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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935195/the-dimensionalities-of-lesion-deficit-mapping
#1
Tianbo Xu, Ashwani Jha, Parashkev Nachev
Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934032/relational-inquiry-approach-nursing-practice-in-pakistan-a-case-study
#2
Ahtisham Younas
The relational inquiry approach enables nurses to understand and examine different nursing situations within complex healthcare contexts using the ideologies of pragmatism, critical theory, and hermeneutic phenomenology. In this paper, the author presents the application of the relational inquiry approach using Newman's theory to analyze a case of a man who refused coronary artery bypass surgery in Pakistan. This analysis demonstrates that relational inquiry is useful in examining patients' experiences and related healthcare needs and helps the nurses to perform appropriate actions to produce desirable outcomes...
October 2017: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933871/neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-in-the-fmri-era-a-recapitulation-of-localizationist-and-connectionist-views
#3
Matthew J Sutterer, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). METHOD: We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. RESULTS: Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933677/exploring-health-work-a-critical-action-perspective
#4
John Hassard, Paula Hyde, Julie Wolfram Cox, Edward Granter, Leo McCann
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a hybrid approach to the research developed during a multi-researcher, ethnographic study of NHS management in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This methodological paper elaborates a hybrid approach to the sociological analysis - the critical-action theory - and indicates how it can contribute to the critical health management studies. Findings After exploring the various theoretical, methodological and philosophical options available, the paper discusses the main research issues that influenced the development of this perspective and the process by which the critical-action perspective was applied to the studies of managerial work in four health service sectors - acute hospitals, ambulance services, community services and mental healthcare...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932233/three-key-sub-leaf-modules-and-the-diversity-of-leaf-designs
#5
Le Li, Zeqing Ma, Ülo Niinemets, Dali Guo
Earth harbors a highly diverse array of plant leaf forms. A well-known pattern linking diverse leaf forms with their photosynthetic function across species is the global leaf economics spectrum (LES). However, within homogeneous plant functional groups such as tropical woody angiosperms or temperate deciduous woody angiosperms, many species can share a similar position in the LES but differ in other vital leaf traits, and thus function differently under the given suite of environmental drivers. How diverse leaves differentiate from each other has yet to be fully explained...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931871/filtering-effect-of-temporal-niche-fluctuation-and-amplitude-of-environmental-variations-on-the-trait-related-flowering-patterns-lesson-from-sub-mediterranean-grasslands
#6
Andrea Catorci, Karina Piermarteri, Károly Penksza, Judit Házi, Federico Maria Tardella
Timing of flowering is a critical component of community assembly, but how plant traits respond to heterogeneity of resources has been identified mostly through observations of spatial variations. Thus, we performed a trait-based phenological study in sub-Mediterranean grasslands to assess the importance of temporal variation of resources in the species assemblage processes. We found that early flowering species have traits allowing for slow resource acquisition and storage but rapid growth rate. Instead, mid- and late-flowering species exhibited sets of strategies devoted to minimizing water loss by evapotranspiration or aimed at maximizing the species' competitive ability, thanks to slow growth rate and more efficient resource acquisition, conservation and use...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930543/eeg-and-erp-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-critical-review
#7
Andras Horvath, Anna Szucs, Gabor Csukly, Anna Sakovics, Gabor Stefanics, Anita Kamondi
Here we critically review studies that used electroencephalography (EEG) or event-related potential (ERP) indices as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In the first part we overview studies that relied on visual inspection of EEG traces and spectral characteristics of EEG. Second, we survey analysis methods motivated by dynamical systems theory (DST) as well as more recent network connectivity approaches. In the third part we review studies of sleep.  Next, we compare the utility of early and late ERP components in dementia research...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930471/possible-way-to-study-cononsolvency-in-confinement-lattice-density-functional-theory-approach
#8
Xueqian Chen, Wei Feng, Xia Han, Honglai Liu
The polymer lattice density functional theory (PLDFT) is used to investigate the cononsolvency (CNS) phenomena related to polymer adsorption in a slit pore. Specifically, two simplest types of CNS are examined: CNS1 with solvent-cosolvent binding as the dominate factor and CNS2 with polymer-cosolvent binding as the dominate factor. The simplified models for CNS1/CNS2 well capture the symmetrical/asymmetrical reentrant swelling transition of polymers positively/negatively adsorbed on the solid surface as confirmed by the calculation of PLDFT...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928960/the-relationship-between-mucosal-immunity-nasopharyngeal-carriage-asymptomatic-transmission-and-the-resurgence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Gill, Pejman Rohani, Donald M Thea
The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928696/promoting-physical-activity-through-priming-the-content-of-motivation
#10
REVIEW
Tom St Quinton
Non-conscious processes are important in influencing the performance of a number of behaviors, such as physical activity. One way that such processes can be influenced is through priming. Despite this, approaches within health psychology have predominantly focused on reflective processes with a number of psychological theories dedicated to identifying the predictors of intention. In doing so, critical beliefs and thoughts are first identified and then altered within interventions. Such work has shown limited effectiveness, however, with a gap apparent between what one intends to do and what subsequently ensues...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928092/idh2-deficiency-accelerates-renal-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#11
Su Jeong Lee, Hanvit Cha, Seoyoon Lee, Hyunjin Kim, Hyeong Jun Ku, Sung Hwan Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Jin Hyup Lee, Kwon Moo Park, Jeen-Woo Park
The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging postulates that senescence is due to an accumulation of cellular oxidative damage, caused largely by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced as by-products of normal metabolic processes in mitochondria. The oxidative stress may arise as a result of either increased ROS production or decreased ability to detoxify ROS. The availability of the mitochondrial NADPH pool is critical for the maintenance of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. The major enzyme responsible for generating mitochondrial NADPH is mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2)...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927973/violence-towards-emergency-nurses-a-narrative-review-of-theories-and-frameworks
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Ramacciati, Andrea Ceccagnoli, Beniamino Addey, Enrico Lumini, Laura Rasero
INTRODUCTION: Workplace Violence in the health environment is a growing issue worldwide. Emergency department have been identified asa high-risk setting for Workplace Violence and emergency nurses are most exposed to this phenomenon. To address workplace violence in the ED effectively, it is critical to understand frameworks established in the literature to assist in development of appropriate interventions and corrective measures. An overview of available theories of violence towards emergency nurses in the literature is presented herein in the format of a narrative review...
September 16, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926941/why-ubiquitin-has-not-evolved
#13
Douglas C Allan, James C Phillips
Ubiquitin, discovered less than 50 years ago, tags thousands of diseased proteins for destruction. It is small (only 76 amino acids), and is found unchanged in mammals, birds, fish, and even worms, indicating that ubiquitin is perfect. Key features of its functionality are identified here using critical point thermodynamic scaling theory. These include synchronized pivots and hinges, a stabilizing central pivot, and Fano interference between first- and second-order elements of correlated long-range (allosteric) globular surface shape transitions...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926035/the-adsorption-of-cu-on-the-ceo2-110-surface
#14
Arunabhiram Chutia, Emma K Gibson, Matthew R Farrow, Peter P Wells, David O Scanlon, Nikolaos Dimitratos, David J Willock, C Richard A Catlow
We report a detailed density functional theory (DFT) study in conjunction with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments on the geometrical and local electronic properties of Cu adatoms and Cu(ii) ions in presence of water molecules and of CuO nanoclusters on the CeO2(110) surface. Our study of (CuO)n(=1,2&4) clusters on CeO2(110) shows that based on the Cu-O environment, the geometrical properties of these clusters may vary and their presence may lead to relatively high localization of charge on the exposed surfaces...
September 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923360/when-theory-and-biology-differ-the-relationship-between-reward-prediction-errors-and-expectancy
#15
Chad C Williams, Cameron D Hassall, Robert Trska, Clay B Holroyd, Olave E Krigolson
Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923032/big-hearts-small-hands-a-focus-group-study-exploring-parental-food-portion-behaviours
#16
Kristina Curtis, Louise Atkins, Katherine Brown
BACKGROUND: The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922092/from-risky-behaviour-to-sexy-adventures-reconceptualising-young-people-s-online-sexual-activities
#17
Marijke Naezer
Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921844/functional-traits-determine-tree-growth-and-ecosystem-productivity-of-a-tropical-montane-forest-insights-from-a-long-term-nutrient-manipulation-experiment
#18
Selene Báez, Jürgen Homeier
Trait response-effects are critical to forecast community structure and biomass production in highly diverse tropical forests. Ecological theory and few observation studies indicate that trees with acquisitive functional traits would respond more strongly to higher resource availability than those with conservative traits. We assessed how long-term tree growth in experimental nutrient addition plots (N, P and N+P) varied as a function of morphological traits, tree size and species identity. We also evaluated how trait-based responses affected stand scale biomass production considering the community structure...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918625/on-the-negative-surface-tension-of-solutions-and-on-spontaneous-emulsification
#19
George Kaptay
The conditions of negative surface tension of a binary regular solution is discussed in this paper using the recently re-confirmed Butler equation (Langmuir, 31 (2015) 5796-5804). It is shown that surface tension becomes negative only for solutions with strong repulsion between the components. This repulsion for negative surface tension should be so strong that this phenomenon appears only within a miscibility gap, i.e. in a 2-phase region of macroscopic liquid solutions. Thus, for a macroscopic solution the negative surface tension is possible only in a non-equilibrium state...
September 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917603/development-of-the-nurses-care-coordination-competency-scale-for-mechanically-ventilated-patients-in-critical-care-settings-in-japan-part-1-development-of-a-measuring-instrument
#20
Chie Takiguchi, Yumiko Yatomi, Tomoko Inoue
OBJECTIVES: To develop a draft scale measuring nurses' care coordination competency for care of mechanically ventilated patients in critical care settings. METHOD: The scale items and concepts were derived from semi-structured interviews with 28 professionals (14 nurses, eight physicians, three physical therapists, three clinical engineers) who are managing mechanically ventilated critical care patients. A grounded theory approach was used. After content validation by experts, two pilot tests were used to identify and correct non-discriminating items and vague items...
September 13, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
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