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Carlos Crivelli, Alan J Fridlund
Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Giulio Innamorati, Thomas M Wilkie, Havish S Kantheti, Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Luca Giacomello, Marco Parenti, Davide Melisi, Claudio Bassi
BACKGROUND: Mutations activating the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gs protein are associated with a number of highly specific pathological molecular phenotypes. One of the best characterized is the McCune Albright syndrome. The disease presents with an increased incidence of neoplasias in specific tissues. MAIN BODY: A similar repertoire of neoplasms can develop whether mutations occur spontaneously in somatic tissues during fetal development or after birth. Glands are the most "permissive" tissues, recently found to include the entire gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic Kidney Disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
March 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Barry M Trost, Chris Kalnmals
Herein, we report a valuable umpolung strategy that highlights the ambiphilic nature of the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl synthon and demonstrates its utility as a synthetic linchpin. While the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl group is typically introduced as an sp3 carbon nucleophile, we demonstrate that it can also function as an effective sp2 carbon electrophile in the presence of organolithium nucleophiles. Akyl- and aryllithiums couple with the central carbon of the bis(phenylsulfonyl)methyl unit to ultimately generate trisubstituted alkenes, comprising a formal sp3-sp2 and sp2-sp2 cross-coupling between organolithiums and bis(sulfones)...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Klaus Griesar, John Bessant, Sabine Bernschneider-Reif
The elephant is in the room-a metaphorical idiom for an obvious problem or risk that nobody wants to discuss. This abstract is not intended to be a summary, to reveal major findings, or unveil conclusions. On the contrary, it is aimed to provoke curiosity as to the question of corporate survival. Is there any recipe to be followed for companies to achieve this? The answer comes neither from the modest and traditional study rooms of philosophers nor the recent fact-based studies from the offices (and well-paid opinions) of business consultants...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Alexis Bonfim-Melo, Éden R Ferreira, Renato A Mortara
This study evaluated the participation of host cell Rho-family GTPases and their effector proteins in the actin-dependent invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi extracellular amastigotes (EAs). We observed that all proteins were recruited and colocalized with actin at EA invasion sites in live or fixed cells. EA internalization was inhibited in cells depleted in Rac1, N-WASP, and WAVE2. Time-lapse experiments with Rac1, N-WASP and WAVE2 depleted cells revealed that EA internalization kinetics is delayed even though no differences were observed in the proportion of EA-induced actin recruitment in these groups...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Taryn Klarner, E Paul Zehr
Evidence first described in reduced animal models over 100 years ago led to deductions about the control of locomotion through spinal locomotor central pattern generating (CPG) networks. These discoveries in nature were contemporaneous with another form of deductive reasoning found in popular culture-that of Arthur Conan Doyle's detective "Sherlock Holmes". Since the invasive methods used in reduced non-human animal preparations are not amenable to study in humans, we are left instead with deducing from other measures and observations...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Atsuhiro Osuka, Shin-Ichiro Ishida, Jinseok Kim, Daiki Shimizu, Dongho Kim
Silicon complexation of [38]octaphyrin 1 was accomplished by reaction with an excess amount of MeSiCl3 in the presence of N,N-diisopropylethylamine, giving aromatic [38]octaphyrin bis-silicon complex 2. This complex was interconvertible with antiaromatic [36]octaphyrin congener 3 via oxidation with MnO2 and reduction with NaBH4. Curiously, mild oxidation of 2 with ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate afforded [37]octaphyrin bis-silicon complex 4 as an stable radical cation that can be stored under ambient conditions in the solid state...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Lorenza Garribba, Wei Wu, Özgün Özer, Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson, Ying Liu
Our conventional understanding of the process of DNA replication is that it occurs in the S-phase of the cell division cycle. However, during investigations into the mechanism by which common fragile sites (CFSs) drive genome instability, we observed that some DNA synthesis was still occurring in early mitosis at these loci. This curious phenomenon of mitotic DNA synthesis (which we now term "MiDAS") appears to be a form of break-induced DNA replication (BIR), a DNA repair process based on homologous recombination that has been characterized in detail only in lower eukaryotes...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Soumya Moonjely, Nemat O Keyhani, Michael J Bidochka
The hyd1/hyd2 hydrophobins are important constituents of the conidial cell wall of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This fungus can also form intimate associations with several plant species. Here, we show that inactivation of two Class I hydrophobin genes, hyd1 or hyd2, significantly decreases the interaction of B. bassiana with bean roots. Curiously, the ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant was less impaired in root association than Δhyd1 or Δhyd2. Loss of hyd genes affected growth rate, conidiation ability and oosporein production...
March 8, 2018: Microbiology
Michael Guilfoyle
The notion of subject positions is a useful tool in thinking through therapeutic interactions. In this article, I discuss positioning as an everyday phenomenon, and highlight the relational and social power dynamics that shape the subject positions persons may inhabit. Analysis is presented of the positional dynamics that play out in the couple's therapy session facilitated by Tom Andersen. Analysis suggests that Andersen adopts a not-knowing, uncertain, and curious position, while constructing the couple as competent, unfinalizable persons able to negotiate the choice-points that arise in front of them...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Martin S Bojer, Søren Lindemose, Martin Vestergaard, Hanne Ingmer
Incomplete killing of bacterial pathogens by antibiotics is an underlying cause of treatment failure and accompanying complications. Among those avoiding chemotherapy are persisters being individual cells in a population that for extended periods of time survive high antibiotic concentrations proposedly by being in a quiescent state refractory to antibiotic killing. While investigating the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the influence of growth phase on persister formation, we noted that spent supernatants of stationary phase cultures of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin, Wkd World Kidney Day Steering Committee
Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population; it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. The World Kidney Day and the International Women's Day coincide in 2018, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health, and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Rahul Chandnani, Changsoo Kim, Hui Guo, Tariq Shehzad, Jason G Wallace, Daohua He, Zhengsheng Zhang, Jinesh D Patel, Jeevan Adhikari, Sameer Khanal, Andrew H Paterson
In mapping populations segregating for many loci, the large amount of variation among genotypes often masks small-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL). This problem can be reduced by development of populations with fewer chromosome segments segregating. Here, we report early QTL detection in reciprocal advanced backcross populations from crosses between elite Gossypium hirsutum L. 'Acala Maxxa' (GH) and G. barbadense L. 'Pima S6' (GB). A total of 297 BCF and BCF progeny rows-127 segregating for GB chromosome segments in GH background and 170 segregating for GH chromosome segments in GB background-were evaluated in three environments...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Biju Basumatary, R V Ramana Reddy, Rahul Rahul, Jeyaraman Sankar
A new expanded porphyrinoid has been obtained by a simple ring expansion from a contracted porphyrinoid, i.e., corrole. Spectroscopic, structural and computational investigations reveal peculiar -conjugation and geometry. The effect of extended -conjugation is evident from perturbed redox behavior and photophysical properties. Due to strong diatropic ring current of the corrole and cross-conjugation, the molecule exhibits non aromatic nature for the expanded -circuit as evident from NMR studies.
March 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jheanell Hall, Mar Rus-Calafell, Lorraine Omari-Asor, Thomas Ward, Richard Emsley, Philippa Garety, Tom K J Craig
This study assessed the subjective experience of participating in a clinical trial, specifically positive and negative experiences and the experience of audio recording assessment sessions. The study was cross-sectional from a single blinded randomised controlled trial. Forty participants with a primary diagnosis of non-organic psychosis completed baseline and 12-week follow-up questionnaires assessing their experiences. Participants rated research interviews as moderately helpful in facilitating their therapy and talking to the interviewer as moderately helpful at baseline and 12-week follow-up...
February 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anne Chong, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein, Jean-Philippe Gouin
Oxytocin (OT) plays a salient role in contributing to the high levels of human sociality that characterize our species. Across the lifespan this nonapeptide promotes prosocial behaviors and modulates stress responses. Curiously, the OXT-Neurophysin I gene has been little studied despite the fact this is the structural gene for the OT nonapeptide. In a large group of Han Chinese undergraduate students (n = 1593) we examined associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OXT- Neurophysin I gene with personality traits...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Peter Sidebotham, Ameeta Retzer
A national mixed-methods study of English Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) was carried out to better understand the characteristics and circumstances of maternally perpetrated filicides, to compare these with paternally perpetrated cases, and to identify learning points for mental health professionals. Published reports for all SCRs of children in England dying as a result of abuse or neglect from 2011 to 2014 were subject to qualitative analysis using a system of layered reading and inductive thematic analysis, along with descriptive and comparative quantitative analysis...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Chetana Chandrashekar, Subhalakshmi Sen, Venkadasalapathi Narayanaswamy, Raghu Radhakrishnan
We appraise a case of central odontogenic fibroma (COF) with unusual histologic features of entrapped neural elements and mast cells. The presence of mast cells attributed to the release of stem cell factor, the principal growth and activating factor of mast cells. A putative role for C-kit and mast cells in the pathogenesis of COF is described.
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Sanghati Roy Chowdhury, Udayaditya Sen
Vibrio cholerae, experiences a highly hostile environment at human intestine which trigger the induction of various heat shock genes. VcHsp15, the hslR gene product of V. cholerae O395 is a highly up regulated protein which targets erroneously dislodged 50S subunit upon heat shock that carries a tRNA attached to the abortive nascent polypeptide chain, and recycle it for another round of translation. In this study we report the crystal structure of VcHsp15 at 2.33 Å. Although the structure of VcHsp15 share very similar fold to E...
February 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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