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Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Lavy Lorphachan, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Sylvie Goossens, Yves Buisson, Fabrice Quet, Claude P Muller, Satoshi Nakamura
Background: The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), reaching 62% among school-children. However, this prevalence presents wide regional variations, due to differences in healthcare access and environmental factors. Curiously, there are few studies on helminth infections in pre-school children - an age group targeted by the national de-worming campaign. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted in a remote region of Huaphan Province, North Laos, to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in pre-school children...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Robert J Asaro, Qiang Zhu, Kuanpo Lin
To study the significance of advection in the transport of solutes, or particles, within thin biological gaps (channels), we examine theoretically the process driven by stochastic fluid flow caused by random thermal structural motion, and we compare it with transport via diffusion. The model geometry chosen resembles the synaptic cleft; this choice is motivated by the cleft's readily modeled structure, which allows for well-defined mechanical and physical features that control the advection process. Our analysis defines a Péclet-like number, A^{D}, that quantifies the ratio of time scales of advection versus diffusion...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Ravinder Jerath, Connor Beveridge
Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michael N Cornforth, Pavana Anur, Nicholas Wang, Erin Robinson, F Andrew Ray, Joel S Bedford, Bradford D Loucas, Eli S Williams, Myron Peto, Paul Spellman, Rahul Kollipara, Ralf Kittler, Joe W Gray, Susan M Bailey
Chromosome rearrangements are large-scale structural variants that are recognized drivers of oncogenic events in cancers of all types. Cytogenetics allows for their rapid, genome-wide detection, but does not provide gene-level resolution. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) promises DNA sequence-level characterization of the specific breakpoints involved, but is strongly influenced by bioinformatics filters that affect detection efficiency. We sought to characterize the breakpoint junctions of chromosomal translocations and inversions in the clonal derivatives of human cells exposed to ionizing radiation...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Research
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Nasr E Nasr, Sherif M Nasr, Yasser El-Sayed
Hepatic cancer (HCC) is a well-identified dilemma throughout the world, and hence, the molecular mechanisms and strategy for preventive protection against this malignancy are critical. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a unique methyl granter in vast reactions, including DNA methylation, and secures the genome against hypomethylation, which is a hallmark of tumors. Consequently, SAM may control the rate of gene expression. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcript involved in hepatic tumorigenesis, including additional coding CEBPA (ecCEBPA) and urothelial carcinoma related 1 (UCA1), antioxidant enzymes transcripts, and relevant signaling pathway in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-prompted HCC along with their conceivable targeting by SAM at different stages of HCC in rats...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mohamed Salama, Ali Shalash, Alshimaa Magdy, Marianne Makar, Tamer Roushdy, Mahmoud Elbalkimy, Hanan Elrassas, Passent Elkafrawy, Wael Mohamed, Mohamed B Abou Donia
Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by progressive neuronal loss and pathological accumulation of some proteins. Developing new biomarkers for both diseases is highly important for the early diagnosis and possible development of neuro-protective strategies. Serum antibodies (AIAs) against neuronal proteins are potential biomarkers for AD and PD that may be formed in response to their release into systemic circulation after brain damage...
2018: PloS One
Xiaojun Zhao, Changxiu Shi
This study analyzed the mediation effect of a suicidal attitude from regulatory emotional self-efficacy to core self-evaluation. A measurement study was conducted among 438 college students using the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale, the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, and the Suicide Attitude Questionnaire. Results from the plug-in process in SPSS and the bootstrap method showed that the attitude toward suicidal behavior and the attitude toward family members of an individual who has committed suicide played a double-mediation role, from perceived self-efficacy in managing happiness to core self-evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Chien-Han Lai
Depression and panic disorder (PD) share the common pathophysiology from the perspectives of neurotransmitters. The relatively high comorbidity between depression and PD contributes to the substantial obstacles to differentiate from depression and PD, especially for the brain pathophysiology. There are significant differences in the diagnostic criteria between depression and PD. However, the paradox of similar pathophysiology and different diagnostic criteria in these two disorders were still the issues needing to be addressed...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
P G Toral, G Hervás, H Leskinen, K J Shingfield, P Frutos
A great deal of uncertainty still exists about intermediate metabolites and pathways explaining the biohydrogenation (BH) of 20- and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Therefore, this study was conducted to provide further insight into the ruminal metabolism of 20:5 n-3 (EPA), 22:5 n-3 (DPA), and 22:6 n-3 (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA present in the marine lipids used in dairy ruminant feeding, and to examine potential differences between bovine and ovine. To meet this aim, we investigated the 20- and 22-carbon metabolites accumulated during in vitro incubation of EPA, DPA, and DHA with rumen inocula from cows and ewes...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Lioba Gierke, Nadine Binder, Mark Heckmann, Özen Odağ, Anne Leiser, Karina Karolina Kedzior
INTRODUCTION: Intercultural competence (IC) is an important skill to be gained from higher education. However, it remains unclear what IC means to students and what factors might influence their definitions of IC. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively assess how students at one higher education institution in the USA define IC and to quantitatively test for relationships among IC components and various demographic characteristics, including intercultural experience and study context...
2018: PloS One
Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Julien Andreani, Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Talita Bastos Machado, Souhila Abdi, Anthony Levasseur, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Bernard La Scola
Giant viruses have been isolated and characterized in different environments, expanding our knowledge about the biology of these unique microorganisms. In the last two years, a new group was discovered, the Cedratviruses, currently composed of only two isolates and members of a putative new family, 'Pithoviridae', along with previously known pithoviruses. Here we report the isolation and biological and genomic characterization of two novel cedratviruses isolated from samples collected in France and Brazil. Both viruses were isolated using Acanthamoeba castellanii as a host cell and exhibit ovoid-shape particles with corks at either extremity of the particle...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Aparna Lajmi, Aniruddha Datta-Roy, Raju Vyas, Ishan Agarwal, Praveen Karanth
Hemidactylus Oken, 1817 is one of the most speciose genera of the family Gekkonidae with more than 140 described species (Uetz et al. 2016). While this genus naturally occurs across the tropics and subtropics, a substantial part of its distribution also results from human-mediated dispersal. Carranza Arnold (2006) retrieved five broad clades in a global phylogeny of Hemidactylus, one of which has species distributed in tropical Asia. Subsequent work by Bauer et al. (2010) and Bansal Karanth (2010) revealed that the species from tropical Asia fell into two deeply divergent and potentially non-sister sub-clades-one comprising a large radiation confined to peninsular India and Sri Lanka (the Indian radiation, IR), and the other comprising species largely distributed in Southeast (SE) Asia...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Ana P Marques, Irene Gullo, Margarida S Fernandes, Pedro A Canão, Isabel Amendoeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Katherine A Margolis, Elisabeth A Donaldson, David B Portnoy, Joelle Robinson, Linda J Neff, Ahmed Jamal
Understanding factors associated with youth e-cigarette openness and curiosity are important for assessing probability of future use. We examined how e-cigarette harm perceptions and advertising exposure are associated with openness and curiosity among tobacco naive youth. Findings from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were analyzed. The 2015 NYTS is a nationally representative survey of 17,711 U.S. middle and high school students. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of never users of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, waterpipe/hookah, smokeless tobacco, bidis, pipes, dissolvables, e-cigarettes) who were open to or curious about e-cigarette use, by demographics...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marie Manthey
The compendium of extraordinary operational skills required, the lack of recognition about the exact nature of nursing work, and deeply imbedded negative mind-sets result in staff nurses experiencing guilt and anger rather than the satisfaction of knowing they made a difference in someone's life because of the nursing care they gave. A change of mind-set from entitlement thinking to entrepreneurial thinking, with an emphasis on maximizing available resources, will empower nurses to understand that they have the right and the responsibility to decide what to do and what not to do when there is more work to do than time available...
April 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
Tao Huang, Longfei Liu, Lulu Zhou, Ke Yang
The three-dimensional (3D) electrode has been widely studied and curiously pushed forward for the treatment of various wastewater. However, the reports on the electro-remediation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes using 3D electrochemical platform are scarce. In this research, the removal of heavy metals from the municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes was comprehensively investigated using a 3D electrokinetic system. Central composite design method was used based on the 31 trials and desirability functions in the 3D electrochemical process to evaluate the main effect and their interacted effect of parameter-variables on the remedial efficiencies...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Karol Taradaj, Tomasz Ginda, Piotr Ciechanowicz, Piotr Maciejewicz, Barbara Suchońska, Iwona Szymusik, Bożena Kociszewska-Najman, Mirosław Wielgoś, Dariusz Kęcik
The physiology of pregnancy is a curious issue for specialists from different branches of medicine and science. In this systematic review, the attention was focused on changes in eyes during pregnancy and confinement. To summarise and systematize actual knowledge in eyes' changes during pregnancy, publications from years 2011-2017 were analysed. Stud-ies about parameters of corneal endothelial cells, corneal biomechanical parameters, keratometric variables, intraocular pressure and biometry of the anterior chamber were compared...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Carlos Godoy-Guzmán, Claudio Nuñez, Pedro Orihuela, Antonio Campos, Víctor Carriel
The uterine tube (UT) is an important and complex organ of the women's reproductive system. In general, the anatomy and basic histology of this organ are well-known. However, the composition and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the UT is still poorly understood. The ECM is a complex supramolecular material produced by cells which is commonly restricted to the basement membrane and interstitial spaces. ECM molecules play not only a structural role, they are also important for cell growth, survival and differentiation in all tissues...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ignacio Suay-Matallana, Ximo Guillem-Llobat
This paper describes the resources, scientific spaces, and experts involved in the study of a mass poisoning caused by the drinking of arsenic-contaminated wine exported from Spain to France in 1932. Local and international periodicals record the poisoning of 300 French sailors, and stressed the commercial implications of the case. We discuss the reports prepared by different experts (mainly physicians, agricultural engineers, and customs chemists). Their work was not limited to preparing technical publications or chemical analyses; they also actively defended the quality of their local wine, and played a major role in the discussions regarding the regulation of the international wine market in the 1930s, when new standards regarding the analysis of wine were being considered...
April 16, 2018: Ambix
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