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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430505/excitation-gap-scaling-near-quantum-critical-three-dimensional-antiferromagnets
#1
M Lohöfer, S Wessel
By means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the quantum critical scaling of the magnetic excitation gap (the triplon gap) in a three-dimensional dimerized quantum antiferromagnet, the bicubic lattice, and identify characteristic multiplicative logarithmic scaling corrections atop the leading mean-field behavior. These findings are in accord with field-theoretical predictions that are based on an effective description of the quantum critical system in terms of an asymptotically free field theory, which exhibits a logarithmic decay of the renormalized interaction strength upon approaching the quantum critical point...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430459/direct-observation-of-percolation-in-the-yielding-transition-of-colloidal-glasses
#2
Antina Ghosh, Zoe Budrikis, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Alessandro L Sellerio, Stefano Zapperi, Peter Schall
When strained beyond the linear regime, soft colloidal glasses yield to steady-state plastic flow in a way that is similar to the deformation of conventional amorphous solids. Because of the much larger size of the colloidal particles with respect to the atoms comprising an amorphous solid, colloidal glasses allow us to obtain microscopic insight into the nature of the yielding transition, as we illustrate here combining experiments, atomistic simulations, and mesoscopic modeling. Our results unanimously show growing clusters of nonaffine deformation percolating at yielding...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430191/activating-lattice-oxygen-redox-reactions-in-metal-oxides-to-catalyse-oxygen-evolution
#3
Alexis Grimaud, Oscar Diaz-Morales, Binghong Han, Wesley T Hong, Yueh-Lin Lee, Livia Giordano, Kelsey A Stoerzinger, Marc T M Koper, Yang Shao-Horn
Understanding how materials that catalyse the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) function is essential for the development of efficient energy-storage technologies. The traditional understanding of the OER mechanism on metal oxides involves four concerted proton-electron transfer steps on metal-ion centres at their surface and product oxygen molecules derived from water. Here, using in situ (18)O isotope labelling mass spectrometry, we provide direct experimental evidence that the O2 generated during the OER on some highly active oxides can come from lattice oxygen...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430110/viscosity-of-a-sheared-correlated-near-critical-model-fluid-in-confinement
#4
Christian Rohwer, Andrea Gambassi, Matthias Kruger
Second-order phase transitions are characterized by a divergence of the spatial correlation length of the order parameter fluctuations. For confined systems, this is known to lead to remarkable equilibrium physical phenomena, including finite-size effects and critical Casimir forces. We explore here some non-equilibrium aspects of these effects in the stationary state resulting from the action of external forces: by analyzing a model of a correlated fluid under shear, spatially confined by two parallel plates, we study the resulting viscosity within the setting of (Gaussian) Landau-Ginzburg theory...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429654/microrna-451-regulates-chemoresistance-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-targeting-atf-2-gene
#5
Xiang Sun, Longhua Lou, Kezhao Zhong, Lijuan Wan
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant tumor, which severely threatens human's life, moreover, the multi-drug resistance (MDR) under RCC undoubtedly strengthen the difficulties in the treatment. MiR-451 has been considered to play an important role in regulation of MDR in several cancers, but the role of it in MDR of RCC has not been explored. This study aims to explore the mechanism of miR-451 as a target to regulate chemotherapy resistance, which is crucial for further exploring novel therapy for RCC. Two human cell lines (ACHN and GRC-1) were performed in this study and adriamycin (ADM) was used to construct MDR cell lines...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429271/bisection-method-for-accurate-modeling-and-simulation-of-fouling-in-hollow-fiber-membrane-system
#6
Shuang Liang, Yubo Zhao, Jian Zhang, Lianfa Song
Accurate description and modeling of fouling on hollow fibers imposes a serious challenge to more effective fouling mitigation and performance optimization of the membrane system. Although the governing equations for membrane fouling can be constructed based on the known theories from membrane filtration and fluid dynamics, they are unsolvable analytically due to the complex spatially and temporally varying nature of fouling on hollow fibers. The current available numerical solutions for the governing equations are either unreliable or inconvenient to use because of the uses of unfounded assumptions or cumbersome calculation methods...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427819/size-dependent-axial-instability-of-microtubules-surrounded-by-cytoplasm-of-a-living-cell-based-sdient-elasticity-theory
#7
S Sahmani, M M Aghdam
Microtubules including tubulin heterodimers arranging in a parallel shape of cylindrical hollow plays an important role in the mechanical stiffness of a living cell. In the present study, the nonlocal strain gradient theory of elasticity including simultaneously the both nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency is put to use within the framework of a refined orthotropic shell theory with hyperbolic distribution of shear deformation to analyze the size-dependent buckling and postbuckling characteristics of microtubules embedded in cytoplasm under axial compressive load...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427563/neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-preventive-and-therapeutic-potential-of-polyphenolic-nutraceuticals
#8
Yousef Sawikr, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ilaria Peluso, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Gjumrakch Aliev, Anupam Bishayee
Brain inflammation, characterized by increased microglia and astrocyte activation, increases during aging and is a key feature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, neuronal death and synaptic impairment, induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, are at least in part mediated by microglia and astrocyte activation. Glial activation results in the sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, giving rise to a chronic inflammatory process. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system and are involved in the neuroinflammation...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425087/peer-connect-for-african-american-breast-cancer-survivors-and-caregivers-a-train-the-trainer-approach-for-peer-support
#9
Marlyn Allicock, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, La-Shell Johnson, William R Carpenter, Anissa I Vines, Denise G Belle, Ray Phillips, Michele W Cherry
Racial disparities in breast cancer survivorship are a major concern nationally. How survivors cope with cancer and re-frame their lives is a critical part of survivorship. Community-academic research partnerships may facilitate access to much-needed psychosocial support for African American survivors and caregivers in rural areas, but drivers of successful intervention implementation are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the training and evaluation of Community Coaches and Guides (i...
April 19, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425022/social-motor-synchronization-insights-for-understanding-social-behavior-in-autism
#10
Paula Fitzpatrick, Veronica Romero, Joseph L Amaral, Amie Duncan, Holly Barnard, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421759/is-the-accuracy-of-density-functional-theory-for-atomization-energies-and-densities-in-bonding-regions-correlated
#11
Kurt R Brorsen, Yang Yang, Michael V Pak, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
The development of approximate exchange-correlation functionals is critical for modern density functional theory. A recent analysis of atomic systems suggested that some modern functionals are straying from the path toward the exact functional because electron densities are becoming less accurate while energies are becoming more accurate since the year 2000. To investigate this trend for more chemically relevant systems, the electron densities in the bonding regions and the atomization energies are analyzed for a series of diatomic molecules with 90 different functionals...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421029/a-historical-view-of-motion-sickness-a-plague-at-sea-and-on-land-also-with-military-impact
#12
Doreen Huppert, Judy Benson, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415365/analyses-of-kinetic-glass-transition-in-short-range-attractive-colloids-based-on-time-convolutionless-mode-coupling-theory
#13
Takayuki Narumi, Michio Tokuyama
For short-range attractive colloids, the phase diagram of the kinetic glass transition is studied by time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT). Using numerical calculations, TMCT is shown to recover all the remarkable features predicted by the mode-coupling theory for attractive colloids: the glass-liquid-glass reentrant, the glass-glass transition, and the higher-order singularities. It is also demonstrated through the comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics for the binary attractive colloids that TMCT improves the critical values of the volume fraction...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414628/fried-green-tomatoes-and-the-color-purple-a-case-study-in-lesbian-friendship-and-cultural-controversy
#14
Kristen Proehl
Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414507/the-distinction-between-exclusivity-and-comorbidity-within-nssi
#15
Shira Goldberg, Moshe Israelashvili
Based on notions posited by problem behavior theory, the primary goal of the current study was to examine the possibility that adolescents who engage in NSSI are not a homogeneous group but are rather divided into 2 subgroups: (a) adolescents who exclusively engage in NSSI, and (b) adolescents who are involved in NSSI alongside other problem behaviors (e.g., drug abuse, unprotected sexual intercourse). Participants were a school sample of 436 adolescents from 6 high schools across Israel, who completed self-report questionnaires during school hours on engagement in NSSI and other problem behaviors, self-esteem, self-criticism, ego clarity, coping strategies, self-efficacy to regulate affect, and sociodemographic information...
April 17, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414087/quantifying-the-potential-and-flux-landscapes-of-multi-locus-evolution
#16
Li Xu, Jin Wang
Exploration of multi-locus evolution is critically important for understanding evolutionary dynamics. Recombination and epistasis lead to complex evolutionary dynamics. Quantifying the stability and function of such multi-locus evolutionary systems globally is a long-standing challenge for evolutionary biologists. The conventional Wright, Fisher and quasi-linkage equilibrium (QLE) theories can only be applied to highly restricted, simplified and special evolutionary scenarios. In this study, we developed a non-equilibrium potential and flux landscape theory to explore the multi-locus evolution beyond Wright, Fisher and the QLE...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411610/benchmark-study-of-the-structural-and-spectroscopic-parameters-of-the-hydroxymethyl-peroxy-hoch2oo-radical-and-its-decomposition-reaction-to-ho2-and-h2co
#17
Roberto Linguerri, Cristina Puzzarini, Muneerah Mogren Al Mogren, Joseph S Francisco, Majdi Hochlaf
The hydroxymethyl peroxy (HMOO) radical is a product of the oxidation of non-methane hydrocarbons. The present study provides the first accurate computational determination of critical spectroscopic features of the title radical that should aid in its experimental characterization. Structure, energetics, vibrational frequencies, and rotational parameters are reported for the three stable isomers on the ground electronic state of HMOO. While preliminary computations have been carried out using density functional theory as well as second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, for the accurate structural and spectroscopic characterization we made use of coupled-cluster techniques, herewith considering both standard and explicitly correlated methods...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411477/comparative-surface-energetic-study-of-matrigel-%C3%A2-and-collagen-i-interactions-with-endothelial-cells
#18
Michael J Hill, Debanjan Sarkar
Understanding of the surface energetic aspects of the spontaneously deposited proteins on biomaterial surfaces and how this influences cell adhesion and differentiation is an area of regenerative medicine that has not received adequate attention. Current controversies surround the role of the biomaterial substratum surface chemistry, the range of influence of said substratum, and the effects of different surface energy components of the protein interface. Endothelial cells (ECs) are a highly important cell type for regenerative medicine applications, such as tissue engineering, and In-vivo they interact with collagen I based stromal tissue and basement membranes producing different behavioral outcomes...
April 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411418/quantum-mechanics-models-of-the-methanol-dimer-oh%C3%A2-o-hydrogen-bonds-of-%C3%AE-d-glucose-moieties-from-crystallographic-data
#19
Michael Santiago Cintrón, Glenn P Johnson, Alfred D French
The interaction of two methanol molecules, simplified models of carbohydrates and cellulose, was examined using a variety of quantum mechanics (QM) levels of theory. Energy plots for hydrogen bonding distance (H⋯O) and angle (OH⋯O) were constructed. All but two experimental structures were located in stabilized areas on the vacuum phase energy plots. Each of the 399 models was analyzed with Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) theory, which showed a widespread ability by the dimer models to form OH⋯O hydrogen bonds that have bond paths and Bond Critical Points...
March 19, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410031/the-ecological-dynamics-of-natural-selection-traits-and-the-coevolution-of-community-structure
#20
Mark A McPeek
Natural selection has both genetic and ecological dynamics. The fitnesses of individuals change with their ecological context, and so the form and strength of selective agents change with abiotic factors and the phenotypes and abundances of interacting species. I use standard models of consumer-resource interactions to explore the ecological dynamics of natural selection and how various trait types influence these dynamics and the resulting structure of a community of coevolving species. Evolutionary optima favored by natural selection depend critically on the abundances of interacting species, and the traits of species can undergo dynamic cycling in limited areas of parameter space...
May 2017: American Naturalist
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