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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400302/decreased-comfort-food-intake-and-allostatic-load-in-adolescents-carrying-the-a3669g-variant-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene
#1
Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Roberta Dalle Molle, Tania Diniz Machado, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Andressa Bortoluzzi, Rudineia Toazza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Marilyn Agranonik, Luciano Minuzzi, Robert D Levitan, Augusto Buchweitz, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
BACKGROUND: The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes...
April 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369197/risk-of-acute-coronary-heart-disease-after-sepsis-hospitalization-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-cohort
#2
Henry E Wang, Justin X Moore, John P Donnelly, Emily B Levitan, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is associated with long-term health consequences. We sought to determine the long-term risks of acute and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) events after sepsis hospitalizations among community dwelling adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from 30,329 participants in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Sepsis events included hospitalizations for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259549/insurance-self-reported-medication-adherence-and-ldl-cholesterol-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#3
Matt Mefford, Monika M Safford, Paul Muntner, Raegan W Durant, Todd M Brown, Emily B Levitan
BACKGROUND: Lack of health insurance may adversely impact medication adherence and the control of cardiovascular risk factors. We examined if the association between insurance and LDL-C is due to self-reported low medication adherence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 8685 black and white men and women aged 45 and older who participated in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort and used statins. Medication adherence was assessed using the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4)...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247251/giving-patients-preferences-a-voice-in-medical-treatment-life-cycle-the-prefer-public-private-project
#4
EDITORIAL
Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Conny Berlin, Bennett Levitan, Karim Raza, Kalliopi Christoforidi, Irina Cleemput, Jana Pelouchova, Harald Enzmann, Nigel Cook, Mats G Hansson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168630/airway-management-outside-the-operating-room-how-to-better-prepare
#5
Peter G Brindley, Martin Beed, J Adam Law, Orlando Hung, Richard Levitan, Michael F Murphy, Laura V Duggan
Airway management outside the operating room is associated with increased risks compared with airway management inside the operating room. Moreover, airway management-whether in the intensive care unit, emergency department, interventional radiology suite, or general wards-often requires mastery of not only the anatomically difficult airway but also the physiologically and situationally difficult airway. The 2015 Difficult Airway Society Guidelines encourage the airway team to "stop and think". This article provides a practical review of how that evidence applies during emergency airway management outside of the operating room...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143858/phenotyping-of-adipose-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-and-response-to-pioglitazone-in-spontaneously-obese-rhesus-monkeys
#6
Jin Shang, Stephen F Previs, Stacey Conarello, Keefe Chng, Yonghua Zhu, Sandra C Souza, Michael Staup, Ying Chen, Dan Xie, Emanuel Zycband, Karni Schlessinger, Victoria Plamadeala Johnson, Gladys Arreaza, Franklin Liu, Diane Levitan, Liangsu Wang, Margaret van Heek, Mark Erion, Yixin Wang, David E Kelley
Insulin resistance and diabetes can develop spontaneously with obesity and aging in rhesus monkeys, highly similar to the natural history of obesity, insulin resistance, and progression to type 2 diabetes in humans. The current studies in obese rhesus were undertaken to assess hepatic and adipose contributions to systemic insulin resistance-currently, a gap in our knowledge-and to benchmark the responses to pioglitazone (PIO). A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, with tracer-based glucose flux estimates, was used to measure insulin resistance, and in an intervention study was repeated following 6 wk of PIO treatment (3 mg/kg)...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129919/loss-of-huntingtin-stimulates-capture-of-retrograde-dense-core-vesicles-to-increase-synaptic-neuropeptide-stores
#7
Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122218/molecular-scale-biophysical-modulation-of-an-endothelial-membrane-by-oxidized-phospholipids
#8
Manuela A A Ayee, Elizabeth LeMaster, Tzu Pin Shentu, Dev K Singh, Nicolas Barbera, Dheeraj Soni, Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Papasani V Subbaiah, Evgeny Berdyshev, Irina Bronova, Michael Cho, Belinda S Akpa, Irena Levitan
The influence of two bioactive oxidized phospholipids on model bilayer properties, membrane packing, and endothelial cell biomechanics was investigated computationally and experimentally. The truncated tail phospholipids, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC), are two major oxidation products of the unsaturated phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine. A combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, Laurdan multiphoton imaging, and atomic force microscopy microindentation experiments was used to determine the impact of POVPC and PGPC on the structure of a multicomponent phospholipid bilayer and to assess the consequences of their incorporation on membrane packing and endothelial cell stiffness...
January 24, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118079/sugar-and-spice-and-potassium-channel-modulation
#9
Irwin B Levitan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078675/overexpression-of-a-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-gene-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-directs-carbon-towards-lipid-biosynthesis
#10
Jorge Dinamarca, Orly Levitan, G Kenchappa Kumaraswamy, Desmond S Lun, Paul G Falkowski
Under nutrient deplete conditions, diatoms accumulate between 15% to 25% of their dry weight as lipids, primarily as triacylglycerols (TAGs). As in most eukaryotes, these organisms produce TAGs via the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway. The last step in this pathway is catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that acylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce TAG. To test our hypothesis that DGAT plays a major role in controlling the flux of carbon towards lipids, we overexpressed a specific type II DGAT gene, DGAT2D, in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073852/heat-maps-of-hypertension-diabetes-mellitus-and-smoking-in-the-continental-united-states
#11
Matthew Shane Loop, George Howard, Gustavo de Los Campos, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, Leslie A McClure
BACKGROUND: Geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality are substantial, but descriptions of geographic variations in major cardiovascular risk factors have relied on data aggregated to counties. Herein, we provide the first description of geographic variation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking within and across US counties. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline risk factor measurements and latitude/longitude of participant residence collected from 2003 to 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke)...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045797/quality-of-care-for-work-associated-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#12
Teryl Nuckols, Craig Conlon, Michael Robbins, Michael Dworsky, Julie Lai, Carol P Roth, Barbara Levitan, Seth Seabury, Rachana Seelam, Steven M Asch
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of care provided to individuals with workers' compensation claims related to Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and identify patient characteristics associated with receiving better care. METHODS: We recruited subjects with new claims for CTS from 30 occupational clinics affiliated with Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We applied 45 process-oriented quality measures to 477 subjects' medical records, and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with quality...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024828/gene-and-environment-interaction-is-the-differential-susceptibility-hypothesis-relevant-for-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Roberta Dalle Molle, Hajar Fatemi, Alain Dagher, Robert D Levitan, Patricia P Silveira, Laurette Dubé
The differential susceptibility model states that a given genetic variant is associated with an increased risk of pathology in negative environments but greater than average resilience in enriched ones. While this theory was first implemented in psychiatric-genetic research, it may also help us to unravel the complex ways that genes and environments interact to influence feeding behavior and obesity. We reviewed evidence on gene vs. environment interactions that influence obesity development, aiming to support the applicability of the differential susceptibility model for this condition, and propose that various environmental "layers" relevant for human development should be considered when bearing the differential susceptibility model in mind...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024150/orthogonal-lipid-sensors-identify-transbilayer-asymmetry-of-plasma-membrane-cholesterol
#14
Shu-Lin Liu, Ren Sheng, Jae Hun Jung, Li Wang, Ewa Stec, Matthew J O'Connor, Seohyoen Song, Rama Kamesh Bikkavilli, Robert A Winn, Daesung Lee, Kwanghee Baek, Kazumitsu Ueda, Irena Levitan, Kwang-Pyo Kim, Wonhwa Cho
Controlled distribution of lipids across various cell membranes is crucial for cell homeostasis and regulation. We developed an imaging method that allows simultaneous in situ quantification of cholesterol in two leaflets of the plasma membrane (PM) using tunable orthogonal cholesterol sensors. Our imaging revealed marked transbilayer asymmetry of PM cholesterol (TAPMC) in various mammalian cells, with the concentration in the inner leaflet (IPM) being ∼12-fold lower than that in the outer leaflet (OPM). The asymmetry was maintained by active transport of cholesterol from IPM to OPM and its chemical retention at OPM...
March 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010729/cholesterol-levels-and-long-term-rates-of-community-acquired-sepsis
#15
Faheem W Guirgis, John P Donnelly, Sunita Dodani, George Howard, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, Henry E Wang
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) recognized as risk factors for acute coronary events. Studies suggest an association between low cholesterol levels and poor outcomes in acute sepsis. We sought to determine the relationship between baseline cholesterol levels and long-term rates of sepsis. METHODS: We used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, a population-based cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling adults...
December 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979037/chocolate-intake-and-incidence-of-heart-failure-findings-from-the-cohort-of-swedish-men
#16
Daniel A Steinhaus, Elizabeth Mostofsky, Emily B Levitan, Kirsten S Dorans, Niclas Håkansson, Alicja Wolk, Murray A Mittleman
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries...
January 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970447/heterogeneous-preferences-for-delaying-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-older-adults-in-the-us
#17
S D Reed, J Yang, R Disantostefano, J Streffer, B Levitan, F R Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941580/an-attachment-based-model-of-the-relationship-between-childhood-adversity-and-somatization-in-children-and-adults
#18
Robert G Maunder Md, Jonathan J Hunter, Leslie Atkinson, Meir Steiner, Ashley Wazana, Alison Fleming, Ellen Moss, Helene Gaudreau, Michael Meaney, Robert D Levitan
OBJECTIVE: An attachment model was used to understand how maternal sensitivity and adverse childhood experiences are related to somatization. METHODS: We examined maternal sensitivity at 6 and 18 months and somatization at 5 years in 292 children in a longitudinal cohort study. We next examined attachment insecurity and somatization (health anxiety, physical symptoms) in four adult cohorts: healthy primary care patients (AC1, n=67), ulcerative colitis in remission (AC2, n = 100), hospital workers (AC3, n=157), and paramedics (AC4, n=188)...
December 9, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919318/new-learning-while-consolidating-memory-during-sleep-is-actively-blocked-by-a-protein-synthesis-dependent-process
#19
Roi Levy, David Levitan, Abraham J Susswein
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910491/measurement-of-high-dynamic-range-x-ray-thomson-scattering-spectra-for-the-characterization-of-nano-plasmas-at-lcls
#20
M J MacDonald, T Gorkhover, B Bachmann, M Bucher, S Carron, R N Coffee, R P Drake, K R Ferguson, L B Fletcher, E J Gamboa, S H Glenzer, S Göde, S P Hau-Riege, D Kraus, J Krzywinski, A L Levitan, K-H Meiwes-Broer, C P O'Grady, T Osipov, T Pardini, C Peltz, S Skruszewicz, M Swiggers, C Bostedt, T Fennel, T Döppner
Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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