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CRC AND MICROBIOTA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438479/novel-tn916-like-elements-confer-aminoglycoside-macrolide-co-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-ssp-gallolyticus
#1
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437871/gut-microbiota-modulate-t-cell-trafficking-into-human-colorectal-cancer
#2
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430336/influence-of-bile-acids-on-colorectal-cancer-risk-potential-mechanisms-mediated-by-diet-gut-microbiota-interactions
#3
Sören Ocvirk, Stephen Jd O'Keefe
Purpose of review: To review the evidence for the tumorigenic effects of food-stimulated bile acids on the colon and interaction with the gut microbiota. Recent Findings: High-fat diets promote the hepatic synthesis of bile acids and increase their delivery to the colonic lumen. Here, they stimulate the growth and activity of 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, which convert primary into secondary bile acids that show tumorigenic activity, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA)...
December 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422804/an-analysis-of-dietary-fiber-and-fecal-fiber-components-including-ph-in-rural-africans-with-colorectal-cancer
#4
Mohammed Faruk, Sani Ibrahim, Ahmed Adamu, Abdulmumini Hassan Rafindadi, Yahaya Ukwenya, Yawale Iliyasu, Abdullahi Adamu, Surajo Mohammed Aminu, Mohammed Sani Shehu, Danladi Amodu Ameh, Abdullahi Mohammed, Saad Aliyu Ahmed, John Idoko, Atara Ntekim, Aishatu Maude Suleiman, Khalid Zahir Shah, Kasimu Umar Adoke
Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420293/patients-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-harbor-colonic-biofilms-containing-tumorigenic-bacteria
#5
Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, John M Craig, Annemarie Boleij, Rahwa Taddese, Abby L Geis, Xinqun Wu, Christina E DeStefano Shields, Elizabeth M Hechenbleikner, David L Huso, Robert A Anders, Francis M Giardiello, Elizabeth C Wick, Hao Wang, Shaoguang Wu, Drew M Pardoll, Franck Housseau, Cynthia L Sears
Individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently harbor abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiome; however, the microbiota associated with precancerous lesions in hereditary CRC remains largely unknown. We studied colonic mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), who develop benign precursor lesions (polyps) early in life. We identified patchy bacterial biofilms composed predominately of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Genes for colibactin (clbB) and Bacteroides fragilis toxin (bft), encoding secreted oncotoxins, were highly enriched in FAP patients' colonic mucosa compared to healthy individuals...
February 2, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420132/tumour-associated-and-non-tumour-associated-microbiota-addendum
#6
Burkhardt Flemer, Maeve Herlihy, Micheal O'Riordain, Fergus Shanahan, Paul W O'Toole
In a recent study1 we reported that tissue-associated microbial Co-abundance Groups (CAGs) were differentially associated with CRC. Two of the CAGs, which we named Pathogen CAG and Prevotella CAG, were correlated with a gene expression signature indicative of a TH17 response. A TH17 response has been associated with decreased survival in patients with CRC2, and members of the Pathogen CAG such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis have been repeatedly reported to be associated with CRC-development...
February 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385712/colorectal-cancer-and-alcohol-consumption-populations-to-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Marco Rossi, Muhammad Jahanzaib Anwar, Ahmad Usman, Ali Keshavarzian, Faraz Bishehsari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, being the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the world. Several environmental and habitual factors have been associated with the CRC risk. Alcohol intake, a common and rising habit of modern society, is one of the major risk factors for development of CRC. Here, we will summarize the evidence linking alcohol with colon carcinogenesis and possible underlying mechanisms. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that even moderate drinking increases the CRC risk...
January 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331105/dietary-factors-modulate-colonic-tumorigenesis-through-the-interaction-of-gut-microbiota-and-host-chloride-channels
#8
Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Meng-Ting Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Kai Liu, Bin Wang, Qian-Yong Zhang, Jun-Dong Zhu, Man-Tian Mi
SCOPE: In recent decades, the association between diet, gut microbiota and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study was to identify the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model was established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290650/structural-shift-of-gut-microbiota-during-chemo-preventive-effects-of-epigallocatechin-gallate-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#9
Xin Wang, Tao Ye, Wen-Jie Chen, You Lv, Zong Hao, Jun Chen, Jia-Ying Zhao, Hui-Peng Wang, Yuan-Kun Cai
AIM: To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on structural changes of gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: An azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was established. Forty-two female FVB/N mice were randomly divided into the following three groups: group 1 (10 mice, negative control) was treated with vehicle, group 2 (16 mice, positive control) was treated with AOM plus vehicle, and group 3 (16 mice, EG) was treated with AOM plus EGCG...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289998/molecular-signature-of-nitric-oxide-on-major-cancer-hallmarks-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the one of the most important diseases throughout the world. Several aetiological risk factors, viz. sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol intake, less physical activity, red meat, and microbiota, are associated with the development of CRC. Molecular pathophysiology of CRC implies inflammation, metastasis, apotosis and angiogenesis. Inflammation involves interaction between various immune cells, inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, which may lead to signalling towards, tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion whereas nitric oxide (NO) has been associated with metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis...
December 30, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277623/molecular-mechanistic-pathway-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis-associated-with-intestinal-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
The colon rectal portion of gastrointestinal tract (GI) is full of microorganisms with different complex community that plays important role in maintaining homeostasis. But now-a-days different literature indicated that microbiota cause development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with a disease and ultimately aggravates to death. The mechanism inside the colo-rectal portion of GI tract is not fully well-known and bacterial contribution inside it is also fully unclear. Therefore, there is certain evidence trying a target about the unclear mechanism between intestinal microbiota and CRC...
December 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235578/are-we-any-closer-to-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-using-microbial-markers-a-critical-review
#12
Lubomir Stary, Kristyna Mezerova, Pavel Skalicky, Pavel Zboril, Vladislav Raclavsky
The role of gut microbiota in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is supported by a number of studies, however, the conclusiveness of published metagenomic studies is questioned by technical pitfalls and limited by small cohort sizes. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge critically and outline practical solutions. We also list candidate CRC risk markers that are - in our opinion - well supported by available data and thus deserve clinical validation. Last but not least, we summarise available knowledge useful for improving care for patients immediately...
December 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221448/next-generation-sequencing-recent-applications-to-the-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Filippo Del Vecchio, Valentina Mastroiaco, Antinisca Di Marco, Chiara Compagnoni, Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Carlo Capalbo, Edoardo Alesse, Alessandra Tessitore
Since the establishment of the Sanger sequencing method, scientists around the world focused their efforts to progress in the field to produce the utmost technology. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a revolutionary step and promises to lead to massive improvements in our understanding on the role of nucleic acids functions. Cancer research began to use this innovative and highly performing method, and interesting results started to appear in colorectal cancer (CRC) analysis. Several studies produced high-quality data in terms of mutation discovery, especially about actionable or less frequently mutated genes, epigenetics, transcriptomics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214046/high-resolution-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-profile-meta-analysis-and-biofilm-status-reveal-common-colorectal-cancer-consortia
#14
Julia L Drewes, James R White, Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, Thevambiga Iyadorai, Jamuna Vadivelu, April C Roslani, Elizabeth C Wick, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Mun Fai Loke, Kumar Thulasi, Han Ming Gan, Khean Lee Goh, Hoong Yin Chong, Sandip Kumar, Jane W Wanyiri, Cynthia L Sears
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences in analysis methodologies...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213996/gut-microbiota-epigenetic-modification-and-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Sama Rezasoltani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Hossein Dabiri, Reza Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Zali
Micro-organisms contain 90% of cells in human body and trillions foreign genes versus less than 30 thousand of their own. The human colon host various species of microorganisms, appraised at more than 1014 microbiota and contained of over a thousand species. Although each one's profile is separable, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is the same between healthy ones, causing conservation of each person's overall health. Germline DNA mutations have been attributed to the less than 5% of CRC occurrence while more than 90% is associated with the epigenetic regulation...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209314/probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-casei-bl23-prevents-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#16
Elsa Jacouton, Florian Chain, Harry Sokol, Philippe Langella, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
The gut microbiota plays a major role in intestinal health, and an imbalance in its composition can lead to chronic gut inflammation and a predisposition to developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Currently, the use of probiotic bacteria represents an emerging alternative to treat and prevent cancer. Moreover, consumption of these beneficial bacteria may also favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, which has been described in several studies to play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197069/polymethoxyflavones-prevent-benzo-a-pyrene-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colorectal-carcinogenesis-through-modulating-xenobiotic-metabolism-and-ameliorate-autophagic-defect-in-icr-mice
#17
Jia-Ching Wu, Mei-Ling Tsai, Ching-Shu Lai, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Tang Ho, Ying-Jan Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental carcinogenic pollutants and they have become an important issue in food contamination. Dietary intake of PAHs has been recognized as a major route of human exposure. However, the mechanisms behind dietary PAH-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Several studies have shown that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are effective in preventing carcinogen-induced CRC or colitis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of PMFs on benzo[a]pyrene/dextran sulfate sodium (BaP/DSS)-induced colorectal tumorigenesis in ICR mice...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186641/gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-insights-into-pathogenesis-for-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#18
Yongbo Kang, Wei Pan, Yue Cai
Colorectal cancer (CRC), as a leading cause of cancer-related death, is triggered by the complex interplay of host genetics and environmental factors. Mounting evidence has shed light on the association of the gut microbiota dysbiosis with CRC. In CRC experimental models, certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses, indicating that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of CRC. Oral intake of probiotics/prebiotics can therefore serve as a therapeutic approach for CRC treatment...
September 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163445/in-silico-analysis-of-putrefaction-pathways-in-bacteria-and-its-implication-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Harrisham Kaur, Chandrani Das, Sharmila S Mande
Fermentation of undigested proteins in human gastrointestinal tract (gut) by the resident microbiota, a process called bacterial putrefaction, can sometimes disrupt the gut homeostasis. In this process, essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) that are required by the host may be utilized by the gut microbes. In addition, some of the products of putrefaction, like ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, phenol, etc., have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have investigated bacterial putrefaction pathways that are known to be associated with such metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151921/linking-gut-microbiota-to-colorectal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Hans Raskov, Jakob Burcharth, Hans-Christian Pommergaard
Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota and probiotics on chemotherapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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