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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898011/update-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-treatments-in-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Matteo Casula, Federico Carbone, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
After an acute ischemic stroke (AIS), inflammatory processes are able to concomitantly induce both beneficial and detrimental effects. In this narrative review, we updated evidence on the inflammatory pathways and mediators that are investigated as promising therapeutic targets. We searched for papers on PubMed and MEDLINE up to August 2016. The terms searched alone or in combination were: ischemic stroke, inflammation, oxidative stress, ischemia reperfusion, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, autoimmunity...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#2
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
November 28, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891587/intestinal-mononuclear-cells-primed-by-systemic-interleukin-12-display-long-term-ability-to-aggravate-colitis-in-mice
#3
Luciano P Pedrotti, Angela A Sena, María Cecilia Rodriguez Galán, Hugo Cejas, Silvia G Correa
To address whether the burst of systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) influences intestinal inflammation elicited by luminal stimuli, we induced IL-12 release by cDNA injection in C57BL/6 mice and simultaneously started dextran sulphate sodium administration. The sequence of the inflammatory response triggered by IL-12 release was characterized by assessing myeloperoxidase activity and histological damage in colon samples on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colitis induction. To evaluate the persistence of IL-12 priming, colitis was induced in mice 7 or 60 days after cDNA injection...
November 5, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881655/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-nsp1%C3%AE-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-targeting-linear-ubiquitin-chain-assembly-complex-lubac
#4
Huiyuan Jing, Liurong Fang, Zhen Ding, Dang Wang, Wenqi Hao, Li Gao, Wenting Ke, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
: Linear ubiquitination, a newly discovered posttranslational modification, is catalyzed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is composed of three subunits: one catalytic subunit HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN. Accumulating evidence suggests that linear ubiquitination plays a crucial role in innate immune signaling and especially in the activation of the NF-κB pathway by conjugating linear polyubiquitin chains to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855271/experimental-lung-injury-reduces-klf2-to-increase-endothelial-permeability-via-regulation-of-rapgef3-rac1-signaling
#5
Ru-Ting Huang, David Wu, Angelo Meliton, Myung-Jin Oh, Matthew Krause, Joyce A Lloyd, Recep Nigdelioglu, Robert B Hamanaka, Mukesh K Jain, Anna Birukova, John P Kress, Konstantin G Birukov, Gökhan M Mutlu, Yun Fang
RATIONALE: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by widespread endothelial barrier disruption and uncontrolled cytokine storm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked multiple genes to ARDS. Although mechano-sensitive transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a major regulator of endothelial function, its role in regulating pulmonary vascular integrity in lung injury and ARDS-associated GWAS genes remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine KLF2 expression in multiple animal models of acute lung injury and further elucidate the KLF2-mediated pathways involved in endothelial barrier disruption and cytokine storm in experimental lung injury...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850984/1348-immune-memory-alters-cytokine-storm-and-treatment-response-in-the-perforin-deficient-model-of-hlh
#6
Matthew Taylor, Edward Behrens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830756/cytokine-cascade-and-networks-among-msm-hiv-seroconverters-implications-for-early-immunotherapy
#7
Xiaojie Huang, Xinchao Liu, Kathrine Meyers, Lihong Liu, Bin Su, Pengfei Wang, Zhen Li, Lan Li, Tong Zhang, Ning Li, Hui Chen, Haiying Li, Hao Wu
The timing, intensity and duration of the cytokine cascade and reorganized interrelations in cytokine networks are not fully understood during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Using sequential plasma samples collected over three years post-infection in a cohort of MSM HIV-1 seroconvertors, we determined the early kinetics of cytokine levels during FiebigI-IV stages using Luminex-based multiplex assays. Cytokines were quantified and relationships between cytokines were assessed by Spearman correlation. Compared with HIV-negative MSM, HIV-infected individuals had significantly increased multiple plasma cytokines, including GM-CSF, IFN-α2, IL-12p70, IP-10 and VEGF, during both acute and chronic stages of infection...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830097/histoplasmosis-induced-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Ramona Vesna Untanu, Syed Akbar, Stephen Graziano, Neerja Vajpayee
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive and life-threating immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by persistent activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system leading to uncontrolled systemic hyperinflammatory response. The proliferation and activation of histiocytes and lymphocytes lead to production of large amounts of cytokines, also called cytokine storm. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues are directly involved while other organs are damaged by circulating cytokines. Primary HLH is attributed to genetic defects of the immune system and secondary HLH is usually seen in adults secondary to malignancy, infection, or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815438/the-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-syndrome-or-when-the-innate-immune-system-goes-astray
#9
REVIEW
Joan Clària, Vicente Arroyo, Richard Moreau
The acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) syndrome is characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis, organ failure, and high 28-d mortality. ACLF displays key features of systemic inflammation and its poor outcome is closely associated with exacerbated systemic inflammatory responses. In this review, we describe the prevailing characteristics of systemic inflammation in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF, with special emphasis on the principal features of the cytokine storm the mechanisms underlying this intense systemic inflammatory response (i...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812294/influenza-virus-associated-fatal-acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-role-of-nonpermissive-viral-infection
#10
Anek Mungaomklang, Jiraruj Chomcheoy, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Yutthana Joyjinda, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Apaporn Rodpan, Siriporn Ghai, Abhinbhen Saraya, Thiravat Hemachudha
In 2014, two unusual peaks of H1N1 influenza outbreak occurred in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, in Thailand. Among 2,406 cases, one of the 22 deaths in the province included a 6-year-old boy, who initially presented with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. On the other hand, his sibling was mildly affected by the same influenza virus strain, confirmed by whole-genome sequencing, with one silent mutation. Absence of acute necrotizing encephalopathy and other neurological illnesses in the family and the whole province, with near identical whole viral genomic sequences from the two siblings, and an absence of concomitant severe lung infection (cytokine storm) at onset suggest nonpermissive infection as an alternative pathogenetic mechanism of influenza virus...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793118/a-case-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-with-severe-cardiac-complications
#11
Yoshiki Kawamura, Hiroki Miura, Yuji Matsumoto, Hidetoshi Uchida, Kazuko Kudo, Tadayoshi Hata, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroshi Kimura, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening hematological disorder associated with severe systemic inflammation caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response resulting in cytokine storm. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common infectious agent in patients with the viral-associated HLH. Limited numbers of cases with cardiac complication have been demonstrated in other viral-associated HLH patients. Herein, we report a pediatric case of severe EBV-associated HLH with cardiac complications...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785012/docosahexaenoic-acid-liposomes-for-targeting-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer-an-in-vitro-assessment
#12
Amr Alaarg, Nan Yeun Jordan, Johan Jf Verhoef, Josbert M Metselaar, Gert Storm, Robbert J Kok
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and uncontrolled cell proliferation are common key features of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; also known as omega3 fatty acids or fish oil) have beneficial effects against inflammation upon dietary consumption. However, these effects cannot be fully exploited unless diets are enriched with high concentrations of fish oil supplements over long periods of time. Here, a nanomedicine-based approach is presented for delivering effective levels of PUFAs to inflammatory cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780632/-symptomatic-infection-associated-acute-encephalopathy-in-children-with-underlying-neurological-disorders
#13
Yoshimichi Hirayama, Yoshiaki Saito, Yoshihiro Maegaki
BACKGROUND: Development of infection-associated acute encephalopathy (AE) is precipitated by several factors, including viral agents, age, and genetic polymorphisms. In addition, children with prior underlying neurological disorders can also present with AE. METHOD: We reviewed 55 children with AE who were referred to hospitals participating in the Status Epilepticus Study Group from 1988 to 2013. AE was classified into eight subtypes: acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD); hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HH); acute necrotizing encephalopathy; hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES); clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion; acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures; Reye-like syndrome; and unclassified...
October 22, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777802/tafro-syndrome-associated-with-ebv-and-successful-triple-therapy-treatment-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Malorie Simons, Emmanuel Apor, James N Butera, Diana O Treaba
TAFRO syndrome is a rare constellation of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Its pathogenesis involves an excessive and inappropriate cytokine storm, most notably from IL-6, causing multiorgan failure; however, its etiology is undetermined. Starting in 2012, TAFRO syndrome was first identified in Japan as an atypical variant of Castleman's disease. Previous reports include various different treatment protocols with inconsistent survival outcomes...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755125/treatment-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#15
Yini Wang, Zhao Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition of uncontrolled immune activation with a high mortality rate. The recommended therapeutic guideline for HLH was published by the Histiocyte Society in 1994 and revised in 2004, which greatly improved the survival in patients with HLH. However, HLH is still a refractory disease for which the search for novel treatments continues. This article overviewed recent advances in treatment of HLH. RECENT FINDINGS: Current practices in treatment extend from chemo-immunotherapy to some new cytokine-targeting biologicals, which are more effective to eliminate pathologically activated T cells and resist exaggerated cytokine storm...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730669/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-induced-cytokine-dysregulation-with-suppressed-maturation-of-chicken-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#16
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Dhanapal Senthil Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sushant Bhat, Rohit K Khetan, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan
One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chicken is due to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (cytokine storm) which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. Dendritic cells and macrophages of respiratory tract are the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) getting exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken dendritic cells might be a major target for H5N1 HPAIV for induction of cytokine dysregulation. Infection of chMoDCs with H5N1 HPAIV produced high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than H9N2 LPAIV...
October 12, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714503/il-1%C3%AE-is-a-key-cytokine-that-induces-trypsin-upregulation-in-the-influenza-virus-cytokine-trypsin-cycle
#17
I L Indalao, T Sawabuchi, E Takahashi, H Kido
Severe influenza is characterized by a cytokine storm, and the influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin cycle is one of the important mechanisms of viral multiplication and multiple organ failure. The aim of this study was to define the key cytokine(s) responsible for trypsin upregulation. Mice were infected with influenza virus strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) or treated individually or with a combination of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α. The levels of these cytokines and trypsin in the lungs were monitored...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708164/superantigens-hyperinduce-inflammatory-cytokines-by-enhancing-the-b7-2-cd28-costimulatory-receptor-interaction
#18
Revital Levy, Ziv Rotfogel, Dalia Hillman, Andrey Popugailo, Gila Arad, Emmanuelle Supper, Farhat Osman, Raymond Kaempfer
Full T-cell activation requires interaction between the costimulatory receptors B7-2 and CD28. By binding CD28, bacterial superantigens elicit harmful inflammatory cytokine overexpression through an unknown mechanism. We show that, by engaging not only CD28 but also its coligand B7-2 directly, superantigens potently enhance the avidity between B7-2 and CD28, inducing thereby T-cell hyperactivation. Using the same 12-aa β-strand-hinge-α-helix domain, superantigens engage both B7-2 and CD28 at their homodimer interfaces, areas remote from where these coreceptors interact, implying that inflammatory signaling can be controlled through the receptor homodimer interfaces...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687047/incidence-of-infusion-reactions-to-anti-neoplastic-agents-in-early-phase-clinical-trials-the-md-anderson-cancer-center-experience
#19
Manojkumar Bupathi, Joud Hajjar, Stacie Bean, Siqing Fu, David Hong, Daniel Karp, Bettzy Stephen, Kenneth Hess, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Aung Naing
Infusion reactions (IRs) to anti-neoplastic agents require prompt recognition and immediate treatment to avert significant complications. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of consecutive patients who received anti-neoplastic therapy in the outpatient treatment center of the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics from January 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013. Of the 597 patients who received treatment, 9 (1.5 %) had IRs (all ≤ grade 2). The most common IRs observed on first occurrence were chills (n = 5), itching, rash, and facial flushing (n = 3 each)...
September 29, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670223/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#20
Victoria Anne Saites, Rachel Hadler, Jacob Thomas Gutsche, Krzysztof Laudanski
BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hematological disease characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to various triggers, resulting in rapid multi-organ failure. Its incidence may be underestimated due to its rarity, its variable clinical presentation, and its high mortality rate prior to diagnosis. Oftentimes, HLH is mistaken for refractory sepsis and improperly treated as such. Left untreated, the disease is universally fatal. With treatment, case series of adults with HLH report a 30-day mortality of up to 44% and an overall mortality of up to 75%...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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