma...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743927/functional-characterization-of-the-hyles-euphorbiae-hawkmoth-transcriptome-reveals-strong-expression-of-phorbol-ester-detoxification-and-seasonal-cold-hardiness-genes
#15
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740695/metabolic-influence-of-walnut-phenolic-extract-on-mitochondria-in-a-colon-cancer-stem-cell-model
#16
Jina Choi, Phil-Kyung Shin, Yuri Kim, Chang Pyo Hong, Sang-Woon Choi
PURPOSE: Walnut phenolic extract (WPE) reduces proliferation and enhances differentiation of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs). The present study investigated the metabolic influence of WPE on the mitochondrial function of colon CSCs to determine its underlying mechanism. METHODS: CD133+ CD44+ HCT116 colon cancer cells were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and were treated with or without 40 µg/mL WPE. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were further validated with RT-PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725130/mir-422a-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-malignancy-by-targeting-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-2-in-gastric-cancer
#17
Zhongyuan He, Zheng Li, Xuan Zhang, Kai Yin, Weizhi Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Bowen Li, Lei Zhang, Jianghao Xu, Guangli Sun, Lu Wang, Qing Li, Xiaoxu Huang, Lu Zhang, Diancai Zhang, Hao Xu, Zekuan Xu
Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a crucial role in human malignancies. Here, we showed that microRNA-422a (miR-422a) expression was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer (GC) samples and cell lines compared with normal controls, and that its expression level was inversely related to tumor size and depth of infiltration. Functional studies revealed that the overexpression of miR-422a in GC tumor cells suppressed cell proliferation and migration, and drove a metabolic shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725006/brd7-inhibits-the-warburg-effect-and-tumor-progression-through-inactivation-of-hif1%C3%AE-ldha-axis-in-breast-cancer
#18
Weihong Niu, Yanwei Luo, Xinye Wang, Yao Zhou, Hui Li, Heran Wang, Yaojie Fu, Shanshan Liu, Shanghelin Yin, Jianglei Li, Ran Zhao, Yukun Liu, Songqing Fan, Zheng Li, Wei Xiong, Xiaoling Li, Guiyuan Li, Caiping Ren, Ming Tan, Ming Zhou
The bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) was first identified as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and has critical roles in cancer development and progression. However, the regulatory roles and mechanisms of BRD7 in cancer metabolism are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BRD7 was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and was identified as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. Meanwhile, BRD7 could suppress cell proliferation, initiate cell apoptosis and reduce aerobic glycolysis, suggesting that BRD7 plays a tumor suppressive roles in breast cancer...
May 3, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721328/high-throughput-measurement-of-metabolism-in-planarians-reveals-activation-of-glycolysis-during-regeneration
#19
Edie A Osuma, Daniel W Riggs, Andrew A Gibb, Bradford G Hill
Planarians are outstanding models for studying mechanisms of regeneration; however, there are few methods to measure changes in their metabolism. Examining metabolism in planarians is important because the regenerative process is dependent on numerous integrated metabolic pathways, which provide the energy required for tissue repair as well as the ability to synthesize the cellular building blocks needed to form new tissue. Therefore, we standardized an extracellular flux analysis method to measure mitochondrial and glycolytic activity in live planarians during normal growth as well as during regeneration...
March 2018: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721175/the-decrease-of-glycolytic-enzyme-hexokinase-1-accelerates-tumor-malignancy-via-deregulating-energy-metabolism-but-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-2-deoxyglucose-inhibition
#20
Po-Lin Tseng, Chih-Wei Chen, Keng-Hsun Hu, Hung-Chi Cheng, Yuan-Ho Lin, Wen-Hui Tsai, Tain-Junn Cheng, Wei-Hsuan Wu, Chin-Wei Yeh, Chin-Chih Lin, Hui-Ju Tsai, Hao-Chun Chang, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Yan-Shen Shan, Wen-Tsan Chang
Malignant tumors often display an aberrant energy metabolism that relies primarily on glycolysis to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the so-called Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the elucidation of this energetic alteration in malignant tumors is important in the search for more effective therapeutics against malignant cancers, the most deadly human disease. To investigate whether attenuated glycolytic activity modulates tumor progression, the effects of silencing the first and rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) isozymes HK1 and HK2 were examined...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
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