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Tatiana Vernié, Sylvie Camut, Céline Camps, Céline Rembliere, Fernanda de Carvalho-Niebel, Malick Mbengue, Ton Timmers, Virginie Gasciolli, Richard Thompson, Christine le Signor, Benoit Lefebvre, Julie Cullimore, Christine Hervé
PUB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which interacts with and is phosphorylated by the LYK3 symbiotic receptor kinase, negatively regulates rhizobial infection and nodulation during the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Medicago truncatula In this study, we show that PUB1 also interacts with and is phosphorylated by DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2, the key symbiotic receptor kinase of the common symbiosis signaling pathway, required for both the rhizobial and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) endosymbioses. We also show here that PUB1 expression is activated during successive stages of root colonization by Rhizophagus irregularis that is compatible with its interaction with DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Chuanshe Zhou, Liang Chen, Zhiliang Tan, Shaoxun Tang, Xuefeng Han, Min Wang, Jinhe Kang, Qiongxian Yan
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats...
2015: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Muthusubramanian Venkateshwaran, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Mireille Chabaud, Andrea Genre, Allison J Balloon, Junko Maeda, Kari Forshey, Désirée den Os, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Joshua J Coon, David G Barker, Jean-Michel Ané
Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce signals that are perceived by host legume receptors at the plasma membrane and trigger sustained oscillations of the nuclear and perinuclear Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+) spiking), which in turn leads to gene expression and downstream symbiotic responses. The activation of Ca(2+) spiking requires the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase Does not Make Infections 2 (DMI2) as well as the nuclear cation channel DMI1. A key enzyme regulating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase 1 (HMGR1), interacts with DMI2 and is required for the legume-rhizobium symbiosis...
August 4, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea Genre, Mireille Chabaud, Coline Balzergue, Virginie Puech-Pagès, Mara Novero, Thomas Rey, Joëlle Fournier, Soizic Rochange, Guillaume Bécard, Paola Bonfante, David G Barker
The primary objective of this study was to identify the molecular signals present in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs) responsible for activating nuclear Ca(2+) spiking in the Medicago truncatula root epidermis. Medicago truncatula root organ cultures (ROCs) expressing a nuclear-localized cameleon reporter were used as a bioassay to detect AM-associated Ca(2+) spiking responses and LC-MS to characterize targeted molecules in GSEs. This approach has revealed that short-chain chitin oligomers (COs) can mimic AM GSE-elicited Ca(2+) spiking, with maximum activity observed for CO4 and CO5...
April 2013: New Phytologist
Brendan K Riely, Estíbaliz Larrainzar, Cara H Haney, Jeong-Hwan Mun, Erena Gil-Quintana, Esther M González, Hee-Ju Yu, David Tricoli, David W Ehrhardt, Sharon R Long, Douglas R Cook
The Medicago truncatula DMI2 gene encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase that is essential for symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. While phenotypic analyses have provided a description for the host's responses mediated by DMI2, a lack of tools for in vivo biochemical analysis has hampered efforts to elucidate the mechanisms by which DMI2 mediates symbiotic signal transduction. Here, we report stably transformed M. truncatula lines that express a genomic DMI2 construct that is fused to a dual-affinity tag containing three copies of the hemagglutinin epitope and a single StrepII tag (gDMI2:HAST)...
February 2013: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Catalina I Pislariu, Jeremy D Murray, JiangQi Wen, Viviane Cosson, RajaSekhara Reddy Duvvuru Muni, Mingyi Wang, Vagner A Benedito, Andry Andriankaja, Xiaofei Cheng, Ivone Torres Jerez, Samuel Mondy, Shulan Zhang, Mark E Taylor, Million Tadege, Pascal Ratet, Kirankumar S Mysore, Rujin Chen, Michael K Udvardi
A Tnt1-insertion mutant population of Medicago truncatula ecotype R108 was screened for defects in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Primary screening of 9,300 mutant lines yielded 317 lines with putative defects in nodule development and/or nitrogen fixation. Of these, 230 lines were rescreened, and 156 lines were confirmed with defective symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutants were sorted into six distinct phenotypic categories: 72 nonnodulating mutants (Nod-), 51 mutants with totally ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix-), 17 mutants with partially ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix+/-), 27 mutants defective in nodule emergence, elongation, and nitrogen fixation (Nod+/- Fix-), one mutant with delayed and reduced nodulation but effective in nitrogen fixation (dNod+/- Fix+), and 11 supernodulating mutants (Nod++Fix+/-)...
August 2012: Plant Physiology
Caroline Henry, Patricia Pavese, Myriam Blanc, José Labarère, Pascale Leclercq, Jean-Paul Brion
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with HIV infection but there's only limited evidence regarding the control and impact of this co-morbidity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes, compliance with treatment, perception and quality of life of HIV patients with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients treated for diabetes and registered in the DMI2 databasis in a French university hospital in January 2010...
October 2011: La Presse Médicale
Cristina Calcagno, Mara Novero, Andrea Genre, Paola Bonfante, Luisa Lanfranco
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. While there is evidence for NO accumulation during legume nodulation, almost no information exists for arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). Here, we investigated the occurrence of NO in the early stages of Medicago truncatula-Gigaspora margarita interaction, focusing on the plant response to fungal diffusible molecules. NO was visualized in root organ cultures and seedlings by confocal microscopy using the specific probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate...
May 2012: Mycorrhiza
István Parádi, Diederik van Tuinen, Dominique Morandi, Sergio Ochatt, Franck Robert, Louis Jacas, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot
Expression profiling of two paralogous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-specific blue copper-binding gene (MtBcp1a and MtBcp1b) isoforms was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in wild-type Medicago truncatula Jemalong 5 (J5) during the mycorrhizal development with Glomus intraradices for up to 7 weeks. Time-course analysis in J5 showed that expression of both MtBcp1 genes increased continuously and correlated strongly with the colonization intensity and arbuscule content. MtPT4, selected as a reference gene of the functional plant-fungus association, showed a weaker correlation to mycorrhizal development...
September 2010: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Hannah Kuhn, Helge Küster, Natalia Requena
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic biotrophic association that requires a complex exchange of signals between plant and fungus to allow accommodation of the mycosymbiont in the root cortex. Signal exchange happens even before physical contact, activating the plant symbiotic program. We investigated very early transcriptional responses in Medicago truncatula to inoculation with Glomus intraradices and identified four genes induced by diffusible AM fungal signals before contact. Three of them were previously shown to be mycorrhiza induced at later stages of the symbiosis, while MtMSBP1, encoding a membrane-bound steroid-binding protein, is a novel mycorrhizal marker...
February 2010: New Phytologist
Björn J Sieberer, Mireille Chabaud, Antonius C Timmers, André Monin, Joëlle Fournier, David G Barker
Lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation factors (NFs) secreted by endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia trigger Ca(2+) spiking in the cytoplasmic perinuclear region of host legume root hairs. To determine whether NFs also elicit Ca(2+) responses within the plant cell nucleus we have made use of a nucleoplasmin-tagged cameleon (NupYC2.1). Confocal microscopy using this nuclear-specific calcium reporter has revealed sustained and regular Ca(2+) spiking within the nuclear compartment of Medicago truncatula root hairs treated with Sinorhizobium meliloti NFs...
November 2009: Plant Physiology
Angie Lee, Michelle R Lum, Ann M Hirsch
Several nonnodulating, nonmycorrhizal (Nod(-)Myc(-)) mutants of Melilotus alba Desr. (white sweetclover) have been described. However, the details of their responses to Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been fully elucidated. We investigated rhizobial entry and colonization using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy on the Masym1-5 mutants and isolated an early nodulin (ENOD40) gene from wild-type M. alba. We focused on Masym3, the least responsive of the mutants to S. meliloti and VA-fungi, to determine its response to cytokinin...
January 2007: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Pascale M A Seddas, Cecilia M Arias, Christine Arnould, Diederik van Tuinen, Olivier Godfroy, Hassan Aït Benhassou, Jérome Gouzy, Dominique Morandi, Fabrice Dessaint, Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson
To gain further insight into the role of the plant genome in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) establishment, we investigated whether symbiosis-related plant genes affect fungal gene expression in germinating spores and at the appressoria stage of root interactions. Glomus intraradices genes were identified in expressed sequence tag libraries of mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula roots by in silico expression analyses. Transcripts of a subset of genes, with predicted functions in transcription, protein synthesis, primary or secondary metabolism, or of unknown function, were monitored in spores and germinating spores and during interactions with roots of wild-type or mycorrhiza-defective (Myc-) mutants of M...
March 2009: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sonja Kosuta, Saul Hazledine, Jongho Sun, Hiroki Miwa, Richard J Morris, J Allan Downie, Giles E D Oldroyd
Understanding how the cell uses a limited set of proteins to transduce very different signals into specific cellular responses is a central goal of cell biology and signal transduction disciplines. Although multifunctionality in signal transduction is widespread, the mechanisms that allow differential modes of signaling in multifunctional signaling pathways are not well defined. In legume plants, a common symbiosis signaling pathway composed of at least seven proteins mediates infection by both mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria...
July 15, 2008: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jongho Sun, Hiroki Miwa, J Allan Downie, Giles E D Oldroyd
The rhizobial-derived signaling molecule Nod factor is essential for the establishment of the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis. Nod factor perception and signal transduction in the plant involve calcium spiking and lead to the induction of nodulation gene expression. It has previously been shown that the heterotrimeric G-protein agonist mastoparan can activate nodulation gene expression in a manner analogous to Nod factor activation of these genes and this requires DOESN'T MAKE INFECTIONS3 (DMI3), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is required for Nod factor signaling...
June 2007: Plant Physiology
Lorella Navazio, Roberto Moscatiello, Andrea Genre, Mara Novero, Barbara Baldan, Paola Bonfante, Paola Mariani
The implication of calcium as intracellular messenger in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has not yet been directly demonstrated, although often envisaged. We used soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures stably expressing the bioluminescent Ca(2+) indicator aequorin to detect intracellular Ca(2+) changes in response to the culture medium of spores of Gigaspora margarita germinating in the absence of the plant partner. Rapid and transient elevations in cytosolic free Ca(2+) were recorded, indicating that diffusible molecules released by the mycorrhizal fungus are perceived by host plant cells through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling...
June 2007: Plant Physiology
Bridget V Hogg, Julie V Cullimore, Raoul Ranjeva, Jean-Jacques Bono
The establishment of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis between Medicago spp. and Sinorhizobium meliloti is dependent on the production of sulfated lipo-chitooligosaccharidic nodulation (Nod) factors by the bacterial partner. In this article, using a biochemical approach to characterize putative Nod factor receptors in the plant host, we describe a high-affinity binding site (Kd = 0.45 nm) for the major Nod factor produced by S. meliloti. This site is termed Nod factor-binding site 3 (NFBS3). NFBS3 is associated to a high-density fraction prepared from roots of Medicago truncatula and shows binding specificity for lipo-chitooligosaccharidic structures...
January 2006: Plant Physiology
Boglárka Oláh, Christian Brière, Guillaume Bécard, Jean Dénarié, Clare Gough
Legumes form two different types of intracellular root symbioses, with fungi and bacteria, resulting in arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen-fixing nodules, respectively. Rhizobial signalling molecules, called Nod factors, play a key role in establishing the rhizobium-legume association and genes have been identified in Medicago truncatula that control a Nod factor signalling pathway leading to nodulation. Three of these genes, the so-called DMI1, DMI2 and DMI3 genes, are also required for formation of mycorrhiza, indicating that the symbiotic pathways activated by both the bacterial and the fungal symbionts share common steps...
October 2005: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anne Bersoult, Sylvie Camut, Ariana Perhald, Attila Kereszt, György B Kiss, Julie V Cullimore
The Medicago truncatula DMI2 gene encodes a receptorlike kinase required for establishing root endosymbioses. The DMI2 gene was shown to be expressed much more highly in roots and nodules than in leaves and stems. In roots, its expression was not altered by nitrogen starvation or treatment with lipochitooligosaccharidic Nod factors. Moreover, the DMI2 mRNA abundance in roots of the nfp, dmil, dmi3, nsp1, nsp2, and hcl symbiotic mutants was similar to the wild type, whereas lower levels in some dmi2 mutants could be explained by regulation by the nonsense-mediated decay, RNA surveillance mechanism...
August 2005: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Erik Limpens, Rossana Mirabella, Elena Fedorova, Carolien Franken, Henk Franssen, Ton Bisseling, René Geurts
In most legume nodules, the N2-fixing rhizobia are present as organelle-like structures inside their host cells. These structures, named symbiosomes, contain one or a few rhizobia surrounded by a plant membrane. Symbiosome formation requires the release of bacteria from cell-wall-bound infection threads. In primitive legumes, rhizobia are hosted in intracellular infection threads that, in contrast to symbiosomes, are bound by a cell wall. The formation of symbiosomes is presumed to represent a major step in the evolution of legume-nodule symbiosis, because symbiosomes facilitate the exchange of metabolites between the two symbionts...
July 19, 2005: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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