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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212075/towards-photoplethysmography-based-estimation-of-instantaneous-heart-rate-during-physical-activity
#1
Delaram Jarchi, Alex Casson
OBJECTIVE: Recently numerous methods have been proposed for estimating average heart rate using photoplethysmography (PPG) during physical activity, overcoming the significant interference that motion causes in PPG traces. We propose a new algorithm framework for extracting instantaneous heart rate from wearable PPG and ECG signals to provide an estimate of heart rate variability during exercise. METHODS: For ECG signals we propose a new spectral masking approach which modifies a particle filter tracking algorithm, and for PPG signals constrains the instantaneous frequency obtained from the Hilbert transform to a region of interest around a candidate heart rate measure...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210957/forced-treadmill-exercise-prevents-spatial-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats-probably-through-the-activation-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Cláudia Vanzella, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Felipe Kawa Odorcyk, Fabrício Nicola, Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#3
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198783/effect-of-moderate-versus-high-intensity-interval-exercise-training-on-heart-rate-variability-parameters-in-inactive-latin-american-adults-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Luis Andrés Téllez-T, Diana Camelo-Prieto, Paula Andrea Hernández-Quiñonez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Mikel Izquierdo
We investigated the effect of moderate versus high-intensity interval exercise training on the HRV indices in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high-intensity interval training (HIT group). The MCT group performed aerobic training at an intensity of 55-75%, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (HRmax) until the expenditure of 300 kcal. The HIT group ran on a treadmill for 4 minutes at 85-95% peak HRmax and had a recovery of 4 minutes at 65% peak HRmax until the expenditure of 300 kcal...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197892/the-effect-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-hemostasis-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#5
Ryan A Martin, Courtney Strosnider, Gabrielle Giersch, Christopher J Womack, Trent A Hargens
PURPOSE: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have an altered hemostatic balance; however, the exercise response is less described. The purpose of this study is to determine the hemostatic response after acute aerobic exercise in obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Eighteen males (nine OSA vs. nine controls) were recruited from the university and local community. Individuals with evidence of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease were excluded. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >5 was a criterion for OSA...
February 14, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197103/increases-in-brain-1-h-mr-glutamine-and-glutamate-signals-following-acute-exhaustive-endurance-exercise-in-the-rat
#6
Maciej Świątkiewicz, Michał Fiedorowicz, Jarosław Orzeł, Marlena Wełniak-Kamińska, Piotr Bogorodzki, Józef Langfort, Paweł Grieb
Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197080/intense-exercise-promotes-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-not-spatial-discrimination
#7
Ji H So, Chao Huang, Minyan Ge, Guangyao Cai, Lanqiu Zhang, Yisheng Lu, Yangling Mu
Hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout adult life and plays an important role in learning and memory. Although the influence of physical exercise on neurogenesis has been intensively studied, there is controversy in regard to how the impact of exercise may vary with its regime. Less is known about how distinct exercise paradigms may differentially affect the learning behavior. Here we found that, chronic moderate treadmill running led to an increase of cell proliferation, survival, neuronal differentiation, and migration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192465/impact-of-a-cafeteria-diet-and-daily-physical-training-on-the-rat-serum-metabolome
#8
Susana Suárez-García, Josep M Del Bas, Antoni Caimari, Rosa M Escorihuela, Lluís Arola, Manuel Suárez
Regular physical activity and healthy dietary patterns are commonly recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is diagnosed at an alarmingly increasing rate, especially among adolescents. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the relevance of physical exercise on the modulation of the metabolome in healthy people and those with MetS. We have previously shown that treadmill exercise ameliorated different symptoms of MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a MetS-inducing diet and different intensities of aerobic training on the overall serum metabolome of adolescent rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185659/change-in-maximal-exercise-capacity-is-associated-with-survival-in-men-and-women
#9
Clinton A Brawner, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Jonathan K Ehrman, Waqas T Qureshi, Michael J Blaha, Steven J Keteyian
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between change in maximal exercise capacity (MEC) over time and risk of all-cause mortality separately in men and women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients (n=10,854; mean ± SD age, 54±11 years; 43% women; 30% nonwhite) who completed 2 physician-referred exercise tests between January 2, 1991, and May 28, 2009, were identified from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. The MEC was quantified in metabolic equivalents of task (METs) calculated from peak workload on a treadmill and adjusted to the equivalent for a 50-year-old man...
February 6, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183863/hemodynamic-responses-are-reduced-with-aerobic-compared-with-resistance-blood-flow-restriction-exercise
#10
Anthony K May, Christopher R Brandner, Stuart A Warmington
The hemodynamics of light-load exercise with an applied blood-flow restriction (BFR) have not been extensively compared between light-intensity, BFR, and high-intensity forms of both resistance and aerobic exercise in the same participant population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a randomized crossover design to examine the hemodynamic responses to resistance and aerobic BFR exercise in comparison with a common high-intensity and light-intensity non-BFR exercise. On separate occasions participants completed a leg-press (resistance) or treadmill (aerobic) trial...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183820/sarcolipin-expression-is-not-required-for-the-mitochondrial-enzymatic-response-to-physical-activity-or-diet
#11
Daniel Gamu, Anton Trinh, Val A Farjado, Eric Bombardier, A Russell Tupling
In mice, transgenic manipulation of Ca(2+)-handling proteins is sufficient to alter the metabolic phenotype of muscle. We have previously shown that ablation of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulatory protein and uncoupler of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, leads to excessive diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unclear how loss of SLN per se affects muscle oxidative capacity and the ability of mitochondria to adapt to physiological stimuli such as exercise training or calorie overload...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181133/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-metabolism-of-nitric-oxide-and-endothelin-1-in-lung-parenchyma-of-rats-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
A Zimmer, R B Teixeira, J H P Bonetto, R Siqueira, C C Carraro, L M Donatti, A Hickmann, I E Litvin, A E G Godoy, A S Araujo, R Colombo, Adriane Belló-Klein
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vasoconstriction and proliferative obstruction of pulmonary vessels, which promotes a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The effect of exercise training on oxidative stress, metabolism, and markers of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was analyzed in the lung tissue of rats with PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT).Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups (5-7 animals): sedentary control (SC), sedentary MCT (SM), trained control (TC), and trained MCT (TM)...
February 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179125/exercise-increases-leptin-levels-correlated-with-igf-1-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#13
Nazan Uysal, Sinem Agilkaya, Ali Riza Sisman, Ulas Mehmet Camsari, Celal Gencoglu, Ayfer Dayi, Ilkay Aksu, Basak Baykara, Sultan Cingoz, Muge Kiray
It is known that regular aerobic exercise has positive effects on hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We have previously have been able to demonstrate that aerobic exercise increased IGF-1 in hippocampus. Leptin, which is associated with cognitive functions, is also involved in fat metabolism and stimulates energy consumption. While it is known that leptin stimulates IGF-1 production in hepatocytes, little known is on the link between IGF-1 and leptin in brain during aerobic exercise. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on leptin, leptin receptor expression levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177723/fish-oil-and-treadmill-exercise-have-age-dependent-effects-on-episodic-memory-and-oxidative-state-of-the-hippocampus
#14
Patrícia Fortes Cavalcanti de Macêdo, Janatar Stella Vasconcelos de Melo, Laís Alves Ribeiro Costa, Glauber Rudá Feitoza Braz, Shirley M de Sousa, Cláudia J Lagranha, Manuella Batista-de-Oliveira Hornsby
There is a growing interest to better understand how lifestyle choices can improve memory functions. Treadmill exercise (Ex) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil (Fo) are able to stimulate hippocampal antioxidant defenses and improve memory. The aim was to test whether (Fo) and (Ex) can improve rat's performance on memory tasks and optimize hippocampal antioxidant state in an age-dependent manner. Therefore, young and adult rats were exercised and received (Fo) during four weeks...
January 9, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-among-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#15
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167192/stress-biomarker-responses-to-different-protocols-of-forced-exercise-in-chronically-stressed-rats
#16
Maryam Radahmadi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Mohammad Reza Sharifi, Nasrin Hosseini
Stress is one of the most significant causes of major health problems on a global scale. The beneficial effects of exercise on combating stress, however, are well-established. The present study investigated the stress biomarker responses, such as serum corticosterone, interlukin-1β, and glucose levels, to different (preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous) protocols of forced exercise under stress. Male rats were randomly allocated to the following five groups: stressed, preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous (and/or pre-stress, post-stress, stress-accompanied, and both pre-stress and stress-accompanied exercise respectively) exercise groups...
January 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166650/the-effects-of-exercise-load-during-development-on-oxidative-stress-levels-and-antioxidant-potential-in-adulthood
#17
S Lee, J Hashimoto, T Suzuki, A Satoh
The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of physical activity during the growth period as well as on oxidative stress and antioxidative potential in adulthood. The experimental animals used were four-week old male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into three groups. The exercise loads were as follows: control (CON), treadmill exercise (TE), and jumping exercise (JE). The exercise was performed at the same time of day, at a frequency of five days per week, for eight weeks. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROSs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) were measured during periods of rest prior to commencement of the experiment and after the experiment...
February 6, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166612/acute-exercise-activates-p38-mapk-and-increases-the-expression-of-telomere-protective-genes-in-cardiac-muscle
#18
Andrew T Ludlow, Laila Gratidao, Lindsay W Ludlow, Espen E Spangenburg, Stephen M Roth
Age is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Telomere length is shorter in the hearts of aged mice compared to young mice, and short telomere length has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One year of voluntary wheel running exercise attenuates the age-associated loss of telomere length and results in altered gene expression of telomere length maintaining and genome stabilizing proteins in heart tissue of mice. Understanding the early adaptive response of the heart to an endurance exercise bout is paramount to understanding the impact of endurance exercise on heart tissue and cells...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166185/heat-exposure-and-hypohydration-exacerbate-physiological-strain-during-load-carrying
#19
Elizabeth L Adams, Douglas J Casa, Robert A Huggins, Julie K DeMartini, Rebecca L Stearns, Rachel M Kennedy, Lindsay J DiStefano, Lawrence E Armstrong, Carl M Maresh
Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166116/cerebral-blood-flow-responses-to-aquatic-treadmill-exercise
#20
Rhodri Parfitt, Marianne Y Hensman, Samuel J E Lucas
INTRODUCTION: Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower heart rate compared to land-based treadmill exercise. METHODS: Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace [4 km/h, immersed to iliac crest (aquatic), 6 km/h (land)] and increasing 1 km/h every 2 min up to 10 km/h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km/h for land...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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