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mucosal barrier injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456409/recombinant-expressed-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-analogue-ameliorates-tnbs-induced-colitis-in-rats
#1
Chun-Lan Xu, Yu Guo, Lei Qiao, Li Ma, Yi-Yi Cheng
AIM: To investigate the modulatory effect of recombinant-expressed vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue (rVIPa) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were randomized into six groups: normal control group (Control), model control group (TNBS), ethanol treatment group (ETOH), and VIP treatment groups with different dosage (rVIPa1nmol , rVIPa2nmol , rVIPa4nmol ). Diarrhea and bloody stool were observed. Colonic damage was evaluated histologically...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427515/injury-repair-inflammation-and-metaplasia-in-the-stomach
#2
Anne R Meyer, James R Goldenring
The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by the emergence of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. In particular, intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been associated with the pathological progression to intestinal-type gastric cancer. The development of SPEM represents a physiological response to damage that recruits reparative cells to sites of mucosal injury. Metaplastic cell lineages are characterized by mucus secretion, adding a protective barrier to the epithelium...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427225/autophagy-strengthens-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-in-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Luqiao Huang, Yingjian Jiang, Zhenqing Sun, Zhengyu Gao, Jiang Wang, Dianliang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction can be caused by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). It is normally associated with changes to mucosal autophagy and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between autophagy and oxidative stress on the intestinal mucosal barrier of SAP rat model. METHODS: SAP was induced by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate (5%) into the biliopancreatic duct...
February 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394953/bcn057-induces-intestinal-stem-cell-repair-and-mitigates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#4
Payel Bhanja, Andrew Norris, Pooja Gupta-Saraf, Andrew Hoover, Subhrajit Saha
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from the acute loss of intestinal stem cells (ISC), impaired epithelial regeneration, and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, sepsis, and mortality. The high radiosensitivity of the intestinal epithelium limits effective radiotherapy against abdominal malignancies and limits the survival of victims of nuclear accidents or terrorism. Currently, there is no approved therapy to mitigate radiation toxicity in the intestine...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381385/influence-of-functional-food-components-on-gut-health
#5
Murphy L Y Wan, K H Ling, Hani El-Nezami, M F Wang
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358413/the-hypoxia-adenosine-link-during-intestinal-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Jessica L Bowser, Luan H Phan, Holger K Eltzschig
Intestinal inflammation is a key element in inflammatory bowel disease and is related to a combination of factors, including genetics, mucosal barrier dysfunction, bacteria translocation, deleterious host-microbe interactions, and dysregulated immune responses. Over the past decade, it has been appreciated that these inflammatory lesions are associated with profound tissue hypoxia. Interestingly, an endogenous adaptive response under the control of hypoxia signaling is enhancement in adenosine signaling, which impacts these different endpoints, including promoting barrier function and encouraging anti-inflammatory activity...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351391/the-bile-acids-deoxycholic-acid-and-ursodeoxycholic-acid-regulate-colonic-epithelial-wound-healing
#7
Magdalena S Mroz, Natalia K Lajczak, Bridie J Goggins, Simon Keely, Stephen Joseph Keely
The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although, bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable, supports was assessed over 48 hrs {plus minus} bile acids...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242771/sentinels-at-the-frontline-the-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Madeleine D Hu, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: Intestinal mucosal immunity is tightly regulated to ensure effective host defense against invasive microorganisms while limiting the potential for aberrant damage. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cell populations results in an uncontrolled inflammatory response to commensal bacteria. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are perfectly positioned within the intestinal epithelium to provide the first line of mucosal defense against luminal microbes or rapidly respond to epithelial injury...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201164/electroacupuncture-improves-acute-bowel-injury-recovery-in-rat-models
#9
Jiannong Wu, Bin Lyu, Tie'er Gan, Lingcong Wang, Meifei Zhu
Electroacupuncture (EA) accelerates intestinal functional recovery in sepsis. The present study investigated ghrelin and ghrelin receptor (GSH-R) levels during EA in rats with acute bowel injury (ABI). Rats were grouped into four groups: Sham, ABI, ABI+EA and ABI+GHRA+EA (n=12 per group). ABI was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). EA on bilateral Zusanli acupoints was performed following CLP. GSH-R blocker (GHRA) was used following CLP but prior to EA for ABI+GHRA+EA rats. Rats were sacrificed 12 h following CLP...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177131/recent-advances-in-intestinal-stem-cells
#10
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Purpose of review: The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. Recent findings: The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173895/mode-of-surgical-injury-influences-the-source-of-urothelial-progenitors-during-bladder-defect-repair
#11
Frank-Mattias Schäfer, Khalid Algarrahi, Alyssa Savarino, Xuehui Yang, Catherine Seager, Debra Franck, Kyle Costa, Shanshan Liu, Tanya Logvinenko, Rosalyn Adam, Joshua R Mauney
The bladder urothelium functions as a urine-blood barrier and consists of basal, intermediate, and superficial cell populations. Reconstructive procedures such as augmentation cystoplasty and focal mucosal resection involve localized surgical damage to the bladder wall whereby focal segments of the urothelium and underlying submucosa are respectively removed or replaced and regeneration ensues. We demonstrate using lineage-tracing systems that urothelial regeneration following augmentation cystoplasty with acellular grafts exclusively depends on host keratin 5-expressing basal cells to repopulate all lineages of the de novo urothelium at implant sites...
November 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144770/equine-intestinal-mucosal-pathobiology
#12
Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez
The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. The potential for reperfusion injury has been investigated and found to play a minimal role...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115466/recombinant-tsp53-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity-via-upregulation-of-zo%C3%A2-1-in-lps%C3%A2-induced-septic-mice
#13
Jia Xu, Zhihao Liu, Wei Zhan, Ren Jiang, Chunhua Yang, Hong Zhan, Yan Xiong
Tight junctions (TJs) are a critical component in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Gut barrier dysfunction contributes to the initiation and development of sepsis which induces an uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response and gives rise to life‑threatening clinical conditions. Excretory‑secretary antigens from Trichimella spiralis (T. spiralis) have been reported to protect from sepsis in a mouse model, however the mechanism remains to be elucidated...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098899/alteration-of-murine-duodenal-morphology-and-redox-signalling-events-by-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-after-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiation-and-its-prevention-by-ferulic-acid
#14
Ujjal Das, Aaveri Sengupta, Sushobhan Biswas, Arghya Adhikary, Rakhi Dey Sharma, Anindita Chakraborty, Sanjit Dey
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs due to the clonogenic loss of crypt cells and villi depopulation, resulting in disruption of the mucosal barrier, bacterial invasion, inflammation, and sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of ferulic acid (FA) against ionising radiation-induced duodenal injury and subsequent alterations in redox signalling events in wild type male Swiss albino mice. Mice were administered with FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days prior to exposure of 2...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091761/commensal-lactobacillus-controls-immune-tolerance-during-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#15
Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Takeru Amiya, Ryo Aoki, Nobuhito Taniki, Yuzo Koda, Kentaro Miyamoto, Toshiaki Teratani, Takahiro Suzuki, Sayako Chiba, Po-Sung Chu, Atsushi Hayashi, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Wataru Suda, Yohei Mikami, Nobuhiko Kamada, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Gut-derived microbial antigens trigger the innate immune system during acute liver injury. During recovery, regulatory immunity plays a role in suppressing inflammation; however, the precise mechanism underlying this process remains obscure. Here, we find that recruitment of immune-regulatory classical dendritic cells (cDCs) is crucial for liver tolerance in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. Acute liver injury resulted in enrichment of commensal Lactobacillus in the gut. Notably, Lactobacillus activated IL-22 production by gut innate lymphoid cells and raised systemic IL-22 levels...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091756/enteroendocrine-l-cells-sense-lps-after-gut-barrier-injury-to-enhance-glp-1-secretion
#16
Lorène J Lebrun, Kaatje Lenaerts, Dorien Kiers, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Naig Le Guern, Jiri Plesnik, Charles Thomas, Thibaut Bourgeois, Cornelis H C Dejong, Matthijs Kox, Inca H R Hundscheid, Naim Akhtar Khan, Stéphane Mandard, Valérie Deckert, Peter Pickkers, Daniel J Drucker, Laurent Lagrost, Jacques Grober
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone released from enteroendocrine L cells. Although first described as a glucoregulatory incretin hormone, GLP-1 also suppresses inflammation and promotes mucosal integrity. Here, we demonstrate that plasma GLP-1 levels are rapidly increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in mice via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent mechanism. Experimental manipulation of gut barrier integrity after dextran sodium sulfate treatment, or via ischemia/reperfusion experiments in mice, triggered a rapid rise in circulating GLP-1...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078893/autodigestion-by-migrated-trypsin-is-a-major-factor-in-small-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Rabea Verhaegh, Frank Petrat, Lisa Brencher, Michael Kirsch, Herbert de Groot
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological role of pancreatic digestive hydrolases in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is still not clear. Here, we studied whether ischemia-induced injury to the small intestine can be explained by the autodigestion hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mesenteric I/R was induced in rats by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (90 min) and reopening (120 min). Thirty minutes before superior mesenteric artery occlusion, aprotinin (14...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066217/impact-of-mucosal-barrier-injury-laboratory-confirmed-bloodstream-infection-mbi-lcbi-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsis-in-department-of-hematology-at-single-university-hospital-in-japan
#18
Yukiko Kato, Mao Hagihara, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Miki Sakata, Yuichi Shibata, Hideo Kato, Arufumi Shiota, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most serious complications especially in blood cancer patients. In January 2013, Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC) introduced a new surveillance definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI). This study was to determine the impact of MBI-LCBI on CLABSIs and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI-LCBI cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 consecutive patients...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951418/lamina-propria-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-impair-the-antibacterial-defense-of-burned-mice-to-enterococcal-translocation
#19
Ichiaki Ito, Kamlesh K Bhopale, Makiko Kobayashi, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Fujio Suzuki
Gut microbiota that invades to the defective mucosal barrier is one of the major sources of infectious complications in severely burned hosts. In this study, a role of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and effects of N-{4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl}-2-thiophenesulfonamide (SR3335) on the host antibacterial resistance against infectious complications caused by Enterococcus faecalis oral infection were investigated in burned mice. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is a transcription factor required for the development of ILC2, and SR3335 is an RORα-selective inverse agonist...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941636/role-of-airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Gon, Shu Hashimoto
Bronchial asthma is characterized by persistent cough, increased sputum, and repeated wheezing. The pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is the hyper-responsiveness of the airway along with chronic airway inflammation. Repeated injury, repair, and regeneration of the airway epithelium following exposure to environmental factors and inflammation results in histological changes and functional abnormalities in the airway mucosal epithelium; such changes are believed to have a significant association with the pathophysiology of asthma...
September 20, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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