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Juan Tuan, Ying-Xuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Diets and lifestyles have been strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past several decades, emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota may have a role in the development of CRC. Its interaction with diets and lifestyles could affect the carcinogenesis of CRC. SUMMARY: This review presents the most recent epidemiologic and experimental evidence of three factors that may convincingly have a role in CRC, including fiber, red or processed meat, and alcohol, focusing on potential mechanisms and their interactions with the gut microbiota...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Jessie Qy Liang, Jonathan Chiu, Yingxuan Chen, Yanqin Huang, Akira Higashimori, Jing-Yuan Fang, Hassan Brim, Hassan Ashktorab, Siew Chien Ng, Simon Sm Ng, Shu Zheng, Francis Kl Chan, Joseph Jy Sung, Jun Yu
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the utility of fecal bacterial marker candidates identified by our metagenome sequencing analysis for CRC diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 439 subjects (203 CRC and 236 healthy subjects) from two independent Asian cohorts were included. Probe-based duplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were established for quantification of bacterial marker candidates. RESULTS: Candidates identified by metagenome sequencing, including Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Bacteroides clarus (Bc), Roseburia intestinalis (Ri), Clostridium hathewayi (Ch), and one undefined species (labeled as m7), were examined in fecal samples of 203 CRC patients and 236 healthy controls by duplex-qPCR...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vanessa L Hale, Jun Chen, Stephen Johnson, Sean C Harrington, Tracy C Yab, Thomas C Smyrk, Heidi Nelson, Lisa A Boardman, Brooke R Druliner, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex, Dennis J Ahnen, Peter Lance, David A Ahlquist, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n=233) and without (n=547). RESULTS: Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, pro-inflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Winnie K W So, Bernard M H Law, Patrick T W Law, Carmen W H Chan, Sek Ying Chair
Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models...
2016: Nutrients
Nupur Bhattacharya, Robert Yuan, Tyler R Prestwood, Hweixian Leong Penny, Michael A DiMaio, Nathan E Reticker-Flynn, Charles R Krois, Justin A Kenkel, Tho D Pham, Yaron Carmi, Lorna Tolentino, Okmi Choi, Reyna Hulett, Jinshan Wang, Daniel A Winer, Joseph L Napoli, Edgar G Engleman
Although all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a key regulator of intestinal immunity, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. We found that mice with colitis-associated CRC had a marked deficiency in colonic atRA due to alterations in atRA metabolism mediated by microbiota-induced intestinal inflammation. Human ulcerative colitis (UC), UC-associated CRC, and sporadic CRC specimens have similar alterations in atRA metabolic enzymes, consistent with reduced colonic atRA. Inhibition of atRA signaling promoted tumorigenesis, whereas atRA supplementation reduced tumor burden...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Chong-Zhi Wang, Chunhao Yu, Xiao-Dong Wen, Lina Chen, Chun-Feng Zhang, Tyler Calway, Yunping Qiu, Yunwei Wang, Zhiyu Zhang, Samantha Anderson, Yitao Wang, Wei Jia, Chun-Su Yuan
Inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for colorectal cancer initiation and development. In this study, the effects of American ginseng on chemically induced colitis and colon carcinogenesis were evaluated using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. During the acute phase on day 15, the oral administration of ginseng (15 and 30 mg/kg/day) significantly suppressed AOM/DSS-induced colitis, as demonstrated by the disease activity index and colon tissue histology. During the chronic phase in week 13, AOM/DSS-induced tumor multiplicity was significantly suppressed by ginseng...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Zhiliang Wei, Shougen Cao, Shanglong Liu, Zengwu Yao, Teng Sun, Yi Li, Jiante Li, Dongfeng Zhang, Yanbing Zhou
Evidences have shown that dysbiosis could promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association of dysbiosis and prognosis of CRC is barely investigated. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to determine differences in microbiota among tumor tissues of different prognosis and found that Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis were more abundant in worse prognosis groups, while Faecalibacterium prausnitzii displayed higher abundance in survival group. To further explore the prognostic value of the found bacteria, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional regression analyses were used and the results exhibited that high abundance of F...
June 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Atsuki Tsuruya, Akika Kuwahara, Yuta Saito, Haruhiko Yamaguchi, Takahisa Tsubo, Shogo Suga, Makoto Inai, Yuichi Aoki, Seiji Takahashi, Eri Tsutsumi, Yoshihide Suwa, Hidetoshi Morita, Kenji Kinoshita, Yukari Totsuka, Wataru Suda, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Takeshi Mizukami, Akira Yokoyama, Takefumi Shimoyama, Toru Nakayama
Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated. Here we analyse and compare the gut microbiota structures of non-alcoholics and alcoholics...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ben Boursi, Ronac Mamtani, Kevin Haynes, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND: A pro-inflammatory gut microbiota was described in both Parkinson's disease and colorectal cancer (CRC) and recently α-synuclein was demonstrated in the enteric nervous system. We sought to evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease and CRC. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using a large primary-care database. Cases were defined as all individuals with CRC. Up to 4 controls were matched with each case based on age, sex, practice-site and duration of follow-up...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
JaeJin An, Eun-Mi Ha
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. Although 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the representative chemotherapy drug for colorectal cancer, it has therapeutic limits due to its chemoresistant characteristics. Colorectal cancer cells can develop into cancer stem cells (CSCs) with self-renewal potential, thereby causing malignant tumors. The human gastrointestinal tract contains a complex gut microbiota that is essential for the host's homeostasis. Recently, many studies have reported correlations between gut flora and the onset, progression, and treatment of CRC...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Birgitte Moen, Kristi Henjum, Ingrid Måge, Svein Halvor Knutsen, Ida Rud, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Jan Erik Paulsen
Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet...
2016: PloS One
Yingying Lu, Jing Chen, Junyuan Zheng, Guoyong Hu, Jingjing Wang, Chunlan Huang, Lihong Lou, Xingpeng Wang, Yue Zeng
Recent reports have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). The composition of gut microbiota in CRC precursors has not been adequately described. To characterize the structure of adherent microbiota in this disease, we conducted pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the bacterial profile of normal colons (healthy controls) and colorectal adenomas (CRC precursors). Adenoma mucosal biopsy samples and adjacent normal colonic mucosa from 31 patients with adenomas and 20 healthy volunteers were profiled using the Illumina MiSeq platform...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amit Kumar, Pragna Lakshmi Thotakura, Basant Kumar Tiwary, Ramadas Krishna
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Brendan J Jenkins
Dysregulated interactions between the host immune system and gut microbiota can underpin inflammation, leading to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kesselring et al. reveal a bimodal role of the TLR/IL-1R-signaling negative regulator, IRAK-M, in promoting tumoral microbial colonization and STAT3 oncoprotein stabilization during CRC.
May 9, 2016: Cancer Cell
Diogo Branquinho, Paulo Freire, Carlos Sofia
Due to the overwhelming burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), great effort has been placed on identifying genetic mutations that contribute to disease development and progression. One of the most studied polymorphisms that could potentially increase susceptibility to CRC involves the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene. There is growing evidence that the biological activity of NOD2 is far greater than previously thought and a link with intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity is increasingly sought after...
April 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Scott J Bultman
Despite the success of colonoscopy screening, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common and deadly cancers, and CRC incidence is rising in some countries where screening is not routine and populations have recently switched from traditional diets to western diets. Diet and energy balance influence CRC by multiple mechanisms. They modulate the composition and function of gut microbiota, which have a prodigious metabolic capacity and can produce oncometabolites or tumor-suppressive metabolites depending, in part, on which dietary factors and digestive components are present in the GI tract...
May 3, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Eunjung Kim, Dan-Bi Kim, Jae-Yong Park
Dietary proteins influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, depending on their quantity and quality. Here, using pyrosequencing, we compared the fecal microbiota composition in Balb/c mice fed either a normal protein/carbohydrate diet (ND, 20% casein and 68% carbohydrate) or a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet (HPLCD, 30% casein and 57% carbohydrate). The results showed that HPLCD feeding for 2 weeks reduced the diversity and altered the composition of the microbiota compared with the ND mice, which included a decrease in the proportion of the family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and increases in the proportions of the genus Bacteroides and Parabacteroides, especially the species EF09600_s and EF604598_s...
March 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Nielson T Baxter, Mack T Ruffin, Mary A M Rogers, Patrick D Schloss
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death among cancers in the United States. Although individuals diagnosed early have a greater than 90% chance of survival, more than one-third of individuals do not adhere to screening recommendations partly because the standard diagnostics, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy, are expensive and invasive. Thus, there is a great need to improve the sensitivity of non-invasive tests to detect early stage cancers and adenomas. Numerous studies have identified shifts in the composition of the gut microbiota associated with the progression of CRC, suggesting that the gut microbiota may represent a reservoir of biomarkers that would complement existing non-invasive methods such as the widely used fecal immunochemical test (FIT)...
2016: Genome Medicine
Abdo Jurjus, Assad Eid, Sahar Al Kattar, Marie Noel Zeenny, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Hanine Haydar, Anis Hilal, Doreid Oueidat, Michel Matar, Jihane Tawilah, Inaya Hajj Hussein, Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Francesco Cappello, Giovanni Tomasello, Angelo Leone, Rosalyn A Jurjus
The co-occurrence of the three disease entities, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with inflammation and dismicrobism has been frequently reported. Some authors have even suggested that dysbiosis could be the link through a molecular crosstalk of multiple inflammatory loops including TGFβ, NFKB, TNFα and ROS among others. This review focuses on the inflammatory process along with the role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of the three diseases...
June 2016: BBA Clinical
Padma Ambalam, Maya Raman, Ravi Kiran Purama, Mukesh Doble
Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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