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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078675/overexpression-of-a-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-gene-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-directs-carbon-towards-lipid-biosynthesis
#1
Jorge Dinamarca, Orly Levitan, G K Kumaraswamy, Desmond S Lun, Paul Falkowski
Under nutrient deplete conditions, diatoms accumulate between 15 to 25% of their dry weight as lipids, primarily as triacylglycerols (TAGs). As in most eukaryotes, these organisms produce TAGs via the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway. The last step in this pathway is catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that acylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce TAG. To test our hypothesis that DGAT plays a major role in controlling the flux of carbon towards lipids, we overexpressed a specific type II DGAT gene, DGAT2D, in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073852/heat-maps-of-hypertension-diabetes-mellitus-and-smoking-in-the-continental-united-states
#2
Matthew Shane Loop, George Howard, Gustavo de Los Campos, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, Leslie A McClure
BACKGROUND: Geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality are substantial, but descriptions of geographic variations in major cardiovascular risk factors have relied on data aggregated to counties. Herein, we provide the first description of geographic variation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking within and across US counties. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline risk factor measurements and latitude/longitude of participant residence collected from 2003 to 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke)...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045797/quality-of-care-for-work-associated-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#3
Teryl Nuckols, Craig Conlon, Michael Robbins, Michael Dworsky, Julie Lai, Carol P Roth, Barbara Levitan, Seth Seabury, Rachana Seelam, Steven M Asch
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of care provided to individuals with workers' compensation claims related to Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and identify patient characteristics associated with receiving better care. METHODS: We recruited subjects with new claims for CTS from 30 occupational clinics affiliated with Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We applied 45 process-oriented quality measures to 477 subjects' medical records, and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with quality...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024828/gene-and-environment-interaction-is-the-differential-susceptibility-hypothesis-relevant-for-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Roberta Dalle Molle, Hajar Fatemi, Alain Dagher, Robert D Levitan, Patricia P Silveira, Laurette Dubé
The differential susceptibility model states that a given genetic variant is associated with an increased risk of pathology in negative environments but greater than average resilience in enriched ones. While this theory was first implemented in psychiatric-genetic research, it may also help us to unravel the complex ways that genes and environments interact to influence feeding behavior and obesity. We reviewed evidence on gene vs. environment interactions that influence obesity development, aiming to support the applicability of the differential susceptibility model for this condition, and propose that various environmental "layers" relevant for human development should be considered when bearing the differential susceptibility model in mind...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024150/orthogonal-lipid-sensors-identify-transbilayer-asymmetry-of-plasma-membrane-cholesterol
#5
Shu-Lin Liu, Ren Sheng, Jae Hun Jung, Li Wang, Ewa Stec, Matthew J O'Connor, Seohyoen Song, Rama Kamesh Bikkavilli, Robert A Winn, Daesung Lee, Kwanghee Baek, Kazumitsu Ueda, Irena Levitan, Kwang-Pyo Kim, Wonhwa Cho
Controlled distribution of lipids across various cell membranes is crucial for cell homeostasis and regulation. We developed an imaging method that allows simultaneous in situ quantification of cholesterol in two leaflets of the plasma membrane (PM) using tunable orthogonal cholesterol sensors. Our imaging revealed marked transbilayer asymmetry of PM cholesterol (TAPMC) in various mammalian cells, with the concentration in the inner leaflet (IPM) being ∼12-fold lower than that in the outer leaflet (OPM). The asymmetry was maintained by active transport of cholesterol from IPM to OPM and its chemical retention at OPM...
December 26, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010729/cholesterol-levels-and-long-term-rates-of-community-acquired-sepsis
#6
Faheem W Guirgis, John P Donnelly, Sunita Dodani, George Howard, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, Henry E Wang
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) recognized as risk factors for acute coronary events. Studies suggest an association between low cholesterol levels and poor outcomes in acute sepsis. We sought to determine the relationship between baseline cholesterol levels and long-term rates of sepsis. METHODS: We used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, a population-based cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling adults...
December 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979037/chocolate-intake-and-incidence-of-heart-failure-findings-from-the-cohort-of-swedish-men
#7
Daniel A Steinhaus, Elizabeth Mostofsky, Emily B Levitan, Kirsten S Dorans, Niclas Håkansson, Alicja Wolk, Murray A Mittleman
: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries...
January 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970447/heterogeneous-preferences-for-delaying-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-older-adults-in-the-us
#8
S D Reed, J Yang, R Disantostefano, J Streffer, B Levitan, F R Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941580/an-attachment-based-model-of-the-relationship-between-childhood-adversity-and-somatization-in-children-and-adults
#9
Robert G Maunder Md, Jonathan J Hunter, Leslie Atkinson, Meir Steiner, Ashley Wazana, Alison Fleming, Ellen Moss, Helene Gaudreau, Michael Meaney, Robert D Levitan
OBJECTIVE: An attachment model was used to understand how maternal sensitivity and adverse childhood experiences are related to somatization. METHODS: We examined maternal sensitivity at 6 and 18 months and somatization at 5 years in 292 children in a longitudinal cohort study. We next examined attachment insecurity and somatization (health anxiety, physical symptoms) in four adult cohorts: healthy primary care patients (AC1, n=67), ulcerative colitis in remission (AC2, n = 100), hospital workers (AC3, n=157), and paramedics (AC4, n=188)...
December 9, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919318/new-learning-while-consolidating-memory-during-sleep-is-actively-blocked-by-a-protein-synthesis-dependent-process
#10
Roi Levy, David Levitan, Abraham J Susswein
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910491/measurement-of-high-dynamic-range-x-ray-thomson-scattering-spectra-for-the-characterization-of-nano-plasmas-at-lcls
#11
M J MacDonald, T Gorkhover, B Bachmann, M Bucher, S Carron, R N Coffee, R P Drake, K R Ferguson, L B Fletcher, E J Gamboa, S H Glenzer, S Göde, S P Hau-Riege, D Kraus, J Krzywinski, A L Levitan, K-H Meiwes-Broer, C P O'Grady, T Osipov, T Pardini, C Peltz, S Skruszewicz, M Swiggers, C Bostedt, T Fennel, T Döppner
Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#12
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859264/inwardly-rectifying-k-channels-are-major-contributors-to-flow-induced-vasodilatation-in-resistance-arteries
#13
Sang Joon Ahn, Ibra S Fancher, Jing-Tan Bian, Chong Xu Zhang, Sarah Schwab, Robert Gaffin, Shane A Phillips, Irena Levitan
KEY POINTS: Endothelial inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir2.1) channels regulate flow-induced vasodilatation via nitric oxide (NO) in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries. Deficiency of Kir2.1 channels results in elevated blood pressure and increased vascular resistance. Flow-induced vasodilatation in human resistance arteries is also regulated by inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. This study presents the first direct evidence that Kir channels play a critical role in physiological endothelial responses to flow...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852784/activity-induces-fmr1-sensitive-synaptic-capture-of-anterograde-circulating-neuropeptide-vesicles
#14
Samantha L Cavolo, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
: Synaptic neuropeptide and neurotrophin stores are maintained by constitutive bidirectional capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) as they circulate in and out of the nerve terminal. Activity increases DCV capture to rapidly replenish synaptic neuropeptide stores following release. However, it is not known whether this is due to enhanced bidirectional capture. Here experiments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where DCVs contain neuropeptides and a bone morphogenic protein, show that activity-dependent replenishment of synaptic neuropeptides following release is evident after inhibiting the retrograde transport with the dynactin disruptor mycalolide B or photobleaching DCVs entering a synaptic bouton by retrograde transport...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823692/diabetes-diabetes-severity-and-coronary-heart-disease-risk-equivalence-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards
#15
Favel L Mondesir, Todd M Brown, Paul Muntner, Raegan W Durant, April P Carson, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mixed regarding whether diabetes confers equivalent risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) as prevalent CHD. We investigated whether diabetes and severe diabetes are CHD risk equivalents. METHODS: At baseline, participants in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study (black and white US adults ≥45 years old recruited in 2003-2007) were categorized as having prevalent CHD only (self-reported or electrocardiogram evidence; n = 3,043), diabetes only (self-reported or elevated glucose; n = 4,012), diabetes and prevalent CHD (n = 1,529), and neither diabetes nor prevalent CHD (n = 17,155)...
November 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799749/physician-and-patient-benefit-risk-preferences-from-two-randomized-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-trials
#16
Eva G Katz, Brett Hauber, Srihari Gopal, Angie Fairchild, Amy Pugh, Rachel B Weinstein, Bennett S Levitan
PURPOSE: To quantify clinical trial participants' and investigators' judgments with respect to the relative importance of efficacy and safety attributes of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia, and to assess the impact of formulation and adherence. METHODS: Discrete-choice experiment surveys were completed by patients with schizophrenia and physician investigators participating in two phase-3 clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate 3-month long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798760/rad-deletion-phenocopies-tonic-sympathetic-stimulation-of-the-heart
#17
Bryana M Levitan, Janet R Manning, Catherine N Withers, Jeffrey D Smith, Robin M Shaw, Douglas A Andres, Vincent L Sorrell, Jonathan Satin
Sympathetic stimulation modulates L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating to contribute to increased systolic heart function. Rad is a monomeric G-protein that interacts with LTCC. Genetic deletion of Rad (Rad(-/-)) renders LTCC in a sympathomimetic state. The study goal was to use a clinically inspired pharmacological stress echocardiography test, including analysis of global strain, to determine whether Rad(-/-) confers tonic positive inotropic heart function. Sarcomere dynamics and strain showed partial parallel isoproterenol (ISO) responsiveness for wild-type (WT) and for Rad(-/-)...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733615/memory-retrieval-has-a-dynamic-influence-on-the-maintenance-mechanisms-that-are-sensitive-to-%C3%AE-inhibitory-peptide-zip
#18
David Levitan, Yaihara Fortis-Santiago, Joshua A Figueroa, Emily E Reid, Takashi Yoshida, Nicholas C Barry, Abigail Russo, Donald B Katz
: In neuroscientists' attempts to understand the long-term storage of memory, topics of particular importance and interest are the cellular and system mechanisms of maintenance (e.g., those sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide, ZIP) and those induced by memory retrieval (i.e., reconsolidation). Much is known about each of these processes in isolation, but less is known concerning how they interact. It is known that ZIP sensitivity and memory retrieval share at least some molecular targets (e...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730014/national-institute-of-biomedical-imaging-and-bioengineering-point-of-care-technology-research-network-advancing-precision-medicine
#19
Penny Ford Carleton, Steven Schachter, John A Parrish, John M Collins, J Benjamin Crocker, Ronald F Dixon, Susan Edgman-Levitan, Kent B Lewandrowski, James E Stahl, Catherine Klapperich, Mario Cabodi, Charlotte A Gaydos, Anne M Rompalo, Yukari Manabe, Tza-Huei Wang, Richard Rothman, Chris D Geddes, Lea Widdice, Joany Jackman, Rishi A Mathura, Tiffani Bailey Lash
To advance the development of point-of-care technology (POCT), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering established the POCT Research Network (POCTRN), comprised of Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary partnerships and close facilitation to move technologies from an early stage of development into clinical testing and patient use. This paper describes the POCTRN and the three currently funded Centers as examples of academic-based organizations that support collaborations across disciplines, institutions, and geographic regions to successfully drive innovative solutions from concept to patient care...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726127/a-drd4-gene-by-maternal-sensitivity-interaction-predicts-risk-for-overweight-or-obesity-in-two-independent-cohorts-of-preschool-children
#20
Robert D Levitan, Pauline Jansen, Barbara Wendland, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W Jaddoe, Patricia P Silveira, James L Kennedy, Leslie Atkinson, Alison Fleming, Marla Sokolowski, Helene Gaudreau, Meir Steiner, Laurette Dubé, Jill Hamilton, Ellen Moss, Ashley Wazana, Michael Meaney
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study integrates these lines of work by examining whether preschoolers carrying the 7R allele are more vulnerable to low maternal sensitivity as it relates to overweight/obesity risk...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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