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Clearance of apoptotic cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302404/mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-mfg-e8-accelerates-diabetic-cutaneous-wound-healing
#1
Akihiko Uchiyama, Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Akiko Sekiguchi, Chisako Fujiwara, Buddhini Perera, Sachiko Ogino, Yoko Yokoyama, Osamu Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Diabetic wounds are intractable due to complex factors, such as the inhibition of angiogenesis, dysfunction of phagocytosis by macrophages and abnormal inflammatory responses. It is recognized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote wound healing in diabetic mice. We previously demonstrated that MSCs produce large amounts of MFG-E8. OBJECT: The objective was to ascertain the role of MSCs-derived MFG-E8 in murine diabetic wounds. METHODS: MFG-E8 WT/KO MSCs or rMFG-E8 were subcutaneously injected around the wound in diabetic db/db mice, and wound areas were analyzed...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272166/inhibition-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase-enhances-the-clearance-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-inflammation-possibly-by-accelerating-neutrophil-apoptosis
#2
Wei Shi, Chengyun Xu, Musaddique Hussain, Fugen Wu, Meiping Lu, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu, Junsong Wu
Neutrophils are a population of inflammatory cell involved in acute lung injury (ALI), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prolonged neutrophil survival and delayed neutrophil apoptosis hinder the alleviation of lung inflammation. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) involved the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway responsible for the cytoskeletal arrangement, and previous studies have revealed that inhibition of MLCK induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In this study, glycogen-induced neutrophils isolated from rats or mice were incubated with ML-7, a MLCK specific inhibitor, and LPS-induced ALI mice administrated with ML-7 were investigated, to demonstrate the roles of MLCK in neutrophils apoptosis as well as the possibility of which contributing to the clearance of inflammation...
March 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267881/distinctive-role-of-efferocytosis-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-migration-in-sterile-or-infectious-conditions
#3
Letícia de Aquino Penteado, Naiara Naiana Dejani, Felipe Fortino Verdan, Allan Botinhon Orlando, Victoria Ninõ, Fernanda De Nuzzi Dias, Ana Carolina Guerta Salina, Alexandra Ivo Medeiros
Efferocytosis, or clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), by dendritic cells (DCs) leads to immune response suppression and tolerance to self-antigens. However, efferocytosis of infected cells (IACs) leads to the production of a mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. We examined the DC phenotype and ability to migrate after phagocytosis of ACs or IACs and observed higher levels of CD86 and CCR7 expression in DCs, as well as enhanced migration capacity following efferocytosis of infected cells. Interestingly, higher levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and PGE2 were also produced in this context...
March 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266034/elevated-serum-mfg-e8-level-is-possibly-associated-with-the-presence-of-high-intensity-cerebral-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Chikako Kishi, Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Osamu Ishikawa
Human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), also known as lactadherin, is a secreted glycoprotein that plays essential roles in the clearance of apoptotic cells and angiogenesis. It has been reported that serum MFG-E8 levels are higher in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with in healthy controls; however, a previous study reported no correlation between serum MFG-E8 levels and SLE disease activity. The objective of this study was to assess serum MFG-E8 levels and their clinical associations in patients with SLE...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257077/functional-regulation-of-the-plasma-protein-histidine-rich-glycoprotein-by-zn-2-in-settings-of-tissue-injury
#5
REVIEW
Kristin M Priebatsch, Marc Kvansakul, Ivan K H Poon, Mark D Hulett
Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn(2+)). HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis...
March 2, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252646/porphyromonas-gingivalis-gingipains-cause-defective-macrophage-migration-towards-apoptotic-cells-and-inhibit-phagocytosis-of-primary-apoptotic-neutrophils
#6
Sowmya A Castro, Russell Collighan, Peter A Lambert, Irundika Hk Dias, Parbata Chauhan, Charlotte E Bland, Ivana Milic, Michael R Milward, Paul R Cooper, Andrew Devitt
Periodontal disease is a prevalent chronic inflammatory condition characterised by an aberrant host response to a pathogenic plaque biofilm resulting in local tissue damage and frustrated healing that can result in tooth loss. Cysteine proteases (gingipains) from the key periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been implicated in periodontal disease pathogenesis by inhibiting inflammation resolution and are linked with systemic chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for the resolution of inflammation and tissue restoration...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247940/plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-4-pmca4-co-ordinates-calcium-and-nitric-oxide-signaling-in-regulating-murine-sperm-functional-activity
#7
Kristine E Olli, Kun Li, Deni S Galileo, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
Reduced sperm motility (asthenospermia) and resulting infertility arise from deletion of the Plasma Membrane Ca(2+) -ATPase 4 (Pmca4) gene which encodes the highly conserved Ca(2+) efflux pump, PMCA4. This is the major Ca(2+) clearance protein in murine sperm. Since the mechanism underlying asthenospermia in PMCA4's absence or reduced activity is unknown, we investigated if sperm PMCA4 negatively regulates nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and when absent NO, peroxynitrite, and oxidative stress levels are increased...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225631/conformational-changes-in-c-reactive-protein-affect-binding-to-curved-membranes-in-a-lipid-bilayer-model-of-the-apoptotic-cell-surface
#8
Aml A Alnaas, Carrie L Moon, Mitchell Alton, Scott M Reed, Michelle K Knowles
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum protein that binds to damaged membranes through a phosphatidylcholine binding site. The membrane binding process can initiate the complement immune response and facilitates the clearance of apoptotic cells, likely aiding in the protection of autoimmunity. The initiation of an immune response relies on a conformation change from a native, pentameric form to a modified form, where the modified form binds complement proteins (i.e., C1q) and regulatory proteins substantially better than the native form...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213094/aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-modified-materials-promote-the-accumulation-of-pro-regenerative-immune-cell-subsets-and-enhance-vascular-remodeling
#9
Mary Caitlin P Sok, Maxianne C Tria, Claire E Olingy, Cheryl L San Emeterio, Edward A Botchwey
Many goals in tissue engineering rely on modulating cellular localization and polarization of cell signaling, including the inhibition of inflammatory infiltrate, facilitation of inflammatory cell egress, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived resolvins are gaining increasing recognition for their essential roles in inhibition of neutrophil invasion into inflamed tissue and promotion of macrophage phagocytosis of cellular debris as well as their egress to the lymphatics...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195210/cigarette-smoke-attenuates-phagocytic-ability-of-macrophages-through-down-regulating-milk-fat-globule-egf-factor-8-mfg-e8-expressions
#10
Yueqin Wang, Guangwei Luo, Jie Chen, Rui Jiang, Jianhua Zhu, Na Hu, Wei Huang, Guilian Cheng, Min Jia, Bingtao Su, Nian Zhang, Tianpen Cui
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases resulting from habitual smoking. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell by airway macrophages contributes to lung inflammation. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), as a link between apoptotic cells and phagocytes, facilitates clearance of apoptotic cells and attenuates inflammation. We sought to investigate altered expression and potential role of MFG-E8 in COPD. In this study, apoptosis was increased and the level of MFG-E8 was decreased while HMGB1 expression was increased in lung tissues of CS-exposed mice...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194400/eating-the-dead-to-keep-atherosclerosis-at-bay
#11
REVIEW
Megan L Brophy, Yunzhou Dong, Hao Wu, H N Ashiqur Rahman, Kai Song, Hong Chen
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite effective lipid-lowering therapies and prevention programs, atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of CHD in developing countries worldwide is rapidly increasing at a rate expected to overtake those of cancer and diabetes. Prominent risk factors include the hardening of arteries and high levels of cholesterol, which lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188820/involvement-of-adenosine-a3-receptors-in-the-chemotactic-navigation-of-macrophages-towards-apoptotic-cells
#12
Gergely Joós, Judit Jákim, Beáta Kiss, Regina Szamosi, Tamás Papp, Szabolcs Felszeghy, Tibor Sághy, Gábor Nagy, Zsuzsa Szondy
The first step in the clearance of apoptotic cells is chemotactic migration of macrophages towards the apoptotic cells guided by find-me signals provided by the dying cells. Upon sensing the chemotactic signals, macrophages release ATP. ATP is then degraded to ADP, AMP and adenosine to trigger purinergic receptors concentrated at the leading edge of the cell. Previous studies have shown that in addition to the chemotactic signals, this purinergic autocrine signaling is required to amplify and translate chemotactic signals into directional motility...
March 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185913/macrophages-and-skeletal-health
#13
REVIEW
Megan N Michalski, Laurie K McCauley
Bone is in a constant state of remodeling, a process which was once attributed solely to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Decades of research has identified many other populations of cells in the bone that participate and mediate skeletal homeostasis. Recently, osteal macrophages emerged as vital participants in skeletal remodeling and osseous repair. The exact mechanistic roles of these tissue-resident macrophages are currently under investigation. Macrophages are highly plastic in response to their micro-environment and are typically classified as being pro- or anti-inflammatory (pro-resolving) in nature...
February 7, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184013/phosphatidylserine-sensing-by-tam-receptors-regulates-akt-dependent-chemoresistance-and-pd-l1-expression
#14
Canan Kasikara, Sushil Kumar, Stanley Kimani, Wen-I Tsou, Ke Geng, Viralkumar Davra, Ganapathy Sriram, Connor Devoe, Khanh-Quynh Nguyen, Anita Antes, Allen Krantz, Grzegorz Rymarczyk, Andrzej Wilczynski, Cyril Empig, Bruce D Freimark, Michael Gray, Kyle Schlunegger, Jeff Hutchins, Sergei V Kotenko, Raymond B Birge
Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (collectively TAM receptors) are three homologous receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that bind vitamin K-dependent endogenous ligands, Protein S (ProS) and Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6), and act as bridging molecules to promote phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis). TAM receptors are overexpressed in a vast array of tumor types, whereby the level of expression correlates with the tumor grade and the emergence of chemo- and radio-resistance to targeted therapeutics, but also have been implicated as inhibitory receptors on infiltrating myeloid-derived cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can suppress host anti-tumor immunity...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181540/hiv-related-proteins-prolong-macrophage-survival-through-induction-of-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1
#15
Zhihong Yuan, Xian Fan, Bashar Staitieh, Chetna Bedi, Paul Spearman, David M Guidot, Ruxana T Sadikot
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1(TREM-1) is a member of the superimmunoglobulin receptor family. We have previously shown that TREM-1 prolongs survival of macrophages treated with lipoolysaccharide through Egr2-Bcl2 signaling. Recent studies suggest a role for TREM-1 in viral immunity. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) targets the monocyte/macrophage lineage at varying stages of infection. Emerging data suggest that macrophages are key reservoirs for latent HIV even in individuals on antiretroviral therapy...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176354/pretreatment-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-leishmania-major-soluble-antigens-induce-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-mouse-peritoneal-macrophages
#16
Zahra Khosrowpour, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Sara Soudi
Recent studies have demonstrated the influential role of microbial stimulus in characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Due to the migration of MSCs to infection site, it is of importance to understand the interaction of microbial ligands with MSCs in order to clarify the positive or negative role of MSCs in the control of infection. In this research, we assess leishmanial soluble antigen (LSA)-primed MSCs on macrophage immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For this purpose, the effects of both conditioned media (CM) and cell-cell contact of LSA primed MSCs were determined on macrophage responses to LPS...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169339/dna-methylation-governs-the-dynamic-regulation-of-inflammation-by-apoptotic-cells-during-efferocytosis
#17
Clare A Notley, Christine K Jordan, Jenny L McGovern, Mark A Brown, Michael R Ehrenstein
Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells (AC) is pivotal in preventing autoimmunity and is a potent immunosuppressive stimulus. However, activation of cells prior to apoptosis abolishes their immunoregulatory properties. Here we show using the antigen-induced model of arthritis that the degree of DNA methylation within AC confers their immunomodulatory plasticity. DNA isolated from resting and activated AC mimicked their respective immune effects. Demethylation of DNA abrogated the protective effect of AC whereas remethylation of AC DNA reversed the effects of activation and restored the ability to inhibit inflammation...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164664/serum-amyloid-p-component-level-may-be-a-biomarker-for-lung-toxicities-and-overall-survival-after-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Jing Zhao, Alexander Chi, Rui Mao, Guangyuan Hu, Minghua Ji
BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid P-component (SAP) contributes to the clearance of apoptotic cells. As one of the main acute-phase reactants, SAP regulates key aspects of inflammation and sets a threshold for immune cell activation. This study aimed to investigate the association of SAP levels with symptomatic lung toxicities after thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) and overall survival (OS) in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: The SAP level at diagnosis and during TRT was evaluated by ELISA in 113 clinically inoperable NSCLC patients...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157210/modulation-of-macrophage-antitumor-potential-by-apoptotic-lymphoma-cells
#19
Jorine J L P Voss, Catriona A Ford, Sofia Petrova, Lynsey Melville, Margaret Paterson, John D Pound, Pam Holland, Bruno Giotti, Tom C Freeman, Christopher D Gregory
In aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), constitutive apoptosis of a proportion of the tumor cell population can promote net tumor growth. This is associated with the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that clear apoptotic cells and exhibit pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation profiles characteristic of reparatory, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic programs. Here we consider further the activation status of these TAMs. We compare their transcriptomic profile with that of a range of other macrophage types from various tissues noting especially their expression of classically activated (IFN-γ and LPS) gene clusters - typically antitumor - in addition to their previously described protumor phenotype...
February 3, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138137/programmed-cell-death-as-a-defence-against-infection
#20
REVIEW
Ine Jorgensen, Manira Rayamajhi, Edward A Miao
Eukaryotic cells can die from physical trauma, which results in necrosis. Alternatively, they can die through programmed cell death upon the stimulation of specific signalling pathways. In this Review, we discuss the role of different cell death pathways in innate immune defence against bacterial and viral infection: apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and NETosis. We describe the interactions that interweave different programmed cell death pathways, which create complex signalling networks that cross-guard each other in the evolutionary 'arms race' with pathogens...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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