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Clearance of apoptotic cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768205/c-elegans-blastomeres-clear-the-corpse-of-the-second-polar-body-by-lc3-associated-phagocytosis
#1
Gholamreza Fazeli, Maurice Stetter, Jaime N Lisack, Ann M Wehman
To understand how undifferentiated pluripotent cells cope with cell corpses, we examined the clearance of polar bodies born during female meiosis. We found that polar bodies lose membrane integrity and expose phosphatidylserine in Caenorhabditis elegans. Polar body signaling recruits engulfment receptors to the plasma membrane of embryonic blastomeres using the PI3K VPS-34, RAB-5 GTPase and the sorting nexin SNX-6. The second polar body is then phagocytosed using receptor-mediated engulfment pathways dependent on the Rac1 ortholog CED-10 but undergoes non-apoptotic programmed cell death independent of engulfment...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760395/silver-nanoparticles-promote-the-emergence-of-heterogeneic-human-neutrophil-sub-populations
#2
Jennifer A Fraser, Sadie Kemp, Lesley Young, Mark Ross, Morag Prach, Gary R Hutchison, Eva Malone
Neutrophil surveillance is central to nanoparticle clearance. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have numerous uses, however conflicting evidence exists as to their impact on neutrophils and whether they trigger damaging inflammation. Neutrophil's importance in innate defence and regulating immune networks mean it's essential we understand AgNP's impact on neutrophil function. Human neutrophil viability following AgNP or Ag Bulk treatment was analysed by flow cytometry and AnV/PI staining. Whilst AgNP exposure did not increase the total number of apoptotic neutrophils, the number of late apoptotic neutrophils was increased, suggesting AgNP increase transit through apoptosis...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755958/gut-microbiota-contributes-to-resistance-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-immunodeficient-rag-mice
#3
Krysta M Felix, Ivan A Jaimez, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Heqing Ma, Walid A Raslan, Christina N Klinger, Kristian P Doyle, Hsin-Jung J Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes infection-related mortality worldwide. Immunocompromised individuals, including young children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency, are especially vulnerable, yet little is known regarding S. pneumoniae- related pathogenesis and protection in immunocompromised hosts. Recently, strong interest has emerged in the gut microbiota's impact on lung diseases, or the "gut-lung axis." However, the mechanisms of gut microbiota protection against gut-distal lung diseases like pneumonia remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755460/proteinase-3-interferes-with-c1q-mediated-clearance-of-apoptotic-cells
#4
Pascale Tacnet-Delorme, Julie Gabillet, Simon Chatfield, Nathalie Thieblemont, Philippe Frachet, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
Proteinase 3 (PR3) is the autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis, an autoimmune necrotizing vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Moreover, PR3 is a serine protease whose membrane expression can potentiate inflammatory diseases such as ANCA-associated vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis. During apoptosis, PR3 is co-externalized with phosphatidylserine (PS) and is known to modulate the clearance of apoptotic cells through a calreticulin (CRT)-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733848/polyacetylene-glycoside-attenuates-ischemic-kidney-injury-by-co-inhibiting-inflammation-mitochondria-dysfunction-and-lipotoxicity
#5
Yijie Zhou, Dan Du, Shuyun Liu, Meng Zhao, Yujia Yuan, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Yanrong Lu, Jingqiu Cheng, Jingping Liu
AIMS: Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious clinical problem and no efficient therapeutics is available in clinic now. Natural polyacetylene glycosides (PGAs) had shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but their effects on kidney injury have not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PGA on ischemic kidney injury in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and mice. MAIN METHODS: Hypoxic HK-2 cells and renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) mice were treated with PGA from Coreopsis tinctoria, and the cell viability, renal function, apoptosis, inflammation, mitochondrial injury, lipids metabolism were analyzed...
May 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725698/scarf1-a-multifaceted-yet-largely-understudied-scavenger-receptor
#6
REVIEW
Daniel A Patten
BACKGROUND: As is a prerequisite of belonging to the scavenger receptor super family, SCARF1 (scavenger receptor class F, member 1) is known to play a key role in the binding and endocytosis of a wide range of endogenous and exogenous ligands. FINDINGS: Unlike most scavenger receptors, SCARF1 is an essential protein, as SCARF1-deficient mice exhibit a severe resting phenotype in which they develop systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like disease, thus highlighting the importance of SCARF1-mediated clearance of apoptotic host cells in homeostasis...
May 3, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704616/clearance-of-intracellular-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-using-gentamicin-loaded-nanoparticles
#7
Lai Jiang, Michelle K Greene, Jose Luis Insua, Joana Sa Pessoa, Donna M Small, Peter Smyth, Aidan McCann, Francesco Cogo, Jose A Bengoechea, Clifford C Taggart, Christopher J Scott
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a foremost gram-negative pathogen that can induce life-threatening nosocomial pulmonary infections. Although it can be phagocytosed successfully by lung resident macrophages, this pathogen remains viable within vacuolar compartments, resulting in chronic infection and limiting therapeutic treatment with antibiotics. In this study, we aimed to generate and evaluate a cell-penetrant antibiotic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based formulation that could successfully treat intracellular K...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693725/tctex-1-a-novel-interaction-partner-of-kidney-injury-molecule-1-is-required-for-efferocytosis
#8
Ola Z Ismail, Saranga Sriranganathan, Xizhong Zhang, Joseph V Bonventre, Antonis S Zervos, Lakshman Gunaratnam
Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is specifically upregulated on proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) during acute kidney injury and mitigates tissue damage by mediating efferocytosis (the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells). The signaling molecules that regulate efferocytosis in TECs are not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the dynein light chain protein, Tctex-1, as a novel KIM-1-interacting protein. Immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging studies suggested that Tctex-1 associates with KIM-1 in cells at baseline, but, dissociates from KIM-1 within 90 min of initiation of efferocytosis...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686051/cutting-edge-identification-of-marginal-reticular-cells-as-phagocytes-of-apoptotic-b-cells-in-germinal-centers
#9
Kazuki Sato, Shin-Ichiro Honda, Akira Shibuya, Kazuko Shibuya
Germinal centers (GCs) in secondary lymphoid organs generate large numbers of apoptotic B cells that must be eliminated by phagocytes to prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Although tingible body macrophages engulf apoptotic GC B cells, whether stromal cells are also involved in this process is unclear. In this study, we identified marginal reticular cells (MRCs) as novel nonprofessional phagocytes for the clearance of apoptotic GC B cells in the spleen. We used CD19eGFP (CD19cre Z/EG) mice, which express enhanced GFP (eGFP) under the control of CD19cre expression, to track B cells in the GCs after immunization with NP-chicken γ globulin plus aluminum salt...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680655/enhanced-phagocytosis-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cells-by-macrophages-activated-by-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-strain
#10
N Jaffar, T Okinaga, T Nishihara, T Maeda
The activation of phagocytosis is one important approach to clearing pathogenic cells in a host. This study evaluated the ability of probiotic lactobacilli to induce phagocytic activity as well as the clearance of a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. First, the activation of phagocytosis was found by using lyophilized dead cells. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells, indicating that the probiotic lactobacilli have a remarkable ability to stimulate the macrophages...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679762/scavenger-receptor-b-promotes-bacteria-clearance-by-enhancing-phagocytosis-and-attenuates-white-spot-syndrome-virus-proliferation-in-scylla-paramamosian
#11
Tongtong Kong, Yi Gong, Yan Liu, Xiaobo Wen, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Huaiping Zheng, Shengkang Li
Phagocytosis and apoptosis are key cellular innate immune responses against bacteria and virus in invertebrates. Class B scavenger receptors (SRBs), which contain a CD36 domain, are critical pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytosis for bacteria and apoptotic cells. In the present study, we identified a member of SRB subfamily in mud crab Scylla paramamosain, named Sp-SRB. The full-length cDNA of Sp-SRB is 2593 bp with a 1629 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 542 amino acids, and predicted to contain a CD36 domain with two transmembrane regions at the C- and N-terminals...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651333/a-novel-organ-preservation-solution-with-efficient-clearance-of-red-blood-cells-improves-kidney-transplantation-in-a-canine-model
#12
Sheng Wang, Kristyn Gumpper, Tao Tan, Xianzhang Luo, Hui Guo, Changsheng Ming, Hanying Jiang, Jiangguo Fang, Guang Du, Hua Zhu, Jianjie Ma, Zhishui Chen, Nianqiao Gong
Organ preservation solutions are designed to minimize organ damage during transplantation. A novel preservation solution, WMO-II, was developed to have a low viscosity and to improve microvasculature perfusion for kidneys. In an autologous canine transplantation model, kidney function and recovery were evaluated after organs were flushed and cold-stored with WMO-II or HTK solution, a perfusate currently approved for clinical use. The average number of red blood cells remaining in a single glomerulus after flushing with WMO-II was significantly reduced when compared with HTK solution...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644094/insufficiency-of-dna-repair-enzyme-atm-promotes-naive-cd4-t-cell-loss-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
Juan Zhao, Xindi Dang, Peixin Zhang, Lam Nhat Nguyen, Dechao Cao, Lin Wang, Xiaoyuan Wu, Zheng D Morrison, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia, Qian Xie, Ling Wang, Shunbin Ning, Mohamed El Gazzar, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
T cells have a crucial role in viral clearance and vaccine response; however, the mechanisms regulating their responses to viral infections or vaccinations remain elusive. In this study, we investigated T-cell homeostasis, apoptosis, DNA damage, and repair machineries in a large cohort of subjects with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We found that naive CD4 T cells in chronically HCV-infected individuals (HCV T cells) were significantly reduced compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In addition, HCV T cells were prone to apoptosis and DNA damage, as evidenced by increased 8-oxoguanine expression and γH2AX/53BP1-formed DNA damage foci-hallmarks of DNA damage responses...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619215/proteomic-analysis-of-adipose-tissue-during-the-last-weeks-of-gestation-in-pure-and-crossbred-large-white-or-meishan-fetuses-gestated-by-sows-of-either-breed
#14
F Gondret, B Guével, M C Père, H Quesnel, Y Billon, E Com, L Canario, I Louveau, L Liaubet
Background: The degree of adipose tissue development at birth may influence neonatal survival and subsequent health outcomes. Despite their lower birth weights, piglets from Meishan sows (a fat breed with excellent maternal ability) have a higher survival rate than piglets from Large White sows (a lean breed). To identify the main pathways involved in subcutaneous adipose tissue maturation during the last month of gestation, we compared the proteome and the expression levels of some genes at d 90 and d 110 of gestation in purebred and crossbred Large White or Meishan fetuses gestated by sows of either breed...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618478/nadph-oxidase-activation-regulates-apoptotic-neutrophil-clearance-by-murine-macrophages
#15
Juhi Bagaitkar, Jing Huang, Melody Yue Zeng, Nancy K Pech, Darlene A Monlish, Lizet J Perez-Zapata, Irina Miralda, Laura G Schuettpelz, Mary C Dinauer
The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates superoxide, the precursor to reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have both antimicrobial and immunoregulatory functions. Inactivating mutations in NADPH oxidase alleles cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), characterized by enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening microbial infections and inflammatory disorders, and hypomorphic NADPH oxidase alleles are associated with autoimmunity. Impaired apoptotic cell (AC) clearance is implicated as an important contributing factor in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, but the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in this process is incompletely understood...
April 4, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603641/donor-kidney-injury-molecule-1-promotes-graft-recovery-by-regulating-systemic-necroinflammation
#16
Ji Yun Lee, Ola Z Ismail, Xizhong Zhang, Aaron Haig, Dameng Lian, Lakshman Gunaratnam
Ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplantation predisposes to delayed graft function, rejection, and premature graft failure. Exacerbation of tissue damage and alloimmune responses may be explained by necroinflammation: an autoamplification loop of cell death and inflammation, which is mediated by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (e.g. HMGB1) from necrotic cells that activate both innate and adaptive immune pathways. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is upregulated on injured proximal tubular epithelial cells and enables them to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597356/complement-factor-d-protects-mice-from-ethanol-induced-inflammation-and-liver-injury
#17
Rebecca L McCullough, Megan R McMullen, Megan M Sheehan, Kyle L Poulsen, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Dian J Chiang, Michele T Pritchard, Juan Caballeria, Laura E Nagy
Complement plays a crucial role in microbial defense and clearance of apoptotic cells. Emerging evidence suggests complement is an important contributor to alcoholic liver disease. While C1q-dependent complement activation contributes to ethanol-induced liver injury, the role of the alternative pathway in ethanol-induced injury is unknown. Activation of complement via the classical and alternative pathways was detected in alcoholic hepatitis patients. Female C57BL/6J (WT), C1qa-/- (lacking classical pathway activation), C4-/- (lacking classical and lectin pathway activation), FD-/- (lacking alternative pathway activation), and C1qa/FD-/- (lacking classical and alternative pathway activation) were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or pair-fed control diet for 4 or 25 days...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570934/non-erythropoietic-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-protects-mice-from-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Bo Huang, Juntao Jiang, Bangwei Luo, Wen Zhu, Yuqi Liu, Zhishang Wang, Zhiren Zhang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, which results in various organ pathologies. However, current treatment towards SLE is suboptimal. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to promote SLE recovery, but clinical application can be limited by its haematopoiesis-stimulating effects. EPO-derived helix-B peptide (ARA290) is non-erythrogenic but has been reported to retain the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective functions of EPO. Therefore, here we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of ARA290 on SLE...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559714/the-non-haemostatic-role-of-platelets-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#19
REVIEW
Petrus Linge, Paul R Fortin, Christian Lood, Anders A Bengtsson, Eric Boilard
Dysregulation of lymphocyte function, accumulation of autoantibodies and defective clearance of circulating immune complexes and apoptotic cells are hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, it is now evident that an intricate interplay between the adaptive and innate immune systems contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation and organ damage. Platelets circulate in the blood and are chiefly recognized for their role in the prevention of bleeding and promotion of haemostasis; however, accumulating evidence points to a role for platelets in both adaptive and innate immunity...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547969/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-igm-antibody-against-phosphorylcholine-shared-genetics-and-phenotypic-relationship-to-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#20
Xu Chen, Stefan Gustafsson, Thomas Whitington, Yan Borné, Erik Lorentzen, Jitong Sun, Peter Almgren, Jun Su, Robert Karlsson, Jie Song, Yi Lu, Yiqiang Zhan, Sara Hägg, Per Svensson, Karin E Smedby, Susan L Slager, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Andrew P Morris, Olle Melander, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf de Faire, Kenneth Caidahl, Gunnar Engström, Lars Lind, Mikael C I Karlsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Frostegård, Patrik K E Magnusson
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined β = 0...
May 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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