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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221085/goal-relevance-as-a-quantitative-model-of-human-task-relevance
#1
James Tanner, Laurent Itti
The concept of relevance is used ubiquitously in everyday life. However, a general quantitative definition of relevance has been lacking, especially as pertains to quantifying the relevance of sensory observations to one's goals. We propose a theoretical definition for the information value of data observations with respect to a goal, which we call "goal relevance." We consider the probability distribution of an agent's subjective beliefs over how a goal can be achieved. When new data are observed, its goal relevance is measured as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between belief distributions before and after the observation...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221050/young-children-s-understanding-of-the-limits-and-benefits-of-group-ownership
#2
Michelle Huh, Ori Friedman
Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments investigating whether children ages 3 to 6 (N = 540) understand group ownership. In Experiments 1 and 2 children were asked who different objects belong to, and they appropriately judged that certain objects are more likely to belong to a group than to individual people...
February 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220894/inhibition-of-n1-src-kinase-by-a-specific-sh3-peptide-ligand-reveals-a-role-for-n1-src-in-neurite-elongation-by-l1-cam
#3
Sarah Keenan, Sarah J Wetherill, Christopher I Ugbode, Sangeeta Chawla, William J Brackenbury, Gareth J O Evans
In the mammalian brain the ubiquitous tyrosine kinase, C-Src, undergoes splicing to insert short sequences in the SH3 domain to yield N1- and N2-Src. We and others have previously shown that the N-Srcs have altered substrate specificity and kinase activity compared to C-Src. However, the exact functions of the N-Srcs are unknown and it is likely that N-Src signalling events have been misattributed to C-Src because they cannot be distinguished by conventional Src inhibitors that target the kinase domain. By screening a peptide phage display library, we discovered a novel ligand (PDN1) that targets the unique SH3 domain of N1-Src and inhibits N1-Src in cells...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220891/nmda-receptor-expression-in-the-thalamus-of-the-stargazer-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#4
Z Barad, D R Grattan, B Leitch
In the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy, altered corticothalamic excitation of reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) neurons has been suggested to contribute to abnormal synchronicity in the corticothalamic-thalamocortical circuit, leading to spike-wave discharges, the hallmark of absence seizures. AMPA receptor expression and function are decreased in stargazer RTN, due to a mutation of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin. It is unresolved and debated, however, if decreased excitation of RTN is compatible with epileptogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220115/spread-of-the-blaoxa-23-containing-tn2008-in-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-grouped-in-cc92-from-china
#5
Yisheng Chen, Jing Gao, Haomin Zhang, Chunmei Ying
The rapid expansion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates is a big issue. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and resistance gene of A. baumannii collected at two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Besides, the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing method (AB-PBRT) was conducted to categorize the plasmids into homogeneous groups on the basis of replicase genes. Most CRAB isolates showed high-level resistance to almost all antibiotics but retain susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220002/metasurface-polarization-splitter
#6
Brian A Slovick, You Zhou, Zhi Gang Yu, Ivan I Kravchenko, Dayrl P Briggs, Parikshit Moitra, Srini Krishnamurthy, Jason Valentine
Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are among the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here, we show that a rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other...
March 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219756/atrial-angioleiomyoma-with-myopericytoma-like-features-a-case-report
#7
Hussein Nassereddine, Aurélie Cazes, Constance Verdonk, Benjamin Assous, Raphael Dautry, Patrick Nataf, Michel Wassef, Lydia Deschamps
A 66-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital for resection of a right atrial mass. Four months earlier, she had suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident due to occlusion of the sylvian segment of the right middle cerebral artery from atheromatous tight stenosis in the right internal carotid artery. Later, investigations with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a 3.4-cm right atrial mass that was resected surgically. Microscopic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed nodular tumor, located within the interatrial septum, and corresponding to an angioleiomyoma (ALM)...
February 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219643/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-variants-of-a-cancer-testis-antigen-lemd1-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#8
Rui Takeda, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Min Shen, Liming Wang, Tadashi Ogawa, Aiko Murai, Eri Yamamoto, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Toshihiko Nishidate, Kenji Okita, Goro Kutomi, Noriyuki Sato, Ichiro Takemasa, Toshihiko Torigoe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancy, and the prognosis is not still satisfactory due to treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) is endowed with higher tumor-initiating ability, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability, and CSCs/CICs are resistant to treatments. Thus, CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence and distant metastasis, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure CRCs. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are remain unknown, and we aimed to elucidate molecular aspects of CR-CSCs/CICs in this study...
February 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219017/interaction-between-fmdv-l-pro-and-transcription-factor-adnp-is-required-for-optimal-viral-replication
#9
Gisselle N Medina, Giselle M Knudsen, Alexander L Greninger, Anna Kloc, Fayna Díaz-San Segundo, Elizabeth Rieder, Marvin J Grubman, Joseph L DeRisi, Teresa de Los Santos
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protease (L(pro)) inhibits host translation and transcription affecting the expression of several factors involved in innate immunity. In this study, we have identified the host transcription factor ADNP (activity dependent neuroprotective protein) as an L(pro) interacting protein by mass spectrometry. We show that L(pro) can bind to ADNP in vitro and in cell culture. RNAi of ADNP negatively affected virus replication and higher levels of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene expression were detected...
February 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218790/differential-expression-of-hent1-and-hent2-in-colon-cancer-cell-lines
#10
Y Liu, T Zuo, X Zhu, N Ahuja, T Fu
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT) 1 and 2, encoded by SLC29A1 and SLC29A2, permit the bidirectional passage of nucleoside analogues into cells and may correlate with clinical responses to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression profiles of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in human cancer cell lines. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we comprehensively profiled the transcription levels of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in 16 colon cancer cell lines...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218234/durability-enhanced-two-dimensional-hole-gas-of-c-h-diamond-surface-for-complementary-power-inverter-applications
#11
Hiroshi Kawarada, Tetsuya Yamada, Dechen Xu, Hidetoshi Tsuboi, Yuya Kitabayashi, Daisuke Matsumura, Masanobu Shibata, Takuya Kudo, Masafumi Inaba, Atsushi Hiraiwa
Complementary power field effect transistors (FETs) based on wide bandgap materials not only provide high-voltage switching capability with the reduction of on-resistance and switching losses, but also enable a smart inverter system by the dramatic simplification of external circuits. However, p-channel power FETs with equivalent performance to those of n-channel FETs are not obtained in any wide bandgap material other than diamond. Here we show that a breakdown voltage of more than 1600 V has been obtained in a diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FET with a p-channel based on a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217917/a-comprehensive-phylogenetic-analysis-of-copper-transporting-p1b-atpases-from-bacteria-of-the-rhizobiales-order-uncovers-multiplicity-diversity-and-novel-taxonomic-subtypes
#12
Ciro Cubillas, Fabiola Miranda-Sánchez, Antonio González-Sánchez, José Pedro Elizalde, Pablo Vinuesa, Susana Brom, Alejandro García-de Los Santos
The ubiquitous cytoplasmic membrane copper transporting P1B-1 and P1B-3 -type ATPases pump out Cu(+) and Cu(2+) , respectively, to prevent cytoplasmic accumulation and avoid toxicity. The presence of five copies of Cu-ATPases in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti is remarkable; it is the largest number of Cu(+) -transporters in a bacterial genome reported to date. Since the prevalence of multiple Cu-ATPases in members of the Rhizobiales order is unknown, we performed an in silico analysis to understand the occurrence, diversity and evolution of Cu(+) -ATPases in members of the Rhizobiales order...
February 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217745/the-baltic-sea-virome-diversity-and-transcriptional-activity-of-dna-and-rna-viruses
#13
Lisa Zeigler Allen, John P McCrow, Karolina Ininbergs, Christopher L Dupont, Jonathan H Badger, Jeffery M Hoffman, Martin Ekman, Andrew E Allen, Birgitta Bergman, J Craig Venter
Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were generated from size-fractionated samples from 11 sites within the Baltic Sea and adjacent marine waters of Kattegat and freshwater Lake Torneträsk in order to investigate the diversity, distribution, and transcriptional activity of virioplankton. Such a transect, spanning a salinity gradient from freshwater to the open sea, facilitated a broad genome-enabled investigation of natural as well as impacted aspects of Baltic Sea viral communities. Taxonomic signatures representative of phages within the widely distributed order Caudovirales were identified with enrichments in lesser-known families such as Podoviridae and Siphoviridae...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217705/med12-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-cell-specific-function-despite-ubiquitous-expression
#14
EDITORIAL
Maria-Cristina Keightley, Susan K Nilsson, Graham J Lieschke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217420/acute-effects-of-different-self-massage-volumes-on-the-fms%C3%A2-overhead-deep-squat-performance
#15
Estêvão Rios Monteiro, Jakob Škarabot, Andrew D Vigotsky, Amanda Fernandes Brown, Thiago Matassoli Gomes, Jefferson da Silva Novaes
BACKGROUND: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is a battery of tests designed to assess movement competency; the overhead deep squat test, specifically, has been shown to be an accurate predictor of overall FMS™ scores. Self-massage (SM) is a ubiquitous warm-up utilized to increase joint range of motion and, therefore, may be effective for improving performance of the overhead deep squat test. PURPOSE: To examine how different doses (30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds) of SM of different areas of the body (plantar fascia, latissimus dorsi, and lateral thigh) affects the score obtained on an overhead deep squat test...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217110/intra-species-and-inter-kingdom-signaling-of-legionella-pneumophila
#16
REVIEW
Ramon Hochstrasser, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila parasitizes environ mental amoebae and, upon inhalation, replicates in alveolar macrophages, thus causing a life-threatening pneumonia called "Legionnaires' disease." The opportunistic pathogen employs a bi-phasic life cycle, alternating between a replicative, non-virulent phase and a stationary, transmissive/virulent phase. L. pneumophila employs the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system as a major regulator of the growth phase switch. The Lqs system comprises the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the homologous sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as a prototypic response regulator termed LqsR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216658/timing-the-day-what-makes-bacterial-clocks-tick
#17
REVIEW
Carl Hirschie Johnson, Chi Zhao, Yao Xu, Tetsuya Mori
Chronobiological studies of prokaryotic organisms have generally lagged far behind the study of endogenous circadian clocks in eukaryotes, in which such systems are essentially ubiquitous. However, despite only being studied during the past 25 years, cyanobacteria have become important model organisms for the study of circadian rhythms and, presently, their timekeeping mechanism is the best understood of any system in terms of biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics and adaptive importance. Nevertheless, intrinsic daily rhythmicity among bacteria other than cyanobacteria is essentially unknown; some tantalizing information suggests widespread daily timekeeping among Eubacteria and Archaea through mechanisms that share common elements with the cyanobacterial clock but are distinct...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216646/long-term-satellite-tracking-reveals-variable-seasonal-migration-strategies-of-basking-sharks-in-the-north-east-atlantic
#18
P D Doherty, J M Baxter, F R Gell, B J Godley, R T Graham, G Hall, J Hall, L A Hawkes, S M Henderson, L Johnson, C Speedie, M J Witt
Animal migration is ubiquitous in nature with individuals within a population often exhibiting varying movement strategies. The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world's second largest fish species, however, a comprehensive understanding of their long-term wider-ranging movements in the north-east Atlantic is currently lacking. Seventy satellite tags were deployed on basking sharks over four years (2012-2015) off the west coast of Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data from 28 satellite tags with attachment durations of over 165 days reveal post-summer ranging behaviours...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216641/targeted-rp9-ablation-and-mutagenesis-in-mouse-photoreceptor-cells-by-crispr-cas9
#19
Ji-Neng Lv, Gao-Hui Zhou, Xuejiao Chen, Hui Chen, Kun-Chao Wu, Lue Xiang, Xin-Lan Lei, Xiao Zhang, Rong-Han Wu, Zi-Bing Jin
Precursor messenger RNA (Pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential biological process in eukaryotic cells. Genetic mutations in many spliceosome genes confer human eye diseases. Mutations in the pre-mRNA splicing factor, RP9 (also known as PAP1), predispose autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) with an early onset and severe vision loss. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of the RP9 mutation causing photoreceptor degeneration remains fully unknown. Here, we utilize the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate both the Rp9 gene knockout (KO) and point mutation knock in (KI) (Rp9, c...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216466/assessment-of-surface-caking-of-powders-using-the-ball-indentation-method
#20
Qinqin Chen, Umair Zafar, Mojtaba Ghadiri, Jinfeng Bi
Powder caking is a ubiquitous problem, which could significantly decrease product quality and lead to economic losses. Hence it is important to know the conditions under which it occurs. The caking behaviour of three powder materials (PVP, HPC and CaHPO4) has been investigated by the ball indentation method (BIM) as affected by relative humidity (RH), temperature and time. The resistance to powder flow, as indicated by the hardness is measured by a ball indenting the powder bed surface. The surface hardness increases with increasing RH and temperature, indicating caking of the powder bed...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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