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mucosal barrier injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076934/the-injury-of-serotonin-on-intestinal-epithelium-cell-renewal-of-weaned-diarrhoea-mice
#1
Y Dong, C Yang, Z Wang, Z Qin, J Cao, Y Chen
Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg) via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg)...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073414/-protective-effect-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-against-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injury-in-rats-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Y T Liu, Y Q Li, Y Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean body weight of 180±20 g were randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group, with 12 rats in each group, after adaptive feeding for 1 week. The rats in the control group were given basic feed, and those in the model group and treatment group were given high-fat feed...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052268/microbiota-plays-a-key-role-in-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-small-intestinal-damage
#3
Koji Otani, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Toshio Watanabe, Sunao Shimada, Yuji Nadatani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Masatsugu Shiba, Kazunari Tominaga, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) damage the small intestine by causing multiple erosions and ulcers. However, to date, no established therapies and prophylactic agents are available to treat such damages. We reviewed the role of intestinal microbiota in NSAID-induced intestinal damage and identified potential therapeutic candidates. SUMMARY: The composition of the intestinal microbiota is an important factor in the pathophysiology of NSAID-induced small intestinal damage...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049834/aquaporin-3-mediates-hydrogen-peroxide-dependent-responses-to-environmental-stress-in-colonic-epithelia
#4
Jay R Thiagarajah, Jeffrey Chang, Jeremy A Goettel, Alan S Verkman, Wayne I Lencer
The colonic epithelium provides an essential barrier against the environment that is critical for protecting the body and controlling inflammation. In response to injury or gut microbes, colonic epithelial cells produce extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which acts as a potent signaling molecule affecting barrier function and host defense. In humans, impaired regulation of H2O2 in the intestine has been associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Here, we show that signal transduction by H2O2 depends on entry into the cell by transit through aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a plasma membrane H2O2-conducting channel...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#5
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011908/genital-injury-signatures-and-microbiome-alterations-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-usage-and-intravaginal-drying-practices
#6
Kenzie D Birse, Laura M Romas, Brandon L Guthrie, Peter Nilsson, Rose Bosire, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Kristina Broliden, Adam D Burgener
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and intravaginal practices may be associated with an increased risk of HIV infection; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study evaluated the effect of DMPA and intravaginal practices on the genital mucosal proteome and microbiome to gain mechanistic insights. METHODS: Cervicovaginal secretions from 86 Kenyan women, including self-reported DMPA (n=23) and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n=63), and women who practice vaginal drying (n=46) were analyzed using tandem-mass spectrometry in a cross sectional manner...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966554/il-36-receptor-deletion-attenuates-lung-injury-and-decreases-mortality-in-murine-influenza-pneumonia
#7
T Aoyagi, M W Newstead, X Zeng, S L Kunkel, M Kaku, T J Standiford
Influenza virus causes a respiratory disease in humans that can progress to lung injury with fatal outcome. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are newly described IL-1 family cytokines that promote inflammatory responses via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). The mechanism of expression and the role of IL-36 cytokines are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-36 cytokines in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice. The intranasal administration of influenza virus upregulated IL-36α mRNA and protein production in the lungs...
December 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929421/ghrelin-attenuates-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#8
Yijun Cheng, Yongxu Wei, Wenlei Yang, Yu Cai, Bin Chen, Guoyuan Yang, Hanbing Shang, Weiguo Zhao
Intestinal barrier dysfunction remains a critical problem in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide, has been shown to exert protection in animal models of gastrointestinal injury. However, the effect of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction post-ICH and its possible underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether ghrelin administration attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental ICH using an intrastriatal autologous blood infusion mouse model...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918411/potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ccfm639-in-protecting-against-aluminum-toxicity-mediated-by-intestinal-barrier-function-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Leilei Yu, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Xiaoming Liu, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L...
December 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856070/impact-of-removing-mucosal-barrier-injury-laboratory-confirmed-bloodstream-infections-from-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-rates-in-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-2014
#10
Isaac See, Minn M Soe, Lauren Epstein, Jonathan R Edwards, Shelley S Magill, Nicola D Thompson
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) event data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network from 2014, the first year of required use of the mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) definition, were analyzed to assess the impact of removing MBI-LCBI events from CLABSI rates. CLABSI rates decreased significantly in some location types after removing MBI-LCBI events, and MBI-LCBI events will be removed from publicly reported CLABSI rates.
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827449/gata4-is-critical-to-maintain-gut-barrier-function-and-mucosal-integrity-following-epithelial-injury
#11
David Lepage, Élise Bélanger, Christine Jones, Sarah Tremblay, Joannie M Allaire, Joannie Bruneau, Claude Asselin, Nathalie Perreault, Alfredo Menendez, Fernand-Pierre Gendron, Francois Boudreau
The intestinal epithelial barrier is critical to limit potential harmful consequences from exposure to deleterious luminal contents on the organism. Although this barrier is functionally important along the entire gut, specific regional regulatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this barrier are poorly defined. Herein, we identified Gata4 as a crucial regulator of barrier integrity in the mouse proximal intestinal epithelium. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the intestine led to a drastic increase in claudin-2 expression that was associated with an important increase of gut barrier permeability without causing overt spontaneous inflammation...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760753/myosin-light-chain-kinase-mediates-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-via-occludin-endocytosis-during-anoxia-reoxygenation-injury
#12
Younggeon Jin, Anthony T Blikslager
Intestinal anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury induces loss of barrier function followed by epithelial repair. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to alter barrier function via regulation of interepithelial tight junctions, but has not been studied in intestinal A/R injury. We hypothesized that A/R injury would disrupt tight junction barrier function via MLCK activation and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Caco-2BBe1 monolayers were subjected to anoxia for 2 h followed by reoxygenation in 21% O2, after which barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran flux...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734759/the-effect-of-antioxidant-supplementation-on-bacterial-translocation-after-intestinal-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#13
A Tassopoulos, A Chalkias, A Papalois, N Iacovidou, T Xanthos
The intestine is highly sensitive to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Intestinal I/R may cause local tissue injury and disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier, allowing the passage of viable bacteria and endotoxins from the gastrointestinal lumen to distant organs. This phenomenon, known as bacterial translocation (BT), may lead to systemic disorders with high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress mediators such as reactive oxygen species, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and nitric oxide are believed to contribute to the intestinal I/R injury...
January 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707514/non-redundant-role-of-the-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-in-the-anti-inflammatory-function-of-gut-macrophages
#14
G Marelli, C Belgiovine, A Mantovani, M Erreni, P Allavena
Mucosal immunity at the intestinal level is constantly challenged by the presence of external food and microbial antigens and must be kept under strict control to avoid the rise of aberrant inflammation. Among cells of the innate immunity, macrophages expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are strategically located near the gut epithelial barrier. These cells contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis by producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; however, their role in the control of full blown inflammation and tissue injury is controversial...
February 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632432/stable-isotope-techniques-for-the-assessment-of-host-and-microbiota-response-during-gastrointestinal-dysfunction
#15
Ross N Butler, Margaret Kosek, Nancy F Krebs, Cornelia U Loechl, Alexander Loy, Victor O Owino, Michael B Zimmermann, Douglas J Morrison
The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical meeting on environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in Vienna (October 28-30, 2015; https://nucleus.iaea.org/HHW/Nutrition/EED_Technical_Meeting/index.html) to bring together international experts in the fields of EED, nutrition, and stable isotope technologies. Advances in stable isotope-labeling techniques open up new possibilities to improve our understanding of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the role of the microbiota in host health. In the context of EED, little is known about the role gut dysfunction may play in macro- and micronutrient bioavailability and requirements and what the consequences may be for nutritional status and linear growth...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609629/clabsi-risk-factors-in-the-nicu-potential-for-prevention-a-picnic-study
#16
Maya Dahan, Shauna O'Donnell, Julie Hebert, Milagros Gonzales, Bonita Lee, A Uma Chandran, Samantha Woolsey, Sandra Escoredo, Heather Chinnery, Caroline Quach
OBJECTIVE Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. We aimed to determine whether intra-abdominal pathologies are an independent risk factor for CLABSI. METHODS We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Montreal Children's Hospital (Montreal) and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. CLABSI cases that occurred between April 2009 and March 2014 were identified through local infection control databases...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594973/genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-reveals-the-protection-against-hypoxia-induced-oxidative-injury-in-the-intestine-of-tibetans-via-the-inhibition-of-grb2-egfr-ptpn11-pathways
#17
Kang Li, Luobu Gesang, Zeng Dan, Lamu Gusang
The molecular mechanisms for hypoxic environment causing the injury of intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) are widely unknown. To address the issue, Han Chinese from 100 m altitude and Tibetans from high altitude (more than 3650 m) were recruited. Histological and transcriptome analyses were performed. The results showed intestinal villi were reduced and appeared irregular, and glandular epithelium was destroyed in the IMB of Tibetans when compared with Han Chinese. Transcriptome analysis revealed 2573 genes with altered expression...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590778/-candiduria-what-now-therapy-of-urinary-tract-infections-with-candida
#18
H Hof
BACKGROUND: Yeasts are found in urine specimens relatively often, especially in the elderly and patients under treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, i. e. especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In some cases, the number of pathogens is very high, i. e. >10(5)/ml. The clinical relevance of detecting Candida in urine is difficult to assess. In the German S3 guidelines it is apodictically stated that an ascending infection of the urinary tract by yeasts does not occur but this may undoubtedly happen in certain instances in patients at risk, for example in the elderly, in diabetic persons and in the case of foreign bodies in the urinary tract...
September 2, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588102/probiotic-pre-administration-reduces-mortality-in-a-mouse-model-of-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-sepsis
#19
Lufang Chen, Keying Xu, Qifeng Gui, Yue Chen, Deying Chen, Yunmei Yang
A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the use of probiotics has the potential to prevent nosocomial infections. However, the mechanism underlying probiotic-induced anti-infection and sepsis remains to be investigated. In the present study, 200 µl/day of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or normal saline (control) was orally administrated to 4-week-old C57BL6 mice 4 weeks prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A number of mice were sacrificed 24 h after CLP, and the remaining mice were used for survival studies...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588057/glutamine-decreases-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-by-downregulating-hmgb1-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression
#20
Xiaoliang Shu, Jian Zhang, Qingxiu Wang, Zengguang Xu, Tingting Yu
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a common clinical pathophysiological process that is common in severe trauma, major surgery, and in post-resuscitation. Glutamine (Gln) reduces intestinal IR injury, however, its mechanism of action remains to be determined. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are mediators involved in the pathophysiology of intestinal IR injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Gln on the intestinal mucosa of HMGB1 expression following IR to determine whether Gln relieved intestinal IR injury in the intestinal mucosal barrier...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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