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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353321/energy-expenditure-of-rugby-players-during-a-14-day-in-season-period-measured-using-doubly-labelled-water
#1
Deborah R Smith, R F G J King, L C Duckworth, L Sutton, T Preston, J P O'Hara, B Jones
Criterion data for total energy expenditure (TEE) in elite rugby are lacking, which prediction equations may not reflect accurately. This study quantified TEE of 27 elite male rugby league (RL) and rugby union (RU) players (U16, U20, U24 age groups) during a 14-day in-season period using doubly labelled water (DLW). Measured TEE was also compared to estimated, using prediction equations. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using indirect calorimetry, and physical activity level (PAL) estimated (TEE:RMR)...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309388/the-effects-of-variable-resistance-using-chains-on-bench-throw-performance-in-trained-rugby-players
#2
Mark S Godwin, John F T Fernandes, Craig Twist
This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 y, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomised cross-over design participant's performed three bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (No Chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load, 15% 1RM variable load; Chains) with seven days between conditions. For each repetition the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration and time to peak velocity were recorded...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303682/the-organised-chaos-of-english-adolescent-rugby-union-influence-of-weekly-match-frequency-on-the-variability-of-match-and-training-loads
#3
Padraic J Phibbs, Ben Jones, Gregory Roe, Dale Read, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Kevin Till
The aims of this study were to determine the variability of weekly match and training loads in adolescent rugby union players across a competitive season, and to investigate the effect of match frequency on load distribution across different activities. Internal match and training load data (i.e. session-rating of perceived exertion (sRPE)) were collected daily from 20 players from a regional academy across a 14-week season. Data were analysed using a mixed-effects linear model, and variability was reported as a coefficient of variation (CV)...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299876/the-incidence-of-injury-in-amateur-male-rugby-union-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Caithriona Yeomans, Ian C Kenny, Roisin Cahalan, Giles D Warrington, Andrew J Harrison, Kevin Hayes, Mark Lyons, Mark J Campbell, Thomas M Comyns
BACKGROUND: Rugby union is a physically demanding, full-contact team sport that has gained worldwide popularity. The incidence of injury in rugby union has been widely reported in the literature. While comprehensive injury surveillance and prevention programmes have been implemented within the professional game, there is a need for similar strategies in the amateur game. Despite recent increases in the volume of research in rugby, there is little consensus regarding the true incidence rate of match and training injuries in senior amateur male rugby union players...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283695/effect-of-the-prebind-engagement-process-on-scrum-timing-and-stability-in-the-2013-to-2016-six-nations
#5
Edward J Bradley, Bob Hogg, David T Archer
This study examined if changes in scrum engagement laws from the "crouch-touch-set" (CTS) in 2013 to the "PreBind" engagement from 2014 onwards have led to changes in scrum characteristics, specifically timing, in international rugby union. Duration and outcomes were identified for all scrums occurring in the 2013-2016 Six Nations (n=60 games) using video analysis. Scrum duration increased after the introduction of the PreBind engagement from 59 s in 2013 to 69 s in 2016 (ρ=0.024, ES 0.93). A significant increase in mean contact duration per scrum occurred when prebinding was adopted (ρ<0...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282262/brain-health-and-healthy-ageing-in-retired-rugby-union-players-the-brain-study-study-protocol-for-an-observational-study-in-the-uk
#6
Valentina Gallo, Damien McElvenny, Catherine Hobbs, Donna Davoren, Huw Morris, Sebastian Crutch, Henrik Zetterberg, Nick C Fox, Simon Kemp, Matthew Cross, Nigel K Arden, Madeleine A M Davies, Andrea Malaspina, Neil Pearce
INTRODUCTION: Relatively little is known about the long-term health of former elite rugby players, or former sportspeople more generally. As well as the potential benefits of being former elite sportspersons, there may be potential health risks from exposures occurring during an individual's playing career, as well as following retirement. Each contact sport has vastly different playing dynamics, therefore exposing its players to different types of potential traumas. Current evidence suggests that these are not necessarily comparable in terms of pathophysiology, and their potential long-term adverse effects might also differ...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259806/concussion-knowledge-and-experience-among-welsh-amateur-rugby-union-coaches-and-referees
#7
Steffan Arthur Griffin, Craig Ranson, Isabel Moore, Prabhat Mathema
Background: Rugby union is a collision sport where participants are at high risk of sustaining a concussion. In settings where there is little qualified medical supervision, certain stakeholders (eg, coaches and officials) should possess sufficient knowledge in regard to the recognition and management of concussion. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and experience of various aspects of concussion among coaches and referees involved in Welsh amateur rugby union...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210957/the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-caffeine-gum-consumed-during-a-simulated-half-time-by-professional-academy-rugby-union-players
#8
Russell M, Reynolds N A, Crewther B T, Cook C J, Kilduff L
Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205214/biomechanics-of-the-shoulder-girdle-a-case-study-on-the-effects-of-union-rugby-tackles
#9
Luís Faria, Bárbara Campos, Renato Natal Jorge
PURPOSE: The shoulder girdle is a complex system, comprised by a kinematic chain and stabilizers. Due to the delicate equilibrium and synchronism between mobility and stability, high external loads may compromise its physiology, increasing the risk of injuries. Thus, this study intends to fully characterize the effects of a rugby tackle on the shoulder's anatomy and physiology. METHODS: For the experimental procedures, a matrix of pressure sensors was used, based on the Teckscan® pressure in-soles, force plates, an isokinetic dynamometer and sEMG (surface electromyography)...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189584/body-image-amongst-elite-rugby-union-players
#10
Claire Gibson, Chloe Hindle, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Joanne Slater, Rachel Brown, Brett Smith, Dane Baker, Philip Healey, Katherine Black
There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161094/the-effect-of-resistance-training-in-a-hypoxic-chamber-on-physical-performance-in-elite-rugby-athletes
#11
Brad Mayo, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, Matthew Driller
Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period...
November 21, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143592/col5a1-gene-variants-previously-associated-with-reduced-soft-tissue-injury-risk-are-associated-with-elite-athlete-status-in-rugby
#12
Shane M Heffernan, Liam P Kilduff, Robert M Erskine, Stephen H Day, Georgina K Stebbings, Christian J Cook, Stuart M Raleigh, Mark A Bennett, Guan Wang, Malcolm Collins, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Alun G Williams
BACKGROUND: Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. RESULTS: In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140145/monitoring-rugby-players-for-fitness-and-fatigue-what-do-coaches-want
#13
Lindsay T Starling, Michael I Lambert
PURPOSE: The advantages of monitoring players in a team are well documented. However, barriers associated with lack of resources and time prevents teams from implementing systematic monitoring programs. This study aims to identify 1) the methods rugby teams use to monitor the training load and associated response to the training load, and 2) prerequisites of a monitoring protocol that are scientifically suitable and practically applicable for monitoring fitness and fatigue of rugby players...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136039/exposure-time-running-and-skill-related-performance-in-international-u20-rugby-union-players-during-an-intensified-tournament
#14
Christopher J Carling, Mathieu Lacome, Eamon Flanagan, Pearse O'Doherty, Julien Piscione
PURPOSE: This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship. METHOD: Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®). RESULTS: Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101150/players-and-coaches-knowledge-and-awareness-of-the-boksmart-safe-six-injury-prevention-programme-an-ecological-cross-sectional-questionnaire-study
#15
Nicola Sewry, Evert Verhagen, Mike Lambert, Willem van Mechelen, James Brown
OBJECTIVES: Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097230/non-sanctioning-of-illegal-tackles-in-south-african-youth-community-rugby
#16
J C Brown, S J Boucher, M Lambert, W Viljoen, C Readhead, S Hendricks, W J Kraak
OBJECTIVES: The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081983/attitudes-towards-protective-headgear-in-uk-rugby-union-players
#17
Andrew Barnes, James L Rumbold, Peter Olusoga
BACKGROUND/AIM: Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players' attitudes towards wearing protective headgear. METHODS: 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064724/the-effects-of-tackle-height-on-inertial-loading-of-the-head-and-neck-in-rugby-union-a-multibody-model-analysis
#18
Gregory J Tierney, Ciaran K Simms
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of chronic injury to the head-and-neck region of Rugby Union players. The aim of this study was to use multibody simulations to examine the effects of tackle height on both Tackler and Ball Carrier head kinematics and neck dynamics. RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative Exploratory Study Methods and procedures: 45 front-on shoulder tackles with no direct contact to the head/neck were simulated with the MADYMO pedestrian model and used to assess differences between upper body tackles and lower body tackles...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055883/efficacy-of-a-movement-control-injury-prevention-programme-in-adult-men-s-community-rugby-union-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Matthew J Attwood, Simon P Roberts, Grant Trewartha, Mike E England, Keith A Stokes
BACKGROUND: Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. METHODS: 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation...
October 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049096/the-effect-of-tackler-technique-on-head-injury-assessment-risk-in-elite-rugby-union
#20
Gregory J Tierney, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Ciaran K Simms
PURPOSE: To use match video evidence of tackles in elite level rugby union in order to identify tackler proficiency characteristics, for both Lower Body and Upper Body Tackles, that result in Head Injury Assessments (HIA) for the tackler. METHODS: A review of international rugby union matches (2013-2016) and Pro 12/ERC Champions Cup matches (2014-2016) from a professional rugby union club was conducted. HIA (n=53) and non-HIA tackles (n=233) were categorised as either front-on or side-on Upper Body or Lower Body Tackles and scored for tackling proficiency characteristics...
October 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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