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Clearance of apoptotic cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806274/transfusion-related-immunomodulation-a-reappraisal
#1
Lyla A Youssef, Steven L Spitalnik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current and prior observations regarding transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) and puts these ideas into a modern immunological context, incorporating concepts from innate, adaptive, and nutritional immunity. We propose that TRIM research focus on determining whether there are specific, well-defined immunosuppressive effects from transfusing 'pure' red blood cells (RBCs) themselves, along with the by-products produced by the stored RBCs as a result of the 'storage lesion...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796886/macrophage-metabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Gael F P Bories, Norbert Leitinger
A key aspect of atherosclerosis is the maladaptive inflammatory response to lipoprotein accumulation in the artery. The failure to decrease lipid accumulation, to clear apoptotic cells and to resolve inflammation ultimately leads to macrophage accumulation within the vascular wall(1,2,3,4) . Several subsets of macrophages are found inside atherosclerotic plaques(5,6,7) : Pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages potentially participate in atherosclerosis initiation and progression; M2-like macrophages are thought to be protective due to their anti-inflammatory and profibrotic properties, presumably stabilizing the plaque(8,9;) Mox macrophages develop in response to oxidized phospholipids and present a glutathione- and potentially redox-regulating phenotype(10) ; Mhem macrophages are found in areas of plaque hemorrhage(11,12) where they are involved in heme clearance...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767064/psoralea-corylifolia-l-seed-extract-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-renal-fibrosis-and-apoptosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#3
Eunhui Seo, Hwansu Kang, Yoon Sin Oh, Hee-Sook Jun
The Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) is a widely used herbal medicine, but its possible effect against diabetic nephropathy has not been studied. To investigate the anti-nephropathic effect of PCS extracts, we performed experiments using a diabetic mouse model and high glucose-treated mesangial cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were orally administered PCS extract for 8 weeks (500 mg/kg/day). Increased creatinine clearance, urine volume, urine microalbumin, and mesangial expansion were observed in STZ-induced diabetic mice; these were significantly reduced by PCS extract administration...
August 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754872/tunicamycin-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-promotes-apoptosis-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-activating-mtorc1
#4
Prasun Guha, Engin Kaptan, Padmaja Gade, Dhananjaya V Kalvakolanu, Hafiz Ahmed
Studies suggest that tunicamycin may work as a therapeutic drug to cancer cells by inducing stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through unfolded protein response (UPR) and thereby promoting apoptosis. However, mechanisms of the prolonged activation of the UPR under sustained ER stress in the regulation of cell apoptosis are largely unknown. To delineate the role of candidate genes in the apoptotic process under ER stress and to search for new therapeutic strategies to treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, we performed whole genome expression microarray analysis in tunicamycin treated metastatic androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells, PC-3...
July 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754800/frontline-science-tim-3-mediated-dysfunctional-engulfment-of-apoptotic-cells-in-sle
#5
Di Zhao, Min Guo, Bing Liu, Qinghai Lin, Tingting Xie, Qianqian Zhang, Xiaoxia Jia, Qiang Shu, Xiaohong Liang, Lifen Gao, Chunhong Ma
T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) has been found to play important roles in autoimmune diseases, but whether Tim-3-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells is involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we verified the role of human Tim-3 (hTim-3) as the receptor of phosphatidylserine (PS) in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, which initiated the engulfment of apoptotic cells. Both IgV and the mucin domain of Tim-3 were crucial in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and there existed the key cytoplasmic domain for signal transduction...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752081/absence-of-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2-is-associated-with-less-distinct-disease-in-campylobacter-jejuni-infected-secondary-abiotic-il-10-deficient-mice
#6
Markus M Heimesaat, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Stefan Bereswill
Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10(-/-) (Nod2(-/-) IL-10(-/-)) mice and IL-10(-/-) counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710749/express-fret-labeling-and-analysis-of-phagocytic-clearance
#7
Vladimir V Didenko
Lysosomal DNase II in phagocytic digestion produces DNA ends with 3'PO4/5'OH, which differ from those created in apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and can be used to label phagocytic clearance of cell death. Here, we describe the use of these specific DNA ends as selective markers of phagocytic reaction in cell suspensions. The approach does not require cell fixation. It selectively labels blunt-ended DNA breaks with terminal 5'OH. The detection is performed by ultra-fast FRET probes in a single step, closed-tube procedure...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697439/targeting-dendritic-cells-for-the-treatment-of-autoimmune-disorders
#8
REVIEW
C Sousa, I Pereira, A C Santos, C Carbone, A B Kovačević, A M Silva, E B Souto
In the last decades, it has been recognized that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are not only cell debris with no biological role, but instead they play a key role in information exchange between cells either in health and disease conditions. EVs exhibit indeed their biological role in a pleiotropic manner. They can modulate immune responses through the activation, transfer or removal of surface receptors on target cells, the removal of cytolytic components such as membrane attack complexes, and the transfer of signaling molecules/effectors, such as nucleic acid species, infectious particles, and oncogenes...
June 30, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696256/a-novel-subset-of-anti-inflammatory-cd138-macrophages-is-deficient-in-mice-with-experimental-lupus
#9
Shuhong Han, Haoyang Zhuang, Stepan Shumyak, Jingfan Wu, Hui Li, Li-Jun Yang, Westley H Reeves
Dead cells accumulating in the tissues may contribute to chronic inflammation. We examined the cause of impaired apoptotic cell clearance in human and murine lupus. Dead cells accumulated in bone marrow from lupus patients but not from nonautoimmune patients undergoing myeloablation, where they were efficiently removed by macrophages (MΦ). Impaired apoptotic cell uptake by MΦ also was seen in mice treated i.p. with pristane (develop lupus) but not mineral oil (MO) (do not develop lupus). The inflammatory response to both pristane and MO rapidly depleted resident (Tim4(+)) large peritoneal MΦ...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694452/phosphatidylserine-mediated-platelet-clearance-by-endothelium-decreases-platelet-aggregates-and-procoagulant-activity-in-sepsis
#10
Ruishuang Ma, Rui Xie, Chengyuan Yu, Yu Si, Xiaoming Wu, Lu Zhao, Zhipeng Yao, Shaohong Fang, He Chen, Valerie Novakovic, Chunyan Gao, Junjie Kou, Yayan Bi, Hemant S Thatte, Bo Yu, Shufen Yang, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
The mechanisms that eliminate activated platelets in inflammation-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in micro-capillary circulation are poorly understood. This study explored an alternate pathway for platelet disposal mediated by endothelial cells (ECs) through phosphatidylserine (PS) and examined the effect of platelet clearance on procoagulant activity (PCA) in sepsis. Platelets in septic patients demonstrated increased levels of surface activation markers and apoptotic vesicle formation, and also formed aggregates with leukocytes...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686604/boosting-efferocytosis-in-alveolar-space-using-bcg-vaccine-to-protect-host-against-influenza-pneumonia
#11
Sanjay Mukherjee, Renuka Subramaniam, Han Chen, Anthony Smith, Shiva Keshava, Homayoun Shams
Efferocytosis by alveolar phagocytes (APs) is pivotal in maintenance of lung homeostasis. Increased efferocytosis by APs results in protection against lethal acute lung injury due to pulmonary infections whereas defective efferocytosis by APs results in chronic lung inflammation. In this report, we show that pulmonary delivery of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) significantly enhances efferocytosis by APs. Increased efferocytosis by APs maintains lung homeostasis and protects mice against lethal influenza pneumonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686526/in-life-there-is-death-how-epithelial-tissue-barriers-are-preserved-despite-the-challenge-of-apoptosis
#12
Kinga Duszyc, Guillermo A Gomez, Kate Schroder, Matthew J Sweet, Alpha S Yap
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous mode of programmed cell death that is found in healthy organs and can be stimulated by many toxic stresses. When it occurs in epithelia, apoptosis presents major challenges to tissue integrity. Apoptotic corpses can promote inflammatory and autoimmune responses if they are retained, and the cellular fragmentation that accompanies apoptosis can potentially compromise the epithelial barrier. Here we discuss 2 homeostatic mechanisms that allow epithelia to circumvent these potential risks: clearance of apoptotic corpses by professional and non-professional phagocytes and physical expulsion of apoptotic cells by apical extrusion...
June 28, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680391/the-role-of-the-multifunctional-bag3-protein-in-cellular-protein-quality-control-and-in-disease
#13
REVIEW
Elisabeth Stürner, Christian Behl
In neurons, but also in all other cells the complex proteostasis network is monitored and tightly regulated by the cellular protein quality control (PQC) system. Beyond folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and their refolding upon misfolding the PQC also manages the disposal of aberrant proteins either by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery or by the autophagic-lysosomal system. Aggregated proteins are primarily degraded by a process termed selective macroautophagy (or aggrephagy). One such recently discovered selective macroautophagy pathway is mediated by the multifunctional HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 (BCL-2-associated athanogene 3)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671983/isoflurane-promotes-phagocytosis-of-apoptotic-neutrophils-through-ampk-mediated-adam17-mer-signaling
#14
Xueke Du, Chunling Jiang, Yang Lv, Randal O Dull, You-Yang Zhao, David E Schwartz, Guochang Hu
A patient's recovery from lung inflammatory injury or development of multi-system organ failure is determined by the host's ability to resolve inflammation and repair tissue damage, both of which require the clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages (efferocytosis). Here, we investigated the effects of isoflurane on macrophage efferocytosis and resolution of lung inflammatory injury. Treatment of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) or alveolar macrophages with isoflurane dramatically enhanced phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656548/treadmill-exercise-attenuates-%C3%AE-synuclein-levels-by-promoting-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-possibly-via-sirt1-in-the-chronic-mptp-p-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Jung-Hoon Koo, Joon-Yong Cho
Accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) is significantly correlated with the presence of progressive motor deficits, which is the main symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although physical exercise reduces α-Syn levels, the molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise decreases α-Syn remain unclear. We hypothesized that treadmill exercise (TE) decreases α-Syn levels by improving mitochondrial function and promoting autophagy via the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway in the chronic 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine with probenecid (MPTP/P)-induced mouse model of PD...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653619/semen-amyloids-participate-in-spermatozoa-selection-and-clearance
#16
Nadia R Roan, Nathallie Sandi-Monroy, Nargis Kohgadai, Shariq M Usmani, Katherine G Hamil, Jason Neidleman, Mauricio Montano, Ludger Ständker, Annika Röcker, Marielle Cavrois, Jared Rosen, Kara Marson, James F Smith, Christopher D Pilcher, Friedrich Gagsteiger, Olena Sakk, Michael O'Rand, Polina V Lishko, Frank Kirchhoff, Jan Münch, Warner C Greene
Unlike other human biological fluids, semen contains multiple types of amyloid fibrils in the absence of disease. These fibrils enhance HIV infection by promoting viral fusion to cellular targets, but their natural function remained unknown. The similarities shared between HIV fusion to host cell and sperm fusion to oocyte led us to examine whether these fibrils promote fertilization. Surprisingly, the fibrils inhibited fertilization by immobilizing sperm. Interestingly, however, this immobilization facilitated uptake and clearance of sperm by macrophages, which are known to infiltrate the female reproductive tract (FRT) following semen exposure...
June 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643236/multi-reservoir-phospholipid-shell-encapsulating-protamine-nanocapsules-for-co-delivery-of-letrozole-and-celecoxib-in-breast-cancer-therapy
#17
Ahmed O Elzoghby, Shaimaa K Mostafa, Maged W Helmy, Maha A ElDemellawy, Salah A Sheweita
PURPOSE: In the current work, we propose a combined delivery nanoplatform for letrozole (LTZ) and celecoxib (CXB). METHODS: Multi-reservoir nanocarriers were developed by enveloping protamine nanocapsules (PRM-NCs) within drug-phospholipid complex bilayer. RESULTS: Encapsulation of NCs within phospholipid bilayer was confirmed by both size increase from 109.7 to 179.8 nm and reduction of surface charge from +19.0 to +7.78 mV. The multi-compartmental core-shell structure enabled biphasic CXB release with initial fast release induced by complexation with phospholipid shell followed by prolonged release from oily core...
September 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630102/the-phenotype-and-function-of-preterm-infant-monocytes-implications-for-susceptibility-to-infection
#18
REVIEW
Emma de Jong, Tobias Strunk, David Burgner, Pascal M Lavoie, Andrew Currie
The extreme vulnerability of preterm infants to invasive microbial infections has been attributed to "immature" innate immune defenses. Monocytes are important innate immune sentinel cells critical in the defense against infection in blood. They achieve this via diverse mechanisms that include pathogen recognition receptor- and inflammasome-mediated detection of microbes, migration into infected tissues, and differentiation into Mϕs and dendritic cells, initiation of the inflammatory cascade by free radicals and cytokine/chemokine production, pathogen clearance by phagocytosis and intracellular killing, and the removal of apoptotic cells...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#19
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621306/targeted-two-photon-chemical-apoptotic-ablation-of-defined-cell-types-in-vivo
#20
Robert A Hill, Eyiyemisi C Damisah, Fuyi Chen, Alex C Kwan, Jaime Grutzendler
A major bottleneck limiting understanding of mechanisms and consequences of cell death in complex organisms is the inability to induce and visualize this process with spatial and temporal precision in living animals. Here we report a technique termed two-photon chemical apoptotic targeted ablation (2Phatal) that uses focal illumination with a femtosecond-pulsed laser to bleach a nucleic acid-binding dye causing dose-dependent apoptosis of individual cells without collateral damage. Using 2Phatal, we achieve precise ablation of distinct populations of neurons, glia and pericytes in the mouse brain and in zebrafish...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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