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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910491/measurement-of-high-dynamic-range-x-ray-thomson-scattering-spectra-for-the-characterization-of-nano-plasmas-at-lcls
#1
M J MacDonald, T Gorkhover, B Bachmann, M Bucher, S Carron, R N Coffee, R P Drake, K R Ferguson, L B Fletcher, E J Gamboa, S H Glenzer, S Göde, S P Hau-Riege, D Kraus, J Krzywinski, A L Levitan, K-H Meiwes-Broer, C P O'Grady, T Osipov, T Pardini, C Peltz, S Skruszewicz, M Swiggers, C Bostedt, T Fennel, T Döppner
Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#2
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
November 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859264/inwardly-rectifying-k-channels-are-major-contributors-to-flow-induced-vasodilation-in-resistance-arteries
#3
Sang Joon Ahn, Ibra S Fancher, Jing-Tan Bian, Chong Xu Zhang, Sarah Schwab, Robert Gaffin, Shane A Phillips, Irena Levitan
AIMS: Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels are known to be sensitive to flow, but their role in flow-induced endothelial responses is not known. The goal of this study is to establish the role of Kir channels in flow-induced vasodilation and to provide first insights into the mechanisms responsible for Kir signaling in this process. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we establish that primary endothelial cells isolated from murine mesenteric arteries express functional Kir2...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852784/activity-induces-fmr1-sensitive-synaptic-capture-of-anterograde-circulating-neuropeptide-vesicles
#4
Samantha L Cavolo, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
: Synaptic neuropeptide and neurotrophin stores are maintained by constitutive bidirectional capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) as they circulate in and out of the nerve terminal. Activity increases DCV capture to rapidly replenish synaptic neuropeptide stores following release. However, it is not known whether this is due to enhanced bidirectional capture. Here experiments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where DCVs contain neuropeptides and a bone morphogenic protein, show that activity-dependent replenishment of synaptic neuropeptides following release is evident after inhibiting the retrograde transport with the dynactin disruptor mycalolide B or photobleaching DCVs entering a synaptic bouton by retrograde transport...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823692/diabetes-diabetes-severity-and-coronary-heart-disease-risk-equivalence-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards
#5
Favel L Mondesir, Todd M Brown, Paul Muntner, Raegan W Durant, April P Carson, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mixed regarding whether diabetes confers equivalent risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) as prevalent CHD. We investigated whether diabetes and severe diabetes are CHD risk equivalents. METHODS: At baseline, participants in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study (black and white US adults ≥45 years old recruited in 2003-2007) were categorized as having prevalent CHD only (self-reported or electrocardiogram evidence; n = 3,043), diabetes only (self-reported or elevated glucose; n = 4,012), diabetes and prevalent CHD (n = 1,529), and neither diabetes nor prevalent CHD (n = 17,155)...
November 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799749/physician-and-patient-benefit-risk-preferences-from-two-randomized-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-trials
#6
Eva G Katz, Brett Hauber, Srihari Gopal, Angie Fairchild, Amy Pugh, Rachel B Weinstein, Bennett S Levitan
PURPOSE: To quantify clinical trial participants' and investigators' judgments with respect to the relative importance of efficacy and safety attributes of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia, and to assess the impact of formulation and adherence. METHODS: Discrete-choice experiment surveys were completed by patients with schizophrenia and physician investigators participating in two phase-3 clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate 3-month long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798760/rad-deletion-phenocopies-tonic-sympathetic-stimulation-of-the-heart
#7
Bryana M Levitan, Janet R Manning, Catherine N Withers, Jeffrey D Smith, Robin M Shaw, Douglas A Andres, Vincent L Sorrell, Jonathan Satin
Sympathetic stimulation modulates L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating to contribute to increased systolic heart function. Rad is a monomeric G-protein that interacts with LTCC. Genetic deletion of Rad (Rad(-/-)) renders LTCC in a sympathomimetic state. The study goal was to use a clinically inspired pharmacological stress echocardiography test, including analysis of global strain, to determine whether Rad(-/-) confers tonic positive inotropic heart function. Sarcomere dynamics and strain showed partial parallel isoproterenol (ISO) responsiveness for wild-type (WT) and for Rad(-/-)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733615/memory-retrieval-has-a-dynamic-influence-on-the-maintenance-mechanisms-that-are-sensitive-to-%C3%AE-inhibitory-peptide-zip
#8
David Levitan, Yaihara Fortis-Santiago, Joshua A Figueroa, Emily E Reid, Takashi Yoshida, Nicholas C Barry, Abigail Russo, Donald B Katz
: In neuroscientists' attempts to understand the long-term storage of memory, topics of particular importance and interest are the cellular and system mechanisms of maintenance (e.g., those sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide, ZIP) and those induced by memory retrieval (i.e., reconsolidation). Much is known about each of these processes in isolation, but less is known concerning how they interact. It is known that ZIP sensitivity and memory retrieval share at least some molecular targets (e...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730014/national-institute-of-biomedical-imaging-and-bioengineering-point-of-care-technology-research-network-advancing-precision-medicine
#9
Penny Ford Carleton, Steven Schachter, John A Parrish, John M Collins, J Benjamin Crocker, Ronald F Dixon, Susan Edgman-Levitan, Kent B Lewandrowski, James E Stahl, Catherine Klapperich, Mario Cabodi, Charlotte A Gaydos, Anne M Rompalo, Yukari Manabe, Tza-Huei Wang, Richard Rothman, Chris D Geddes, Lea Widdice, Joany Jackman, Rishi A Mathura, Tiffani Bailey Lash
To advance the development of point-of-care technology (POCT), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering established the POCT Research Network (POCTRN), comprised of Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary partnerships and close facilitation to move technologies from an early stage of development into clinical testing and patient use. This paper describes the POCTRN and the three currently funded Centers as examples of academic-based organizations that support collaborations across disciplines, institutions, and geographic regions to successfully drive innovative solutions from concept to patient care...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726127/a-drd4-gene-by-maternal-sensitivity-interaction-predicts-risk-for-overweight-or-obesity-in-two-independent-cohorts-of-preschool-children
#10
Robert D Levitan, Pauline Jansen, Barbara Wendland, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W Jaddoe, Patricia P Silveira, James L Kennedy, Leslie Atkinson, Alison Fleming, Marla Sokolowski, Helene Gaudreau, Meir Steiner, Laurette Dubé, Jill Hamilton, Ellen Moss, Ashley Wazana, Michael Meaney
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study integrates these lines of work by examining whether preschoolers carrying the 7R allele are more vulnerable to low maternal sensitivity as it relates to overweight/obesity risk...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723446/assessing-the-value-of-high-quality-care-for-work-associated-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-study-design
#11
Craig Conlon, Steven Asch, Mark Hanson, Andrew Avins, Barbara Levitan, Carol Roth, Michael Robbins, Michael Dworsky, Seth Seabury, Teryl Nuckols
CONTEXT: Little is known about quality of care for occupational health disorders, although it may affect worker health and workers' compensation costs. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-associated condition that causes substantial disability. OBJECTIVE: To describe the design of a study that is assessing quality of care for work-associated CTS and associations with clinical outcomes and costs. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of 477 individuals with new workers' compensation claims for CTS without acute trauma who were treated at 30 occupational health clinics from 2011 to 2013 and followed for 18 months...
2016: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721985/the-differential-role-of-cortical-protein-synthesis-in-taste-memory-formation-and-persistence
#12
David Levitan, Shunit Gal-Ben-Ari, Christopher Heise, Tali Rosenberg, Alina Elkobi, Sharon Inberg, Carlo Sala, Kobi Rosenblum
The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n ≥ 5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA)...
2016: NPJ Science of Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712701/a-framework-for-incorporating-patient-preferences-regarding-benefits-and-risks-into-regulatory-assessment-of-medical-technologies
#13
Martin Ho, Anindita Saha, K Kimberly McCleary, Bennett Levitan, Stephanie Christopher, Kristen Zandlo, R Scott Braithwaite, A Brett Hauber
BACKGROUND: In response to 2012 guidance in which the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) stated the importance of patient-centric measures in regulatory benefit-risk assessments, the Medical Device Innovation Consortium (MDIC) initiated a project. The project was used to develop a framework to help the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and industry sponsors understand how patient preferences regarding benefit and risk might be integrated into the review of innovative medical devices...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688164/a-psycho-educational-intervention-for-people-with-a-family-history-of-depression-pilot-results
#14
Bettina Meiser, Michelle Peate, Charlene Levitan, Philip B Mitchell, Lyndal Trevena, Kristine Barlow-Stewart, Timothy Dobbins, Helen Christensen, Kerry A Sherman, Kate Dunlop, Peter R Schofield
We developed and pilot-tested the first online psycho-educational intervention that specifically targets people with a family history of depression ('LINKS'). LINKS provides genetic risk information and evidence-rated information on preventive strategies for depression and incorporates a risk assessment tool and several videos using professional actors. LINKS was pilot-tested in the general practitioner (GP) setting. The patient sample included people with a family history of at least one first-degree relative (FDR) with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651383/linkage-of-a-population-based-cohort-with-primary-data-collection-to-medicare-claims-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#15
Fenglong Xie, Lisandro D Colantonio, Jeffrey R Curtis, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, George Howard, Paul Muntner
We described the linkage of primary data with administrative claims using the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and Medicare. REGARDS study data were linked with Medicare claims by use of Social Security numbers. We compared REGARDS participants by Medicare linkage status, having fee-for-service (FFS) coverage or not, and with a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries who had FFS coverage in 2005, overall, by age (45-64 and ≥65 years), and by race. Among REGARDS participants who were ≥65 years of age, 80% had data linked to Medicare on their study-visit date (64% with FFS coverage)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617290/pattern-recognition-with-materials-that-compute
#16
Yan Fang, Victor V Yashin, Steven P Levitan, Anna C Balazs
Driven by advances in materials and computer science, researchers are attempting to design systems where the computer and material are one and the same entity. Using theoretical and computational modeling, we design a hybrid material system that can autonomously transduce chemical, mechanical, and electrical energy to perform a computational task in a self-organized manner, without the need for external electrical power sources. Each unit in this system integrates a self-oscillating gel, which undergoes the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, with an overlaying piezoelectric (PZ) cantilever...
September 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605706/spastin-atlastin-and-er-relocalization-are-involved-in-axon-but-not-dendrite-regeneration
#17
Kavitha Rao, Michelle C Stone, Alexis T Weiner, Kyle W Gheres, Chaoming Zhou, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan, Melissa M Rolls
Mutations in >50 genes, including spastin and atlastin, lead to hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We previously demonstrated that reduction of spastin leads to a deficit in axon regeneration in a Drosophila model. Axon regeneration was similarly impaired in neurons when HSP proteins atlastin, seipin, and spichthyin were reduced. Impaired regeneration was dependent on genetic background and was observed when partial reduction of HSP proteins was combined with expression of dominant-negative microtubule regulators, suggesting that HSP proteins work with microtubules to promote regeneration...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596717/pre-operative-echocardiography-among-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-in-the-united-states-veterans-affairs-healthcare-system-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Emily B Levitan, Laura A Graham, Javier A Valle, Joshua S Richman, Robert Hollis, Carla N Holcomb, Thomas M Maddox, Mary T Hawn
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is not recommended for routine pre-surgical evaluation but may have value for patients at high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pre-operative echocardiography is associated with lower risk of post-operative MACE among patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Using administrative and registry data, we examined associations of echocardiography within 3 months prior to surgery with postoperative MACE (myocardial infarction, revascularization, or death within 30 days) among patients with coronary artery disease undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgeries in the United States Veterans Affairs healthcare system in 2000-2012...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593896/equity-in-social-care-for-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-cross-sectional-study-examining-the-distribution-of-social-care-funding-across-local-authorities-in-england
#19
Deborah Chinn, Tony Levitan, Trevor Murrells
Many people with intellectual disabilities rely on social care provision, though little research has looked at how access to such provision is distributed nationally. Evidence from children's services suggests that there are large discrepancies between local authorities (LAs) in terms of the resources expended on interventions with children and families, which can be explained by variations linked to geographical location, namely the level of socioeconomic deprivation between LAs, constituting 'child welfare inequalities'...
September 4, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582392/elevated-mitochondria-coupled-nad-p-h-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-dopamine-neurons
#20
Kristal R Tucker, Samantha L Cavolo, Edwin S Levitan
Pyridine nucleotides are redox coenzymes that are critical in bioenergetics, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Here we use brain slice multiphoton microscopy to show that substantia nigra dopamine neurons, which are sensitive to stress in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), display elevated combined NADH and NADPH (i.e., NAD(P)H) autofluorescence. Despite limited mitochondrial mass, organellar NAD(P)H is extensive because much of the signal is derived from the ER. Remarkably, even though pyridine nucleotides cannot cross mitochondrial and ER membranes, inhibiting mitochondrial function with an uncoupler or interrupting the electron transport chain with cyanide (CN(-)) alters ER NAD(P)H...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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