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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905067/mathematical-model-of-bone-remodeling-captures-the-antiresorptive-and-anabolic-actions-of-various-therapies
#1
David S Ross, Khamir Mehta, Antonio Cabal
A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating the bone remodeling process should help in the development of new antiresorptive regulators and anabolic regulators, that is, regulators of bone resorption and of bone formation. Understanding the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences bone formation and how it switches from anabolic to catabolic action is important for treating osteoporosis (Poole and Reeve in Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:612-617, 2005). In this paper we describe a mathematical model of bone remodeling that incorporates, extends, and integrates several models of particular aspects of this biochemical system (Cabal et al...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903451/fatty-acid-synthase-plays-a-positive-role-in-shrimp-immune-responses-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#2
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
November 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901247/anabolic-steroids-for-rehabilitation-after-hip-fracture-in-older-people
#3
Vaqas Farooqi, Maayken E L van den Berg, Ian D Cameron, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899269/pixe-study-on-the-effects-of-parathyroid-hormone-on-elemental-content-in-rat-bones
#4
M H Eisa, H Shen, W Jin, Abdulaziz S Alaamer, M A Al-Rajhi, Hajo Idriss
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. PTH plays a central role in regulating calcium phosphate metabolism and its increases in production in response to low serum calcium levels. A continuous hypersecretion of PTH, as occurs in primary hyperparathyroidism, leads to bone resorption. In this study, the effect of different doses of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone mineral content (BMC) in rats was investigated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study will help in investigating further the toxicity of extremely high doses of PTH on BMC...
November 26, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897385/reconstruction-of-biological-pathways-and-metabolic-networks-from-in-silico-labeled-metabolites
#5
Noushin Hadadi, Jasmin Hafner, Keng Cher Soh, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
Reaction atom mappings track the positional changes of all of the atoms between the substrates and the products as they undergo the biochemical transformation. However, information on atom transitions in the context of metabolic pathways is not widely available in the literature. The understanding of metabolic pathways at the atomic level is of great importance as it can deconvolute the overlapping catabolic/anabolic pathways resulting in the observed metabolic phenotype. The automated identification of atom transitions within a metabolic network is a very challenging task since the degree of complexity of metabolic networks dramatically increases when we transit from metabolite-level studies to atom-level studies...
November 29, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896593/biochemical-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-the-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-submitted-to-different-protocols-of-anabolic-steroids
#6
Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Andressa Bueno, Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva, Raqueli Teresinha França, Cássia Bagolin da Silva, Márcia Silveira Netto Machado, Letícia do Santos Petry, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Cibele Lima Lhamas, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3)...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895862/cutaneous-angiosarcoma-metastatic-to-small-bowel-with-nodal-involvement
#7
Vidya A Fleetwood, Jamie C Harris, Minh B Luu
A 77-year-old male with a history of metastatic scalp angiosarcoma presented with intractable gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal mass detected on capsule endoscopy. He underwent laparoscopic-assisted resection of the mass. Intraoperatively, an isolated small bowel mass with bulky lymphadenopathy was seen and resected en bloc. Pathology showed a 6.8cm high-grade metastatic angiosarcoma with nodal involvement and negative margins. Angiosarcoma is a sarcoma with a grim prognosis. The incidence is 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas; cutaneous lesions comprise 27% of manifestations and usually appear on head and neck...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891294/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-cachexia-in-chronic-illness-in-europe-usa-and-japan-facts-and-numbers-update-2016
#8
EDITORIAL
Stephan von Haehling, Markus S Anker, Stefan D Anker
Cachexia is a serious clinical consequence of almost all chronic diseases when reaching advanced stages. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15% in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80% in advanced malignant cancer. Cachexia is also frequently occurring in patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or neurological diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 15-25% per year in severe COPD through 20-40% per year in patients with chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease to 20-80% in cancer cachexia...
December 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891233/effectiveness-and-implementation-of-a-community-based-prevention-programme-targeting-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-in-gyms-study-protocol-of-a-quasi-experimental-control-group-study
#9
Yasmina Molero, Johanna Gripenberg, Ann-Sofie Bakshi
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890818/the-anabolic-steroid-nandrolone-alters-cannabinoid-self-administration-and-brain-cb1-receptor-density-and-function
#10
Dicky Struik, Paola Fadda, Tamara Zara, Erica Zamberletti, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro, Walter Fratta, Liana Fattore
Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888287/wnt-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-osteoblasts
#11
REVIEW
Courtney M Karner, Fanxin Long
The adult human skeleton is a multifunctional organ undergoing continuous remodeling. Homeostasis of bone mass in a healthy adult requires an exquisite balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts; disturbance of such balance is the root cause for various bone disorders including osteoporosis. To develop effective and safe therapeutics to modulate bone formation, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteoblast differentiation and activity. Due to their specialized function in collagen synthesis and secretion, osteoblasts are expected to consume large amounts of nutrients...
November 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879318/inactivation-of-raptor-mtorc1-signaling-in-osteoclasts-increases-bone-mass-by-inhibiting-osteoclast-differentiation-in-mice
#12
Qinggang Dai, Furong Xie, Yujiiao Han, Xuhui Ma, Siru Zhou, Lingyong Jiang, Weiguo Zou, Jun Wang
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is involved in anabolic metabolism in both osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but the role of mTORC1 in osteoclast biology in vivo remains to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that deletion of regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (Raptor) in osteoclasts led to an increase in bone mass with decreased bone resorption. Raptor-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exhibited lower mTORC1-S6K1 signaling and retarded osteoclast differentiation as determined by the number of osteoclasts, TRAP activity and expression of osteoclast-specific genes...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875962/the-beneficial-effects-of-taurine-to-counteract-sarcopenia
#13
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875951/effect-of-supraphysiological-doses-of-nandrolone-decanoate-upon-aldosterone-concentration-and-serum-na-k-levels-in-albino-mice
#14
Parmita Chowdhury, Rita Mahanta
BACKGROUND: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of nandrolone decanoate when consumed at an abused dose, upon serum aldosterone concentration in albino mice...
November 21, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875309/rna-sequencing-reveals-a-role-of-tonebp-in-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-genes-in-response-to-hyperosmolarity-in-healthy-nucleus-pulposus-cells-a-homeostatic-response
#15
Zariel I Johnson, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
Transcription factor Tonicity-Responsive Enhancer-Binding Protein (TonEBP/NFAT5) is critical for osmo-adaptation and extracellular matrix homeostasis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in their hypertonic tissue niche. Recent studies implicate TonEBP signaling in inflammatory disease and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. However, broader functions of TonEBP in the disc remain unknown. RNA-sequencing was performed on NP cells with TonEBP knockdown under hypertonic conditions. 1140 TonEBP-dependent genes were identified and categorized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869311/hypoxia-suppresses-serum-deprivation-induced-degradation-of-the-nucleus-pulposus-cell-extracellular-matrix-through-the-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#16
Jianru Wang, Hehai Pan, Xiang Li, Kuibo Zhang, Zemin Li, Hua Wang, Zhaomin Zheng, Hui Liu
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of the nucleus pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix (ECM). Serum deprivation (SD) has been reported to exacerbate IVD degeneration; however, the effect of SD on ECM metabolism is not fully understood. Hypoxia plays important roles in maintaining the physiological functions of IVD cells; however, whether hypoxia has any effect on NP ECM production under conditions of SD is still unclear. In the current study, we established an in vitro SD model by exposing NP cells to serum-free medium...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867890/bone-turnover-markers-emerging-tool-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Sahana Shetty, Nitin Kapoor, Joseph Dian Bondu, Nihal Thomas, Thomas Vizhalil Paul
Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs) provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866347/effect-of-low-intensity-resistance-training-with-heat-stress-on-the-hsp72-anabolic-hormones-muscle-size-and-strength-in-elderly-women
#18
Sung Jin Yoon, Moon Jin Lee, Hyo Min Lee, Jin Seok Lee
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have reported that heat stress stimulates the activation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), leading to an increase in muscle synthesis. Some studies suggested that low-intensity resistance training combined with heat stress could improve muscle size and strength. AIM: This study aimed to identify the effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress over 12 weeks on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women...
November 19, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866079/multimodal-plasmonic-biosensing-nanostructures-prepared-by-dna-directed-immobilization-of-multifunctional-dna-gold-nanoparticles
#19
Nuria Tort, J-Pablo Salvador, M-Pilar Marco
Biofunctional multimodal plasmonic nanostructures suitable for multiplexed localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensing have been created by DNA-directed immobilization (DDI) of two distinct multifunctional biohybrid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of distinct sizes, and therefore showing distinct plasmon resonant peaks (RP), have been biofunctionalized and codified with two different single stranded-DNA (ssDNA) chains. One of these oligonucleotide chains has been specifically designed to direct each AuNP to a distinct location of the surface of a DNA microarray chip through specific hybridization with complementary oligonucleotide strands...
November 11, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863025/decision-to-grow-or-to-invade-is-at-the-flick-of-metabolic-switch-pgc1%C3%AE
#20
Kristen S Hill, Minjung Kim
Cancer cells constantly reprogram their metabolism to meet anabolic and catabolic demands in real time. Increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) is associated with highly proliferative tumors, since it confers several advantages to proliferating tumor cells by providing rapid ATP production from glycolysis and macromolecules (building blocks) for cell division. On the other hand, mitochondria-dependent oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) generates the maximal amount of ATP from glucose. Although underappreciated, OxPhos is also utilized to support growth of cancer cells, especially for "oxidative tumors" such as lymphomas, glioblastomas, and melanomas...
November 10, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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