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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135027/acrosomal-alkalization-triggers-ca-2-release-and-acrosome-reaction-in-mammalian-spermatozoa
#1
EDITORIAL
Julio C Chávez, José L De la Vega-Beltrán, Omar José, Paulina Torres, Takuya Nishigaki, Claudia L Treviño, Alberto Darszon
The sperm acrosome reaction (AR), an essential event for mammalian fertilization, involves Ca(2+) permeability changes leading to exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle. The acrosome, an intracellular Ca(2+) store whose luminal pH is acidic, contains hydrolytic enzymes. It is known that acrosomal pH (pHacr ) increases during capacitation and this correlates with spontaneous AR. Some AR inducers increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) through Ca(2+) release from internal stores, mainly the acrosome...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131451/what-we-do-and-do-not-know-about-women-and-kidney-diseases-questions-unanswered-and-answers-unquestioned-reflection-on-world-kidney-day-and-international-woman-s-day
#2
EDITORIAL
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic Kidney Disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
November 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127940/deciphering-the-chemical-origin-of-the-semen-like-floral-scents-in-three-angiosperm-plants
#3
Xiaoping Zhang, Konstantin Chingin, Dacai Zhong, Liping Luo, Vladimir Frankevich, Huanwen Chen
The chemical origin and biological role of distinct semen-like odor occasionally found in some flowers are very curious but remain scarcely studied. Here, we used direct ambient corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to study the volatile chemical composition behind the semen-like odor emitted by the fresh flowers of Photinia serrulata, Castanopsis sclerophylla and Stemona japonica without any chemical pretreatment. Chemical identification was performed using high-resolution MS analysis in combination with tandem MS analysis and whenever possible was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference compounds...
November 8, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122841/hh-gene-participates-in-the-left-right-asymmetry-development-of-amphioxus-by-controlling-cer-expression
#4
Guangwei Hu, Guang Li, Hui Wang, Yiquan Wang
Correct patterning of left-right asymmetry is an important process during the embryonic development of bilaterians. It is known that Hh signaling plays a role in LR asymmetry development of mouse, chicken and sea urchin embryos by regulating Nodal expression. In this study, we reported a novel regulating way of Hh gene in the LR asymmetry development of amphioxus embryos. Our results revealed that Hh(-/-) embryos abolished Cerburs (Cer) transcription and led to bilaterally symmetric expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx As a consequence, Hh(-/-) mutants duplicated its left-side structures and lost right-side characters displaying an abnormal bilaterally symmetric body plan...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119796/supported-lipid-bilayers-with-phosphatidylethanolamine-as-the-major-component
#5
Anne M Sendecki, Matthew F Poyton, Alexis J Baxter, Tinglu Yang, Paul S Cremer
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is notoriously difficult to incorporate into model membrane systems, such as fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), at high concentrations because of its intrinsic negative curvature. Using fluorescence-based techniques, we demonstrate that having fewer sites of unsaturation in the lipid tails leads to high-quality SLBs because these lipids help to minimize the curvature. Moreover, shorter saturated chains can help maintain the membranes in the fluid phase. Using these two guidelines, we find that up to 70 mol % PE can be incorporated into SLBs at room temperature and up to 90 mol % PE can be incorporated at 37 °C...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#6
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114863/american-hybrid-donald-trump-and-the-strange-merger-of-populism-and-plutocracy
#7
Paul Pierson
Any effort to situate Trump's ascendance in the broader currents of cross-national developments, or in the longer course of American political development, must begin by recognizing it as a curious hybrid of populism and plutocracy. Although American right-wing populism has real social roots, it has long been nurtured by powerful elites seeking to undercut support for modern structures of economic regulation and the welfare state. American political institutions offered a distinctive opportunity for a populist figure to draw on this fury to first capture the nomination of the GOP, and from that position to ascend to the White House...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113434/similar-active-sites-and-mechanisms-do-not-lead-to-cross-promiscuity-in-organophosphate-hydrolysis-implications-for-biotherapeutic-engineering
#8
Miha Purg, Mikael Elias, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin
Organophosphate hydrolases are proficient catalysts of the breakdown of neurotoxic organophosphates, and have great potential as both biotherapeutics for treating acute organophosphate toxicity, and as bioremediation agents. Yet proficient organophosphatases such as serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and the organophosphate-hydrolyzing lactonase SsoPox are unable to hydrolyze organophosphates with challenging leaving groups such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or venomous agent X (VX), creating a major challenge for enzyme design...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108832/temporal-processing-in-audition-insights-from-music
#9
Vani G Rajendran, Sundeep Teki, Jan W H Schnupp
Music is a curious example of a temporally patterned acoustic stimulus, and a compelling pan-cultural phenomenon. This review strives to bring some insights from decades of music psychology and sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) literature into the mainstream auditory domain, arguing that musical rhythm perception is shaped in important ways by temporal processing mechanisms in the brain. The feature that unites these disparate disciplines is an appreciation of the central importance of timing, sequencing, and anticipation...
November 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105714/oxygen-induced-enhancement-of-nir-emission-in-brookite-tio2-powders-comparison-with-rutile-and-anatase-tio2-powders
#10
Junie Jhon M Vequizo, Sunao Kamimura, Teruhisa Ohno, Akira Yamakata
Brookite TiO2 attracts considerable attention in photocatalysis owing to its superior performance in several photocatalytic reactions. In this work, we investigated the behavior of charge carriers in brookite, rutile, and anatase TiO2 by using photoluminescence (PL) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. PL measurements revealed that brookite TiO2 exhibits a visible and a NIR emission at ∼520 nm and ∼860 nm, respectively. Addition of methanol vapor quenched both the visible and NIR emissions by the hole-consuming reaction of methanol...
November 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104186/useful-knowledge-improvement-and-the-logic-of-capital-in-richard-ligon-s-i-true-and-exact-history-of-barbados-i
#11
David Chan Smith
Richard Ligon's True and Exact History of Barbados has been recognized as a major source of information on the emergence of planter society and slavery in the English Caribbean. Curiously, however, the centrality of the text's discussion of business has been overlooked. Yet Ligon presents the History as a how-to manual on building and managing a sugar fortune. In doing so, Ligon self-consciously connects his work to Baconian ideas of improvement and useful knowledge to legitimize the position of the planters over others, and lend respectability to commercial accumulation...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091768/evolutionarily-conserved-roles-for-blood-brain-barrier-xenobiotic-transporters-in-endogenous-steroid-partitioning-and-behavior
#12
Samantha J Hindle, Roeben N Munji, Elena Dolghih, Garrett Gaskins, Souvinh Orng, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Allison Soung, Michael DeSalvo, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Michael J Keiser, Matthew P Jacobson, Richard Daneman, Roland J Bainton
Central nervous system (CNS) chemical protection depends upon discrete control of small-molecule access by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Curiously, some drugs cause CNS side-effects despite negligible transit past the BBB. To investigate this phenomenon, we asked whether the highly BBB-enriched drug efflux transporter MDR1 has dual functions in controlling drug and endogenous molecule CNS homeostasis. If this is true, then brain-impermeable drugs could induce behavioral changes by affecting brain levels of endogenous molecules...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074379/impacting-global-health-through-equipment-repurposing-measurable-progress-through-the-accumulation-of-many-tiny-victories
#13
Nicole L Buist
There is an active and growing effort occurring in laboratories throughout Africa to research the underpinnings of endemic communicable diseases, many of which are considered "neglected tropical diseases" as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).(1) Across the continent, scientists, doctors, health-care workers, and students investigate the in vitro activity of pharmacologically active extracts against known pathogens in hope of discovering new treatments for the diseases that affect the local population...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071759/curiosity-based-learning-in-infants-a-neurocomputational-approach
#14
Katherine E Twomey, Gert Westermann
Infants are curious learners who drive their own cognitive development by imposing structure on their learning environment as they explore. Understanding the mechanisms by which infants structure their own learning is therefore critical to our understanding of development. Here we propose an explicit mechanism for intrinsically motivated information selection that maximizes learning. We first present a neurocomputational model of infant visual category learning, capturing existing empirical data on the role of environmental complexity on learning...
October 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066423/examining-motivations-to-play-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-their-influence-on-perceived-outcomes-and-physical-activity
#15
Oriol Marquet, Claudia Alberico, Deepti Adlakha, J Aaron Hipp
BACKGROUND: Pokémon GO is the most played augmented reality game in history. With more than 44 million players at the peak of its popularity, the game has sparked interest on its effects on the young population's health. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined motivations to start playing Pokémon GO among a sample of US college students, and how motivations were associated with perceived outcomes of the playing experience and physical activity derived while playing...
October 24, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061684/teaching-neuroimages-new-onset-focal-epilepsy-the-curious-case-of-the-camel-and-the-jawbone
#16
James D Triplett, Nicholas Lawn, Rob Edis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061363/impact-of-developmental-exposure-to-methylphenidate-on-rat-brain-s-immune-privilege-and-behavior-control-versus-adhd-model
#17
Vanessa Coelho-Santos, Filipa L Cardoso, Ricardo A Leitão, Carlos A Fontes-Ribeiro, Ana Paula Silva
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood mental disorders that often persists into adulthood. Moreover, methylphenidate (MPH) is the mainstay of medical treatment for this disorder. Yet, not much is known about the neurobiological impact of MPH on control versus ADHD conditions, which is crucial to simultaneously clarify the misuse/abuse versus therapeutic use of this psychostimulant. In the present study, we applied biochemical and behavioral approaches to broadly explore the early-life chronic exposure of two different doses of MPH (1...
October 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046442/rice-stripe-tenuivirus-has-a-greater-tendency-to-use-the-prime-and-realign-mechanism-in-transcription-of-genomic-than-in-transcription-of-antigenomic-template-rnas
#18
Xiaojuan Liu, Jing Jin, Ping Qiu, Fangluan Gao, Wenzhong Lin, Guohui Xie, Simiao He, Shunmin Liu, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu
Most segmented negative sense RNA viruses employ a process termed cap-snatching during which they snatch capped-RNA leaders from host cellular mRNAs and use the snatched leaders as primers for transcription, leading to the synthesis of viral mRNAs with 5' heterogeneous sequences (HSs). With traditional methods, only a few HSs can be determined and identification of their donors is difficult. Here, the mRNA 5' -ends of Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) and Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus (RGSV) and those of their host rice were determined by high throughput sequencing...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043986/potential-of-big-data-analytics-in-the-french-in-vitro-diagnostics-market
#19
Nicolas Dubois, Nicolas Garnier, Christophe Meune
The new paradigm of the big data raises many expectations, particularly in the field of health. Curiously, even though medical biology laboratories generate a great amount of data, the opportunities offered by this new field are poorly documented. For better understanding the clinical context of chronical disease follow-up, for leveraging preventive and/or personalized medicine, the contribution of big data analytics seems very promising. It is within this framework that we have explored to use data of a Breton group of laboratories of medical biology to analyze the possible contributions of their exploitation in the improvement of the clinical practices and to anticipate the evolution of pathologies for the benefit of patients...
October 18, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043497/characterization-of-actinidia-virus-1-a-new-member-of-the-family-closteroviridae-encoding-a-thaumatin-like-protein
#20
A G Blouin, R Biccheri, M E Khalifa, M N Pearson, C Poggi Pollini, C Hamiaux, D Cohen, C Ratti
A new member of the family Closteroviridae was detected in Actinidia chinensis grown in Italy, using next generation sequencing of double-stranded RNA. The virus isolate, named Actinidia virus 1 (AcV-1) has a genome of 18,848 nts in length, a structure similar to the unclassified persimmon virus B (PeVB) and contains 12 open reading frames (ORFs) greater than 6 KDa, one carrying two papain-like leader proteases, a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. Additional ORFs code for homologs of heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 90 and a coat protein...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
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