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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445482/questionable-science-and-reproducibility-in-electrical-brain-stimulation-research
#1
Martin E Héroux, Colleen K Loo, Janet L Taylor, Simon C Gandevia
Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is a trendy new technique used to change brain function and treat neurological, psychiatric and psychological disorders. We were curious whether the published literature, which is dominated by positive results, reflects the experience of researchers using EBS. Specifically, we wanted to know whether researchers are able to reproduce published EBS effects and whether they engage in, but fail to report, questionable research practices. We invited 976 researchers to complete an online survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435299/genetic-interrelations-in-the-actinomycin-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-of-streptomyces-antibioticus-imru-3720-and-streptomyces-chrysomallus-atcc11523-producers-of-actinomycin-x-and-actinomycin-c
#2
Ivana Crnovčić, Christian Rückert, Siamak Semsary, Manuel Lang, Jörn Kalinowski, Ullrich Keller
Sequencing the actinomycin (acm) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus IMRU 3720, which produces actinomycin X (Acm X), revealed 20 genes organized into a highly similar framework as in the bi-armed acm C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus but without an attached additional extra arm of orthologues as in the latter. Curiously, the extra arm of the S. chrysomallus gene cluster turned out to perfectly match the single arm of the S. antibioticus gene cluster in the same order of orthologues including the the presence of two pseudogenes, scacmM and scacmN, encoding a cytochrome P450 and its ferredoxin, respectively...
2017: Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry: AABC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426692/what-is-adaptation-by-natural-selection-perspectives-of-an-experimental-microbiologist
#3
REVIEW
Richard E Lenski
Ever since Darwin, the role of natural selection in shaping the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of animals and plants across generations has been central to understanding life and its diversity. New discoveries have shown with increasing precision how genetic, molecular, and biochemical processes produce and express those organismal features during an individual's lifetime. When it comes to microorganisms, however, understanding the role of natural selection in producing adaptive solutions has historically been, and sometimes continues to be, contentious...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426356/focus-group-findings-of-smoking-onset-among-male-youth-in-china
#4
Vivian C Sheer, Chang Molly Mao, Yi-Ru Regina Chen
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is associated with smoking initiation among men in China. The lack of qualitative studies using Chinese adolescent samples can pose challenges to enacting effective smoking prevention messages that resonate with male Chinese teenagers' thoughts, needs, and wishes. OBJECTIVE: This focus group study was designed to obtain in-depth contextual information on early smoking among male teenagers in China. METHODS: Twenty focus groups of 7-10 male students from vocational and junior colleges (N = 165) were conducted, approximately half in Shanxi and half in Guangdong...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424805/cruising-through-the-journey-without-getting-drowned-the-saga-of-a-phd-student-in-the-netherlands
#5
Louise van Galen, Joyce Wachelder
Young medical trainees all over the world are encouraged to investigate unknown areas of medicine that need clarification. This often leads them to undertake a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). Being curious, critical, and creative are necessary competences which enable us to engender scientific research within acute (internal) medicine. Worldwide, huge numbers of professionals are pursuing a PhD, with the aim of receiving a 'Doctor'-title. These PhD trajectories vary distinctly between countries. Since the distances in the scientific world are getting smaller and it is becoming more easy to work with each other across borders, it might be interesting to know what it requires to become an academic 'doctor' overseas...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421044/comparative-genomics-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-and-g-morsitans-morsitans-to-reveal-gene-orthologs-involved-in-infection-by-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#6
Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bernadette Tchicaya, Stéphanie Rialle, Hugues Parrinello, Anne Geiger
Blood-feeding Glossina palpalis gambiense (Gpg) fly transmits the single-celled eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), the second Glossina fly African trypanosome pair being Glossina morsitans/T.brucei rhodesiense. Whatever the T. brucei subspecies, whereas the onset of their developmental program in the zoo-anthropophilic blood feeding flies does unfold in the fly midgut, its completion is taking place in the fly salivary gland where does emerge a low size metacyclic trypomastigote population displaying features that account for its establishment in mammals-human individuals included...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411221/an-extracellular-cell-attached-pullulanase-confers-branched-%C3%AE-glucan-utilization-in-human-gut-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#7
Marie S Møller, Yong Jun Goh, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Wojciech Cypryk, Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Todd R Klaenhammer, Birte Svensson, Maher Abou Hachem
Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM that is widely used as a probiotic...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404080/the-curious-case-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Dara Mohammadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403682/the-ububele-baby-mat-service-a-primary-preventative-mental-health-intervention-in-a-culturally-diverse-setting
#9
N Dawson, J Richards, K Frost
The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent-infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby dyads making use of the service. This paper aims to explore how the Baby Mat Service and Baby Mat practitioners position and locate themselves in a culturally diverse community setting where multiple meaning systems are drawn on for making sense of health concerns...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396677/gametocidal-factor-transferred-from-aegilops-geniculata-roth-can-be-adapted-for-large-scale-chromosome-manipulations-in-cereals
#10
Michał T Kwiatek, Halina Wiśniewska, Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Hanna Pudelska
Segregation distorters are curious, evolutionarily selfish genetic elements, which distort Mendelian segregation in their favor at the expense of others. Those agents include gametocidal factors (Gc), which ensure their preferential transmission by triggering damages in cells lacking them via chromosome break induction. Hence, we hypothesized that the gametocidal system can be adapted for chromosome manipulations between Triticum and Secale chromosomes in hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack). In this work we studied the little-known gametocidal action of a Gc factor located on Aegilops geniculata Roth chromosome 4M(g)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396620/correlates-of-e-cigarette-ad-awareness-and-likeability-in-u-s-young-adults
#11
Jessica M Rath, Lyubov Teplitskaya, Valerie F Williams, Jennifer L Pearson, Donna M Vallone, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly increased among U.S. adults. The aim of this study was to examine awareness and likeability of e-cigarette print advertisements in a national sample of young adults and to examine ad likeability as a correlate of intended e-cigarette use among never e-cigarette users. METHODS: Participants (n = 2110, unweighted) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort (January 2013) were randomized to see four print ads (blu, Fin, NJOY, and White Cloud)...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#12
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391179/weak-coupling-between-magnetically-inequivalent-spins-the-deceptively-simple-complicated-spectrum-of-a-13-c-labeled-trimethylated-amine
#13
Ulric B le Paige, Bauke Smits, Peter 't Hart, Fons Lefeber, Nathaniel I Martin, Hugo van Ingen
Magnetic inequivalence of nuclear spins is well known to cause additional splittings that complicate spectral analysis. Here, we present an extraordinary case of magnetic inequivalence, manifested in the 13-spin system of a (13)C,(15)N-labeled trimethylated amine. All methyl group protons are chemically equivalent due to the molecular symmetry, but not all are magnetically equivalent as they have different (1)JCH and (3)JCH couplings. In general, spectra of such a large spin system can be expected to be extremely complicated by the presence of hundreds if not thousands of extra lines, caused by the strong coupling between inequivalent nuclei...
May 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388607/a-curious-connection-teasing-apart-the-link-between-gut-microbes-and-lung-disease
#14
Shraddha Chakradhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379154/retaliatory-rico-and-the-puzzle-of-fraudulent-claiming
#15
Nora Freeman Engstrom
Over the past century, the allegation that the tort liability system incentivizes legal extortion and is chock-full of fraudulent claims has dominated public discussion and prompted lawmakers to ever-more-creatively curtail individuals' incentives and opportunities to seek redress. Unsatisfied with these conventional efforts, in recent years, at least a dozen corporate defendants have "discovered" a new fraud-fighting tool. They've started filing retaliatory RICO suits against plaintiffs and their lawyers and experts, alleging that the initiation of certain nonmeritorious litigation constitutes racketeering activity—while tort reform advocates have applauded these efforts and exhorted more "courageous" companies to follow suit...
2017: Michigan Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376186/colorectal-cancer-incidence-patterns-in-the-united-states-1974-2013
#16
Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, William F Anderson, Kimberly D Miller, Jiemin Ma, Philip S Rosenberg, Ahmedin Jemal
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in the United States is declining rapidly overall but, curiously, is increasing among young adults. Age-specific and birth cohort patterns can provide etiologic clues, but have not been recently examined. Methods: CRC incidence trends in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results areas from 1974 to 2013 (n = 490 305) were analyzed by five-year age group and birth cohort using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and age-period-cohort modeling...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368597/ammonia-catalyzed-formation-of-sulfuric-acid-in-troposphere-the-curious-case-of-a-base-promoting-acid-rain
#17
Biman Bandyopadhyay, Pradeep Kumar, Partha Biswas
Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the role of ammonia in catalyzing the formation of sulfuric acid through hydrolysis of SO3 in Earth's atmosphere. The uncatalyzed process involves a high activation barrier and, until date, is mainly known to occur in Earth's atmosphere only when catalyzed by water and acids. Here we show that hydrolysis of SO3 can be very efficiently catalyzed by ammonia, the most abundant basic component in Earth's atmosphere. It was found, based on magnitude of relative potential energies as well as rate coefficients, that ammonia is the best among all the catalysts studied until now (water and acids) and could be a considerable factor in formation of sulfuric acid in troposphere...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365409/new-caffeic-acid-derivative-from-tithonia-diversifolia-hemsl-a-gray-butanolic-extract-and-its-antioxidant-activity
#18
Kriss Dayana Pantoja Pulido, Ana Julia Colmenares Dulcey, José Hipólito Isaza Martínez
Tithonia diversifolia, Asteraceae, a promising alternative for insect control such as leaf-cutting ants, have revealed repellent and insecticidal activity against Atta cephalotes. The different biological activities of T. diversifolia, are due to the existence of sesquiterpene lactones and phenolic compounds. Some phenolic compounds have antioxidant activity and curiously also exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity, key enzyme in insect metamorphosis. To expand the plant phytochemical knowledge, especially for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds not yet discovered in the polar extracts, a new caffeic acid derivative was isolated from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia...
March 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360467/curious-case-of-extraskeletal-myxoid-chondrosarcoma
#19
Sushilkumar Satish Gupta, Neha Khanna, Adam Jacobi
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are a rare entity of soft tissue tumors that have slow growth with metastatic potential. We discuss here a case of EMC presenting with right upper extremity pain and hemoptysis. Computed tomography scans chest showed diffuse metastatic numerous lung nodules bilaterally. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of the tumor. Chemotherapy was a bigger challenge for our patient due to sparse research and data in the literature about the disease.
March 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359770/evaluation-of-cell-viability-dyes-in-antiviral-assays-with-rna-viruses-that-exhibit-different-cytopathogenic-properties
#20
Donald F Smee, Brett L Hurst, W Joseph Evans, Nathan Clyde, Sean Wright, Christopher Peterson, Kie-Hoon Jung, Craig W Day
Studies were conducted to determine the performance of four dyes in assessing antiviral activities of compounds against three RNA viruses with differing cytopathogenic properties. Dyes included alamarBlue(®) measured by absorbance (ALB-A) and fluorescence (ALB-F), neutral red (NR), Viral ToxGlo™ (VTG), and WST-1. Viruses were chikungunya, dengue type 2, and Junin, which generally cause 100, 80-90, and 50% maximal cytopathic effect (CPE), respectively, in Vero 76. Compounds evaluated were 6-azauridine, BCX-4430, 3-deazaguanine, EICAR, favipiravir, infergen, mycophenolic acid (MPA), ribavirin, and tiazofurin...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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