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mucosal barrier injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432343/cox-1-pge2-ep4-alleviates-mucosal-injury-by-upregulating-%C3%AE-arr1-mediated-akt-signaling-in-colitis
#1
Xiaojie Peng, Jianzhong Li, Siwei Tan, Minyi Xu, Jin Tao, Jie Jiang, Huiling Liu, Bin Wu
COX-1/PGE2 is an important protective mediator in ulcerative colitis (UC). β-arrestin1 (β-arr1), which acts as a scaffold protein, is involved in PGE2-mediated signaling pathways. However, the interaction between PGE2 and β-arr1 in maintaining mucosal barrier integrity remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that COX-1 and PGE2 were significantly decreased, and EP4 mRNA was downregulated in both UC patients and mice during the injury phase. PGE2 treatment was found to alleviate mucosal injury and induce EP4 expression during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) mice...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428961/glucose-insulin-potassium-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injuries-involving-decreased-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#2
Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Guang-Dao Chen, Tao Wang, Ju-Xin Zhang, Qi-Yi Zeng
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) may be critical for intestinal barrier function which may play a key role in the development of sepsis, and insulin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, sham surgery group, CLP plus glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) group, and CLP plus glucose and potassium (GK) group. Ileum tissues were collected at 24 h after surgery. Histological and cytokine analyses, intestinal permeability tests, and western blots of intestinal epithelial tight junction component proteins and UCP2 were performed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428051/cell-penetrating-peptide-cgkrk-mediates-efficient-and-widespread-targeting-of-bladder-mucosa-following-focal-injury
#3
James I Griffin, Siu Kit Kevin Cheng, Tomoko Hayashi, Dennis Carson, Manju Saraswathy, Devatha P Nair, Dmitri Simberg
The bladder presents an attractive target for topical drug delivery. The barrier function of the bladder mucosa (urothelium) presents a penetration challenge for small molecules and nanoparticles. We found that focal mechanical injury of the urothelium greatly enhances the binding and penetration of intravesically-administered cell-penetrating peptide CGKRK (Cys-Gly-Lys-Arg-Lys). Notably, the CGKRK bound to the entire urothelium, and the peptide was able to penetrate into the muscular layer. This phenomenon was not dependent on intravesical bleeding and was not caused by an inflammatory response...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425012/a-study-of-the-damage-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-barrier-structure-and-function-of-ctenopharyngodon-idella-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#4
Wei-Guang Kong, Si-Si Li, Xiao-Xuan Chen, Yu-Qing Huang, Ying Tang, Zhi-Xin Wu
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Aeromonas hydrophila on the intestinal mucosal barrier structure and intestinal permeability in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Histopathological examinations showed that A. hydrophila induced severe intestinal lesions, including inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal villus fusion and swelling. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MyD88 was significantly increased after infection with A. hydrophila...
April 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#5
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399945/a-prospective-holistic-multicenter-approach-to-tracking-and-understanding-bloodstream-infections-in-pediatric-hematology-oncology-patients
#6
Aditya H Gaur, David G Bundy, Eric J Werner, Jeffrey D Hord, Marlene R Miller, Li Tang, John P Lawlor, Amy L Billett
OBJECTIVE To assess the burden of bloodstream infections (BSIs) among pediatric hematology-oncology (PHO) inpatients, to propose a comprehensive, all-BSI tracking approach, and to discuss how such an approach helps better inform within-center and across-center differences in CLABSI rate DESIGN Prospective cohort study SETTING US multicenter, quality-improvement, BSI prevention network PARTICIPANTS PHO centers across the United States who agreed to follow a standardized central-line-maintenance care bundle and track all BSI events and central-line days every month...
April 12, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278250/zinc-reduces-epithelial-barrier-compromise-induced-by-human-seminal-plasma
#7
James M Mullin, Katherine M Diguilio, Mary C Valenzano, Rachael Deis, Sunil Thomas, E Peter Zurbach, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Luis J Montaner
Human semen has the potential to modulate the epithelial mucosal tissues it contacts, as seminal plasma (SP) is recognized to contain both pro- and anti-barrier components, yet its effects on epithelial barrier function are largely unknown. We addressed the role of human SP when exposed to the basal-lateral epithelial surface, a situation that would occur clinically with prior mechanical or disease-related injury of the human epithelial mucosal cell layers in contact with semen. The action of SP on claudins-2, -4, -5, and -7 expression, as well as on a target epithelium whose basolateral surface has been made accessible to SP, showed upregulation of claudins-4 and -5 in CACO-2 human epithelial cell layers, despite broad variance in SP-induced modulation of transepithelial electrical resistance and mannitol permeability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#8
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246473/effect-of-toll-like-receptor-3-agonist-poly-i-c-on-intestinal-mucosa-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-mouse-models-of-acute-colitis
#9
Hong-Wei Zhao, Yue-Hong Yue, Hua Han, Xiu-Li Chen, Yong-Gang Lu, Ji-Min Zheng, Hong-Tao Hou, Xiao-Meng Lang, Li-Li He, Qi-Lu Hu, Zi-Qian Dun
AIM: To investigate potential effects of poly I:C on mucosal injury and epithelial barrier disruption in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6 mice were given either regular drinking water (control group) or 2% (w/v) DSS drinking water (model and poly I:C groups) ad libitum for 7 d. Poly I:C was administrated subcutaneously (20 μg/mouse) 2 h prior to DSS induction in mice of the poly I:C group. Severity of colitis was evaluated by disease activity index, body weight, colon length, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223334/corneal-surface-glycosylation-is-modulated-by-il-1r-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-challenge-but-is-insufficient-for-inhibiting-bacterial-binding
#10
Amber L Jolly, Paresh Agarwal, Matteo M E Metruccio, David R Spiciarich, David J Evans, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
Cell surface glycosylation is thought to be involved in barrier function against microbes at mucosal surfaces. Previously we showed that the epithelium of healthy mouse corneas becomes vulnerable to P. aeruginosa adhesion if it lacks the innate defense protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), or after superficial injury by blotting with tissue paper. Here we explored their effect on corneal surface glycosylation using a metabolic label, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetylgalactosamine (Ac4GalNAz)...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144894/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-neutrophil-priming-prevents-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-bacterial-translocation
#11
Yen-Zhen Lu, Ching-Ying Huang, Yi-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Chun Lee, Wei-Ting Kuo, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes barrier impairment and bacterial influx. Protection against I/R injury in sterile organs by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) had been attributed to erythropoietic and angiogenic responses. Our previous study showed attenuation of intestinal I/R injury by HPC for 21 days in a neutrophil-dependent manner. AIM: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of neutrophil priming by HPC, and explore whether adoptive transfer of primed neutrophils is sufficient to ameliorate intestinal I/R injury...
January 31, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137860/creatine-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-and-protects-against-colitis
#12
Emre Turer, William McAlpine, Kuan-Wen Wang, Tianshi Lu, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Xiaoming Zhan, Tao Wang, Xiaowei Zhan, Chun-Hui Bu, Anne R Murray, Bruce Beutler
Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120842/gut-permeability-and-mucosal-inflammation-bad-good-or-context-dependent
#13
REVIEW
R Ahmad, M F Sorrell, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease. A breach in the mucosal barrier, otherwise known as "leaky gut," is alleged to promote mucosal inflammation by intensifying immune activation. However, interaction between the luminal antigen and mucosal immune system is necessary to maintain mucosal homeostasis. Furthermore, manipulations leading to deregulated gut permeability have resulted in susceptibility in mice to colitis as well as to creating adaptive immunity. These findings implicate a complex but dynamic association between mucosal permeability and immune homeostasis; however, they also emphasize that compromised gut permeability alone may not be sufficient to induce colitis...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076934/the-injury-of-serotonin-on-intestinal-epithelium-cell-renewal-of-weaned-diarrhoea-mice
#14
Y Dong, C Yang, Z Wang, Z Qin, J Cao, Y Chen
Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg) via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg)...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073414/-protective-effect-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-against-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injury-in-rats-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Y T Liu, Y Q Li, Y Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean body weight of 180±20 g were randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group, with 12 rats in each group, after adaptive feeding for 1 week. The rats in the control group were given basic feed, and those in the model group and treatment group were given high-fat feed...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052268/microbiota-plays-a-key-role-in-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-small-intestinal-damage
#16
REVIEW
Koji Otani, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Toshio Watanabe, Sunao Shimada, Yuji Nadatani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Masatsugu Shiba, Kazunari Tominaga, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) damage the small intestine by causing multiple erosions and ulcers. However, to date, no established therapies and prophylactic agents are available to treat such damages. We reviewed the role of intestinal microbiota in NSAID-induced intestinal damage and identified potential therapeutic candidates. SUMMARY: The composition of the intestinal microbiota is an important factor in the pathophysiology of NSAID-induced small intestinal damage...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049834/aquaporin-3-mediates-hydrogen-peroxide-dependent-responses-to-environmental-stress-in-colonic-epithelia
#17
Jay R Thiagarajah, Jeffrey Chang, Jeremy A Goettel, Alan S Verkman, Wayne I Lencer
The colonic epithelium provides an essential barrier against the environment that is critical for protecting the body and controlling inflammation. In response to injury or gut microbes, colonic epithelial cells produce extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which acts as a potent signaling molecule affecting barrier function and host defense. In humans, impaired regulation of H2O2 in the intestine has been associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Here, we show that signal transduction by H2O2 depends on entry into the cell by transit through aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a plasma membrane H2O2-conducting channel...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#18
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011908/genital-injury-signatures-and-microbiome-alterations-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-usage-and-intravaginal-drying-practices
#19
Kenzie D Birse, Laura M Romas, Brandon L Guthrie, Peter Nilsson, Rose Bosire, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Kristina Broliden, Adam D Burgener
Background.: Increasing evidence suggests depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and intravaginal practices may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection risk; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study evaluated the effect of DMPA and intravaginal practices on the genital proteome and microbiome to gain mechanistic insights. Methods.: Cervicovaginal secretions from 86 Kenyan women, including self-reported DMPA users (n = 23), nonhormonal contraceptive users (n = 63), and women who practice vaginal drying (n = 46), were analyzed using tandem-mass spectrometry...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966554/il-36-receptor-deletion-attenuates-lung-injury-and-decreases-mortality-in-murine-influenza-pneumonia
#20
T Aoyagi, M W Newstead, X Zeng, S L Kunkel, M Kaku, T J Standiford
Influenza virus causes a respiratory disease in humans that can progress to lung injury with fatal outcome. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are newly described IL-1 family cytokines that promote inflammatory responses via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). The mechanism of expression and the role of IL-36 cytokines are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-36 cytokines in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice. The intranasal administration of influenza virus upregulated IL-36α mRNA and protein production in the lungs...
December 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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