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mucosal barrier injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201164/electroacupuncture-improves-acute-bowel-injury-recovery-in-rat-models
#1
Jiannong Wu, Bin Lyu, Tie'er Gan, Lingcong Wang, Meifei Zhu
Electroacupuncture (EA) accelerates intestinal functional recovery in sepsis. The present study investigated ghrelin and ghrelin receptor (GSH-R) levels during EA in rats with acute bowel injury (ABI). Rats were grouped into four groups: Sham, ABI, ABI+EA and ABI+GHRA+EA (n=12 per group). ABI was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). EA on bilateral Zusanli acupoints was performed following CLP. GSH-R blocker (GHRA) was used following CLP but prior to EA for ABI+GHRA+EA rats. Rats were sacrificed 12 h following CLP...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177131/recent-advances-in-intestinal-stem-cells
#2
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Purpose of review: The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. Recent findings: The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173895/mode-of-surgical-injury-influences-the-source-of-urothelial-progenitors-during-bladder-defect-repair
#3
Frank-Mattias Schäfer, Khalid Algarrahi, Alyssa Savarino, Xuehui Yang, Catherine Seager, Debra Franck, Kyle Costa, Shanshan Liu, Tanya Logvinenko, Rosalyn Adam, Joshua R Mauney
The bladder urothelium functions as a urine-blood barrier and consists of basal, intermediate, and superficial cell populations. Reconstructive procedures such as augmentation cystoplasty and focal mucosal resection involve localized surgical damage to the bladder wall whereby focal segments of the urothelium and underlying submucosa are respectively removed or replaced and regeneration ensues. We demonstrate using lineage-tracing systems that urothelial regeneration following augmentation cystoplasty with acellular grafts exclusively depends on host keratin 5-expressing basal cells to repopulate all lineages of the de novo urothelium at implant sites...
November 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144770/equine-intestinal-mucosal-pathobiology
#4
Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez
The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. The potential for reperfusion injury has been investigated and found to play a minimal role...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115466/recombinant-tsp53-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity-via-upregulation-of-zo%C3%A2-1-in-lps%C3%A2-induced-septic-mice
#5
Jia Xu, Zhihao Liu, Wei Zhan, Ren Jiang, Chunhua Yang, Hong Zhan, Yan Xiong
Tight junctions (TJs) are a critical component in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Gut barrier dysfunction contributes to the initiation and development of sepsis which induces an uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response and gives rise to life‑threatening clinical conditions. Excretory‑secretary antigens from Trichimella spiralis (T. spiralis) have been reported to protect from sepsis in a mouse model, however the mechanism remains to be elucidated...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098899/alteration-of-murine-duodenal-morphology-and-redox-signalling-events-by-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-after-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiation-and-its-prevention-by-ferulic-acid
#6
Ujjal Das, Aaveri Sengupta, Sushobhan Biswas, Arghya Adhikary, Rakhi Dey Sharma, Anindita Chakraborty, Sanjit Dey
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs due to the clonogenic loss of crypt cells and villi depopulation, resulting in disruption of the mucosal barrier, bacterial invasion, inflammation, and sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of ferulic acid (FA) against ionising radiation-induced duodenal injury and subsequent alterations in redox signalling events in wild type male Swiss albino mice. Mice were administered with FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days prior to exposure of 2...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091761/commensal-lactobacillus-controls-immune-tolerance-during-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#7
Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Takeru Amiya, Ryo Aoki, Nobuhito Taniki, Yuzo Koda, Kentaro Miyamoto, Toshiaki Teratani, Takahiro Suzuki, Sayako Chiba, Po-Sung Chu, Atsushi Hayashi, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Wataru Suda, Yohei Mikami, Nobuhiko Kamada, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Gut-derived microbial antigens trigger the innate immune system during acute liver injury. During recovery, regulatory immunity plays a role in suppressing inflammation; however, the precise mechanism underlying this process remains obscure. Here, we find that recruitment of immune-regulatory classical dendritic cells (cDCs) is crucial for liver tolerance in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. Acute liver injury resulted in enrichment of commensal Lactobacillus in the gut. Notably, Lactobacillus activated IL-22 production by gut innate lymphoid cells and raised systemic IL-22 levels...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091756/enteroendocrine-l-cells-sense-lps-after-gut-barrier-injury-to-enhance-glp-1-secretion
#8
Lorène J Lebrun, Kaatje Lenaerts, Dorien Kiers, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Naig Le Guern, Jiri Plesnik, Charles Thomas, Thibaut Bourgeois, Cornelis H C Dejong, Matthijs Kox, Inca H R Hundscheid, Naim Akhtar Khan, Stéphane Mandard, Valérie Deckert, Peter Pickkers, Daniel J Drucker, Laurent Lagrost, Jacques Grober
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released from enteroendocrine L cells. Although first described as a glucoregulatory incretin hormone, GLP-1 also suppresses inflammation and promotes mucosal integrity. Here, we demonstrate that plasma GLP-1 levels are rapidly increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in mice via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent mechanism. Experimental manipulation of gut barrier integrity after dextran sodium sulfate treatment, or via ischemia/reperfusion experiments in mice, triggered a rapid rise in circulating GLP-1...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078893/autodigestion-by-migrated-trypsin-is-a-major-factor-in-small-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Rabea Verhaegh, Frank Petrat, Lisa Brencher, Michael Kirsch, Herbert de Groot
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological role of pancreatic digestive hydrolases in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is still not clear. Here, we studied whether ischemia-induced injury to the small intestine can be explained by the autodigestion hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mesenteric I/R was induced in rats by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (90 min) and reopening (120 min). Thirty minutes before superior mesenteric artery occlusion, aprotinin (14...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066217/impact-of-mucosal-barrier-injury-laboratory-confirmed-bloodstream-infection-mbi-lcbi-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsis-in-department-of-hematology-at-single-university-hospital-in-japan
#10
Yukiko Kato, Mao Hagihara, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Miki Sakata, Yuichi Shibata, Hideo Kato, Arufumi Shiota, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most serious complications especially in blood cancer patients. In January 2013, Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC) introduced a new surveillance definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI). This study was to determine the impact of MBI-LCBI on CLABSIs and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI-LCBI cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 consecutive patients...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951418/lamina-propria-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-impair-the-antibacterial-defense-of-burned-mice-to-enterococcal-translocation
#11
Ichiaki Ito, Kamlesh K Bhopale, Makiko Kobayashi, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Fujio Suzuki
Gut microbiota that invades to the defective mucosal barrier is one of the major sources of infectious complications in severely burned hosts. In this study, a role of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and effects of N-{4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl}-2-thiophenesulfonamide (SR3335) on the host antibacterial resistance against infectious complications caused by Enterococcus faecalis oral infection were investigated in burned mice. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is a transcription factor required for the development of ILC2, and SR3335 is an RORα-selective inverse agonist...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941636/role-of-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Gon, Shu Hashimoto
Bronchial asthma is characterized by persistent cough, increased sputum, and repeated wheezing. The pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is the hyper-responsiveness of the airway along with chronic airway inflammation. Repeated injury, repair, and regeneration of the airway epithelium following exposure to environmental factors and inflammation results in histological changes and functional abnormalities in the airway mucosal epithelium; such changes are believed to have a significant association with the pathophysiology of asthma...
September 20, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901890/dietary-l-arginine-inhibits-intestinal-clostridium-perfringens-colonisation-and-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-broiler-chickens
#13
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Huixian Li, Shuangshuang Guo, Dan Liu, Yuming Guo
We investigated the effects of dietary l-arginine level and feeding duration on the intestinal damage of broilers induced by Clostridium perfringens (CP) in vivo, and the antimicrobial effect of its metabolite nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. The in vivo experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of three dietary treatments×two challenge statuses. Broilers were fed a basal diet (CON) or a high-arginine diet (ARG) containing 1·87 % l-arginine, or CON for the first 8 d and ARG from days 9 to 28 (CON/ARG)...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874212/mucosal-barrier-injury-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-what-is-the-impact-of-standard-prevention-bundles
#14
Ana M Vaughan, Rachael Ross, Margaret M Gilman, Lauren Satchell, Susan Ditaranto, Anne F Reilly, Leslie S Kersun, Amanda Shanahan, Susan E Coffin, Julia Shaklee Sammons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861559/dietary-fucoidan-of-acaudina-molpadioides-alters-gut-microbiota-and-mitigates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-induced-by-cyclophosphamide
#15
Hongjie Shi, Yaoguang Chang, Yuan Gao, Xiong Wang, Xin Chen, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Qingjuan Tang
Cyclophosphamide (cy) is a widely used cancer drug. Many researchers have focused on the prevention and alleviation of its side effects, particularly damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this study, we examined the effects of fucoidan, isolated from Acaudina molpadioides, on mice with intestinal mucosal damage induced by cyclophosphamide. Our results showed that fucoidan intervention could relieve injury such as decreasing inflammation and increasing the expression of tight junction proteins, and 50 kDa fucoidan significantly increased the abundance of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producer Coprococcus, Rikenella, and Butyricicoccus (p < 0...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826558/elucidating-mechanisms-of-bladder-repair-after-hyaluronan-instillation-in-ketamine-induced-ulcerative-cystitis-in-animal-model
#16
Yi-Lun Lee, Kun-Ling Lin, Shu-Mien Chuang, Yung-Chin Lee, Mei-Chin Lu, Bin-Nan Wu, Wen-Jeng Wu, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan, Wan-Ting Ho, Yung-Shun Juan
Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) initially damaged the bladder mucosa and induced contracted bladder thereafter. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA) instillation to the bladder has been used to treat KIC. The present study investigated bladder injury by urothelial defect and HA degeneration and bladder repair by urothelium proliferation and differentiation. This work was based on the hypothesis that HA treatment altered the bladder urothelial layer and the expression of hyaluronan-metabolizing enzymes and/or HA receptors in KIC...
September 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822969/preconditioning-with-the-bkca-channel-activator-ns-1619-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammation-and-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-ros-and-ho-1
#17
Hongyan Dai, Meifang Wang, Parag N Patel, Theodore J Kalogeris, Yajun Liu, William Durante, Ronald J Korthuis
Activation of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels evokes cell survival programs that mitigate intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) inflammation and injury 24 hours later. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in delayed acquisition of tolerance to I/R induced by pretreatment with the BKCa channel opener NS-1619. Superior mesentery arteries were occluded for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 70 min in wild type (WT) or HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice that were pretreated with NS-1619 or saline vehicle 24 hrs earlier...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817727/pilot-study-of-lithium-to-restore-intestinal-barrier-function-in-severe-graft-versus-host-disease
#18
Gideon Steinbach, David M Hockenbery, Gerwin Huls, Terry Furlong, David Myerson, Keith R Loeb, Jesse R Fann, Christina Castilla-Llorente, George B McDonald, Paul J Martin
Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3), would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#19
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783045/macrophage-derived-il-10-mediates-mucosal-repair-by-epithelial-wisp-1-signaling
#20
Miguel Quiros, Hikaru Nishio, Philipp A Neumann, Dorothee Siuda, Jennifer C Brazil, Veronica Azcutia, Roland Hilgarth, Monique N O'Leary, Vicky Garcia-Hernandez, Giovanna Leoni, Mingli Feng, Gabriela Bernal, Holly Williams, Priya H Dedhia, Christian Gerner-Smidt, Jason Spence, Charles A Parkos, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat
In response to injury, epithelial cells migrate and proliferate to cover denuded mucosal surfaces and repair the barrier defect. This process is orchestrated by dynamic crosstalk between immune cells and the epithelium; however, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that IL-10 was rapidly induced following intestinal mucosal injury and was required for optimal intestinal mucosal wound closure. Conditional deletion of IL-10 specifically in CD11c-expressing cells in vivo implicated macrophages as a critical innate immune contributor to IL-10-induced wound closure...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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