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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340148/reducing-unnecessary-culturing-a-systems-approach-to-evaluating-urine-culture-ordering-and-collection-practices-among-nurses-in-two-acute-care-settings
#1
Robert Redwood, Mary Jo Knobloch, Daniela C Pellegrini, Matthew J Ziegler, Michael Pulia, Nasia Safdar
Background: Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods: We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340030/increased-efficacy-of-metformin-corresponds-to-differential-metabolic-effects-in-the-ovarian-tumors-from-obese-versus-lean-mice
#2
Jianjun Han, Weiya Z Wysham, Yan Zhong, Hui Guo, Lu Zhang, Kim M Malloy, Hallum K Dickens, Gene Huh, Douglas Lee, Liza Makowski, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Obesity is a significant risk factor for ovarian cancer (OC) and associated with worse outcomes for this disease. We assessed the anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin in human OC cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high grade serous OC under obese and lean conditions. Metformin potently inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner in all four human OC cell lines through AMPK/mTOR pathways. Treatment with metformin resulted in G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, reduction of invasion and decreased hTERT expression...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339095/patterning-the-gastrointestinal-epithelium-to-confer-regional-specific-functions
#3
REVIEW
Cayla A Thompson, Ann DeLaForest, Michele A Battle
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in simplest terms, can be described as an epithelial-lined muscular tube extending along the cephalocaudal axis from the oral cavity to the anus. Although the general architecture of the GI tract organs is conserved from end to end, the presence of different epithelial tissue structures and unique epithelial cell types within each organ enables each to perform the distinct digestive functions required for efficient nutrient assimilation. Spatiotemporal regulation of signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors controls GI epithelial morphogenesis during development to confer essential regional-specific epithelial structures and functions...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338479/graphene-oxide-regulates-cox2-in-human-embryonic-kidney-293t-cells-via-epigenetic-mechanisms-dynamic-chromosomal-interactions
#4
Yuxiang Sun, Hui Dai, Shaopeng Chen, Ming Xu, Xuanyu Wang, Yajun Zhang, Shengmin Xu, An Xu, Jian Weng, Sijin Liu, Lijun Wu
To extend the applications of engineered nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide (GO), it is necessary to minimize cytotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying this cytotoxicity are unclear. Dynamic chromosomal interactions have been used to illustrate the molecular bases of gene expression, which offers a more sensitive and cutting-edge technology to elucidate complex biological processes associated with epigenetic regulations. In this study, the role of GO-triggered chromatin interactions in the activation of cox2, a hallmark of inflammation, was investigated in normal human cells...
January 16, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336267/stem-cells-derived-from-amniotic-fluid-a-potential-pluripotent-like-cell-source-for-cellular-therapy
#5
Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Vithya Velaithan, Yelena Yeow, Fazlul H Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Regenerative medicine aims to provide therapeutic treatment for disease or injury, and cell-based therapy is a newer therapeutic approach that the conventional medicine cannot do. The ethical issues rose by the utilisation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and the limited capacity of adult stem cells, however, hinder the application of these stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recently, isolation and characterisation of c-kit positive cells from human amniotic fluid, which possess intermediate characteristics between hESCs and adult stem cells, provided a new approach towards realising their promise for fetal and adult regenerative medicine...
January 14, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333086/ethical-and-safety-issues-of-stem-cell-based-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Vladislav Volarevic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Marina Gazdic, Ana Volarevic, Nemanja Jovicic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Lyle Armstrong, Valentin Djonov, Majlinda Lako, Miodrag Stojkovic
Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330205/clinical-utility-of-a-stat3-regulated-microrna-200-family-signature-with-prognostic-potential-in-early-gastric-cancer
#7
Liang Yu, Di Wu, Hugh Gao, Jesse Balic, Anna Tsykin, Tae-Su Han, You Dong Liu, Catherine Lydia Kennedy, Ji-Kun Li, Jie-Qi Mao, Patrick Tan, Masanobu Oshima, Gregory J Goodall, Brendan J Jenkins
PURPOSE: The majority of gastric cancer (GC) patients are diagnosed with late stage disease, for which distinct molecular subtypes have been identified that are potentially amenable to targeted therapies. However, there exists no molecular classification system with prognostic power for early stage GC (EGC) because the molecular events promoting GC initiation remain ill-defined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA microarrays were performed on gastric tissue from the gp130F/F preclinical EGC mouse model, prior to tumor initiation...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329231/development-of-a-cytocompatible-scaffold-from-pig-immature-testicular-tissue-allowing-human-sertoli-cell-attachment-proliferation-and-functionality
#8
Maxime Vermeulen, Federico Del Vento, Francesca de Michele, Jonathan Poels, Christine Wyns
Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue before chemo/radiotherapy is the only option to preserve fertility of cancer-affected prepubertal boys. To avoid reintroduction of malignant cells, development of a transplantable scaffold by decellularization of pig immature testicular tissue (ITT) able to support decontaminated testicular cells could be an option for fertility restoration in these patients. We, therefore, compared decellularization protocols to produce a cytocompatible scaffold. Fragments of ITT from 15 piglets were decellularized using three protocols: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-Triton (ST), Triton-SDS-Triton (TST) and trypsin 0...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329074/goat-tendon-collagen-human-fibrin-hydrogel-for-comprehensive-parametric-evaluation-of-huvec-microtissue-based-angiogenesis
#9
Rajan Narayan, Tarun Agarwal, Debasish Mishra, Tapas Kumar Maiti, Sujata Mohanty
The cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a very important role during angiogenesis. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix along with pro-angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors, and matrix-degrading proteases, accounts for endothelial cell growth, migration, and tube formation. However, for studying angiogenesis, only limited and expensive biomaterials are available. Despite being biocompatible, inexpensive, and easy availability; the potential of goat tendon collagen (GTC) has never been explored for vascular tissue engineering applications...
January 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329052/efficient-and-cost-effective-generation-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-through-microparticle-mediated-delivery-of-growth-factors-in-a-3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Zeinab Heidariyan, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Mohsen Ashjari, Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Mehran Rezaei Larijani, Abbas Piryaei, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Biomedical application of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) relies on efficient large-scale differentiation, which is commonly performed by a suspension culture of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids in bioreactors. However, this approach requires large amounts of growth factors (GFs) and the need to overcome limited diffusional transport posed by the inherent 3D structure of hPSC spheroids. Here, we have hypothesized that localized delivery of GFs by incorporation of GF-laden degradable polymeric microparticles (MPs) within the hPSC spheroids would circumvent such limitations...
January 2, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321323/hiv-1-vif-s-capacity-to-manipulate-the-cell-cycle-is-species-specific
#11
Edward L Evans, Jordan T Becker, Stephanie L Fricke, Kishan Patel, Nathan M Sherer
Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 virion production reflecting species-specific incompatibilities between viral Tat and Rev proteins and essential host factors Cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and Exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), respectively. To determine if mouse cell blocks other than CCNT1 and XPO1 affect HIV's post-integration stages, we studied HIV-1NL4-3 gene expression in mouse NIH 3T3 cells modified to constitutively express HIV-1 compatible versions of CCNT1 and XPO1 (3T3...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320402/the-secretory-response-of-rat-peritoneal-mast-cells-on-exposure-to-mineral-fibers
#12
Violetta Borelli, Elisa Trevisan, Vita Francesca, Giuliano Zabucchi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to mineral fibers is of substantial relevance to human health. A key event in exposure is the interaction with inflammatory cells and the subsequent generation of pro-inflammatory factors. Mast cells (MCs) have been shown to interact with titanium oxide (TiO₂) and asbestos fibers. In this study, we compared the response of rat peritoneal MCs challenged with the asbestos crocidolite and nanowires of TiO₂ to that induced by wollastonite employed as a control fiber...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316809/extracorporeal-shock-waves-trigger-tenogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#13
Letizia Rinella, Francesca Marano, Laura Paletto, Marco Fraccalvieri, Laura Annaratone, Isabella Castellano, Nicoletta Fortunati, Alessandro Bargoni, Laura Berta, Roberto Frairia, Maria Graziella Catalano
PURPOSES: Incomplete tendon healing impairs the outcome of tendon ruptures and tendinopathies. Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (hASCs) are promising for tissue engineering applications. Extracorporeal Shock Waves (ESW) are a leading choice for the treatment of several tendinopathies. In this study, we investigated the effects of ESW treatment and tenogenic medium on the differentiation of hASCs into tenoblast-like cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hASCs were treated with ESW generated by a piezoelectric device and tenogenic medium...
January 9, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315258/methods-for-using-small-non-coding-rnas-to-improve-recombinant-protein-expression-in-mammalian-cells
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Inwood, Michael J Betenbaugh, Joseph Shiloach
The ability to produce recombinant proteins by utilizing different "cell factories" revolutionized the biotherapeutic and pharmaceutical industry. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the dominant industrial producer, especially for antibodies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), while not being as widely used as CHO cells, are used where CHO cells are unable to meet the needs for expression, such as growth factors. Therefore, improving recombinant protein expression from mammalian cells is a priority, and continuing effort is being devoted to this topic...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313189/supportive-properties-of-basement-membrane-layer-of-human-amniotic-membrane-enable-development-of-tissue-engineering-applications
#15
Sonia Iranpour, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri, Raheleh Miri, Halimeh Hasanzadeh, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Ehsan Zahabi, Maryam M Matin
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been widely used as a natural scaffold in tissue engineering due to many of its unique biological properties such as providing growth factors, cytokines and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study aimed at finding the most suitable and supportive layer of HAM as a delivery system for autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation. Three different layers of HAM were examined including basement membrane, epithelial and stromal layers. In order to prepare the basement membrane, de-epithelialization was performed using 0...
January 8, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313037/soluble-collagen-vi-treatment-enhances-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expansion-for-engineering-cartilage
#16
Piera Smeriglio, Jieun Lee, Nidhi Bhutani
Bone Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) are an attractive source for cell-based therapies in cartilage injury owing to their efficient differentiation into chondrocytes and their immune-suppressive abilities. However, their clinical use is hampered by a scarcity of cells leading to compromised efficacy. While expansion of human MSC ex vivo can potentially overcome the scarcity of cells, current methods lead to a rapid loss of the stem cell properties. In this study, we report soluble Collagen VI (cartilage pericellular matrix component) as a potential biologic that can expand the MSC population while maintaining the stem cell phenotype as confirmed by expression of the stem cell markers CD105 and CD90...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310475/human-factors-and-usability-engineering-in-the-development-of-smt-101-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Peter Noymer, Assaf Shaked, Kay Newell
BACKGROUND: SMT-101, a novel, proprietary, water-resistant wearable infusion pump prefilled with a preset dosage of treprostinil, was designed to address many of the administration-related shortcomings of existing parenteral therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The objective of the human factors (HF) program was to demonstrate that the SMT-101 system is safe and effective when used by patients with PAH, their caregivers, or healthcare providers. METHODS: The HF program for SMT-101 consisted of 8 studies (148 participants): an ethnographic study, an online survey of patients with PAH, 4 formative studies, a study of the instructions for use (IFU), and a summative study for validation...
January 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305678/the-role-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-a-self-organizing-3d-model-with-regard-to-human-soft-tissue-healing
#18
Martin Oberringer, Monika Bubel, Martina Jennewein, Silke Guthörl, Tamara Morsch, Sophie Bachmann, Wolfgang Metzger, Tim Pohlemann
The clinical phenomenon of inadequate soft tissue healing still remains an important issue. The occurrence of chronic wounds is correlated to the life span, which is still increasing in western countries. Tissue engineering products containing adipose-derived stem cells are discussed as a promising therapeutic approach. Several studies confirmed the value of these cells for soft tissue healing improvement, suggesting a paracrine as well as a direct effect on vessel repair and angiogenesis. In an attempt to figure out specific effects of adipose-derived stem cells on dermal microvascular endothelial cells with respect to the different phases of soft tissue healing, we designed a 3D in vitro model on the basis of spheroids...
January 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304235/performance-shaping-factors-affecting-older-adults-hospital-to-home-transition-success-a-systems-approach
#19
Nicole E Werner, Michelle Tong, Amy Borkenhagen, Richard J Holden
Background and Objectives: Facilitating older adults' successful hospital-to-home transitions remains a persistent challenge. To address this challenge, we applied a systems lens to identify and understand the performance-shaping factors (PSFs) related older adults' hospital-to-home transition success. Research Design and Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews from older adults (N = 31) recently discharged from a hospital and their informal caregivers (N = 13)...
January 3, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301848/physiologic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-paracrine-modulation-of-cardiac-excitation-contraction-coupling
#20
REVIEW
Joshua Mayourian, Delaine K Ceholski, David M Gonzalez, Timothy J Cashman, Susmita Sahoo, Roger J Hajjar, Kevin D Costa
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the orchestrated process of initial myocyte electrical excitation, which leads to calcium entry, intracellular trafficking, and subsequent sarcomere shortening and myofibrillar contraction. Neurohumoral β-adrenergic signaling is a well-established mediator of ECC; other signaling mechanisms, such as paracrine signaling, have also demonstrated significant impact on ECC but are less well understood. For example, resident heart endothelial cells are well-known physiological paracrine modulators of cardiac myocyte ECC mainly via NO and endothelin-1...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
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