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Rugby union

Antonio Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, Luiz Miguel Santiago, Luis Taborda Barata
OBJECTIVES: In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. METHODS: Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant 'grey literature'...
October 14, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Christopher Black, William Shaw, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10 Hz GPS units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50 Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (Vmax). METHODS: Nine male professional rugby union players performed three maximal 40 m sprints with three minutes rest between each effort with Vmax assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10 Hz GPSOpen (Openfield software), GPSSprint (Sprint software) and radar gun...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Kevin Till, Padraic Phibbs, Dale Read, Jonathon Weakley, Ben Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in performance of a 6-second cycle ergometer test (CET) and countermovement jump (CMJ) during a 6-week training block in professional rugby union players. METHODS: Twelve young professional rugby union players performed two CET and CMJ on the first and fourth morning of every week prior to the commencement of daily training during a 6-week training block. Standardised changes in the highest score of two CET and CMJ efforts were assessed using linear mixed modelling and magnitude-based inferences...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gregory J Tierney, John Lawler, Karl Denvir, Kurt McQuilkin, Ciaran K Simms
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To conduct video and statistical analysis on Rugby Union play, focusing mainly on the tackle, to establish the player to player configurations for significant direct head impacts and non-direct head impacts. RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative, observational cohort study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Video analysis of 52 significant direct head impacts (31 Tackle, 10 Ruck, 7 Dive and 4 Ground) and 40 non-direct head impact tackles from 2014/15 International Rugby Union matches...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jason C Tee, Mike I Lambert, Yoga Coopoo
PURPOSE: In team sports, fatigue is manifested by a self-regulated decrease in movement distance and intensity. There is currently limited information on the effect of fatigue on movement patterns in rugby union match play, particularly for players in different position groups (backs vs. forwards). This study investigated the effect of different match periods on movement patterns of professional rugby union players. METHODS: Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 46 professional match participations to determine temporal effects on movement patterns...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Tracy Burrows, Simon K Harries, Rebecca L Williams, Cheryl Lum, Robin Callister
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes...
2016: Nutrients
Federico Y Fontana, Alessandro L Colosio, Giorgio Da Lozzo, Silvia Pogliaghi
OBJECTIVES: The study questioned if and to what extent specific anthropometric and functional characteristics measured in youth draft camps, can accurately predict subsequent career progression in rugby union. DESIGN: Original research. METHODS: Anthropometric and functional characteristics of 531 male players (U16) were retrospectively analysed in relation to senior level team representation at age 21-24. Players were classified as International (Int: National team and international clubs) or National (Nat: 1st, 2nd and other divisions and dropout)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Sarah Mc Fie, James Brown, Sharief Hendricks, Michael Posthumus, Clint Readhead, Mike Lambert, Alison V September, Wayne Viljoen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the concussion incidence and to identify factors associated with concussion in South African youth rugby union players. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Injury surveillance was completed at the South African Rugby Union Youth Week tournaments (under-13, under-16, and under-18 age groups). PARTICIPANTS: South African youth rugby union players. A total of 7216 players participated in 531 matches between 2011 and 2014...
September 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
L Whitaker, S Backhouse
To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Jean-Philippe Hager, Chris Carling
This study investigated end-game and transient changes in running activities and whether these were concomitantly associated with reductions in skill-related performance in senior international rugby union match-play. Altogether, 18 official matches were analysed (322 individual observations) using computerised video-based tracking and event coding (Amisco Pro(®), SUP, Nice, France). In forwards and backs, trivial to small reductions (% difference: -2.1, ±1.3 to -10.0, ±4.0%) in total distance and that covered at high speeds (>18...
August 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Patria A Hume, Alice Theadom, Gwyn N Lewis, Kenneth L Quarrie, Scott R Brown, Rosamund Hill, Stephen W Marshall
AIM: This study investigated differences in cognitive function between former rugby and non-contact-sport players, and assessed the association between concussion history and cognitive function. METHODS: Overall, 366 former players (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 43.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited from October 2012 to April 2014. Engagement in sport, general health, sports injuries and concussion history, and demographic information were obtained from an online self-report questionnaire...
August 24, 2016: Sports Medicine
Dale B Read, Ben Jones, Padraic J Phibbs, Gregory A B Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon J S Weakley, Kevin Till
The purpose of this study was to quantify the physical demands of representative adolescent rugby union match-play and investigate the difference between playing positions and age groups. Players (n=112) were classified into 6 groups by playing position (forwards and backs) and age group (U16, U18, U20). The physical demands were measured using microsensor-based technology and analysed using magnitude based inferences to assess practical importance. Backs had a greater relative distance (except U16s) and a greater high-speed running distance per minute than forwards, with the magnitude of difference between the positions becoming larger in older age groups...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
S Y Kim, C L Chan, D M Hyam
Football injuries are responsible for many of the maxillofacial injuries sustained during sporting activities. In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), the four major types of Australian football are played in large numbers and up to a high standard. Our objective was to analyse maxillofacial fractures that were sustained during rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules, and soccer matches. We retrospectively studied 134 patients with maxillofacial fractures during the five-year period 2010-14. All patients were assessed and treated at Canberra Hospital, the major trauma centre in the ACT...
October 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
G W Fuller, S P T Kemp, M Raftery
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy and reliability of side-line video review of head impact events to aid identification of concussion in elite sport. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement study. METHODS: Immediate care, match day and team doctors involved in the 2015 Rugby Union World Cup viewed 20 video clips showing broadcaster's footage of head impact events occurring during elite Rugby matches. Subjects subsequently recorded whether any criteria warranting permanent removal from play or medical room head injury assessment were present...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kenneth L Quarrie, Martin Raftery, Josh Blackie, Christian J Cook, Colin W Fuller, Tim J Gabbett, Andrew J Gray, Nicholas Gill, Liam Hennessy, Simon Kemp, Mike Lambert, Rob Nichol, Stephen D Mellalieu, Julien Piscione, Jörg Stadelmann, Ross Tucker
BACKGROUND: The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health...
August 9, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Sean M A Howard, Sean P Cumming, Mark Atkinson, Robert M Malina
The study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of biological maturation on anthropometrical measurements, performance indicators and subsequent selection in a group of academy rugby union players. Fifty-one male players 14-17 years of age were assessed for height, weight and BMI, and percentage of predicted mature status attained at the time of observation was used as an indicator of maturity status. Following this, initial sprint velocity (ISV), Wattbike peak power output (PPO) and initial sprint momentum (ISM) were assessed...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Colin W Fuller, Aileen Taylor, Simon P T Kemp, Martin Raftery
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. DESIGN: A prospective, whole population study. POPULATION: 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. METHOD: The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries...
July 26, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew Chiwaridzo, Gillian D Ferguson, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
BACKGROUND: Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests...
2016: Systematic Reviews
E Reboursiere, Y Bohu, D Retière, B Sesboüé, V Pineau, J P Colonna, J P Hager, J C Peyrin, J Piscione
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Catastrophic cervical spine injuries are rare in rugby union but require close monitoring. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of severe cervical spine injuries and determine the impact of a national prevention programme and new scrum rules implemented by the French Rugby Union. METHODS: A prospective study was performed between 2006 and 2013 including all players affiliated to the French Rugby Union. All cervical spine injuries resulting in death, tetraplegia or a permanent neurological deficit were included...
July 25, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Shaun J McLaren, Andrew Smith, Iain R Spears, Matthew Weston
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) to team-sport training. DESIGN: Single cohort, observational study. METHODS: Twenty-nine professional rugby union players were monitored over a six-week intensified training period. Training sessions were classified as: high-intensity intervals, repeated high-intensity efforts, speed, skill-based conditioning, skills, whole-body resistance, or upper-body resistance...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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