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Pregnancy balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332947/mothers-with-substance-and-alcohol-abuse-support-through-pregnancy-and-early-infancy
#1
Monica Nordenfors, Ingrid Höjer
This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women...
March 23, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331165/tim-3-and-pd-1-regulate-cd8-t-cell-function-to-maintain-early-pregnancy-in-mice
#2
Yuan-Yuan Xu, Song-Cun Wang, Yi-Kong Lin, Da-Jin Li, Mei-Rong DU
During pregnancy, CD8(+) T cells are important regulators in the balance of fetal tolerance and antiviral immunity. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are well-recognized negative co-stimulatory molecules involved in viral persistence and tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells co-expressing Tim-3 and PD-1 were down-regulated in the deciduae of female mice in abortion-prone matings compared with normal pregnant mice. In addition to their reduced numbers, the Tim-3(+)PD-1(+)CD8(+) T cells produced lower levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, as well as a higher level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, relative to those from normal pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322538/controlled-ovarian-stimulation-and-triggers-in-in-vitro-fertilization-protocol-personalization-key-to-optimize-outcomes
#4
Jacqueline Y Maher, Mindy S Christianson
The past four decades have delivered many advancements to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. These include a delicate balance of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without causing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a safe oocyte retrieval, fertilization and embryo culture, endometrial growth and receptivity to promote implantation, and luteal support to maintain the pregnancy. Contemporary IVF practice includes both the classic COH protocols as well as protocols for poor responders and those for specific patient populations...
March 21, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316272/prenatal-noise-and-restraint-stress-interact-to-alter-exploratory-behavior-and-balance-in-juvenile-rats-and-mixed-stress-reverses-these-effects
#5
Soumeya Badache, Slim Bouslama, Oualid Brahmia, Abdel Madjid Baïri, Abdel Krim Tahraoui, Ali Ladjamaa
We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (Restraint Stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (Mixed Stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: 1) Beam walking (BW), 2) Open Field (OF), and 3) Elevated plus maze (EPM)...
March 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304416/gynecologic-malignancies-in-pregnancy-balancing-fetal-risks-with-oncologic-safety
#6
Christina N Cordeiro, Mary L Gemignani
Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Despite literature reporting good oncologic and fetal outcomes in women treated for cancer during pregnancy, as many as 44% of gynecologists would offer termination, and 37% would not administer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in pregnancy. Objectives: The aims of this study were to summarize current recommendations for the treatment of cervical and ovarian cancers in pregnancy and to review updates on existing knowledge regarding the safety of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments in pregnancy, including both oncologic and fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#7
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293962/effects-of-different-iron-supply-to-pregnant-sows-sus-scrofa-domestica-l-on-reproductive-performance-as-well-as-iron-status-of-new-born-piglets
#8
Marzell Buffler, Christiane Becker, Wilhelm M Windisch
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different iron (Fe) supply to sows during gestation on their reproductive performance and placental Fe load. Additionally, the Fe status of the corresponding offspring was assessed. Twenty multiparous sows were fed from insemination to farrowing with isoenergetic and isonitrogenic balanced diets differing in Fe content. The diet low in Fe (Group -Fe) was mainly composed of soybean meal and maize meal and had a Fe content of 114 mg/kg DM. For the diet high in Fe (Group +Fe), the diet was supplemented with Fe(II)SO4 · 7H2O to a total Fe content of 256 mg/kg...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292683/lower-inflammatory-markers-in-women-with-antenatal-depression-brings-the-m1-m2-balance-into-focus-from-a-new-direction
#9
Åsa Edvinsson, Emma Bränn, Charlotte Hellgren, Eva Freyhult, Richard White, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam, Jocelien Olivier, Jonas Bergquist, Adrian E Boström, Helgi B Schiöth, Alkistis Skalkidou, Janet L Cunningham, Inger Sundström-Poromaa
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression and use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in pregnancy have both been associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and impaired fetal growth. While the underlying biological pathways for these complications are poorly understood, it has been hypothesized that inflammation may be a common physiological pathway. The aim of the present study was to assess peripheral inflammatory markers in healthy women, women with antenatal depression, and in women using SSRI during pregnancy...
February 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291591/the-inma-infancia-y-medio-ambiente-environment-and-childhood-project-more-than-10-years-contributing-to-environmental-and-neuropsychological-research
#10
REVIEW
Mireia Gascon, Mònica Guxens, Martine Vrijheid, Maties Torrent, Jesús Ibarluzea, Eduardo Fano, Sabrina Llop, Ferran Ballester, Mariana F Fernández, Adonina Tardón, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289333/influence-of-vaginal-lactoferrin-administration-on-amniotic-fluid-cytokines-and-its-role-against-inflammatory-complications-of-pregnancy
#11
Martina Maritati, Manola Comar, Nunzia Zanotta, Silva Seraceni, Alessandro Trentini, Fabrizio Corazza, Fortunato Vesce, Carlo Contini
BACKGROUND: An altered amniotic cytokine profile has been reported in inflammatory pregnancy complications with a leading role for IL-6, a marker of the foetal systemic inflammatory response. Up to this date there is no exhaustive information neither on the foetal cytokine balance nor on the best method for its modulation. We aimed to evaluate the influence of vaginal lactoferrin administration on amniotic fluid concentration of 47 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. METHODS: Sixty women undergoing genetic amniocentesis were enrolled in an open-label clinical trial...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278536/distinct-roles-of-cervical-epithelia-and-stroma-in-pregnancy-and-parturition
#12
Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy, Mala Mahendroo
Through pregnancy the cervix must simultaneously remain competent for pregnancy maintenance and yet become progressively compliant to ensure on time parturition. Cervical changes precede not only term but also preterm birth. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the cervix maintains the delicate balance between competence and compliance is required to prevent the potential for lifelong health complications that can result from a premature birth. Recent advances and accumulating evidence support distinct roles for the cervical epithelia and stroma in sustaining competence...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272734/safety-and-benefits-of-antenatal-oral-iron-supplementation-in-low-income-countries-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Martin N Mwangi, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk...
March 8, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262241/hemostatic-issues-in-pregnancy-induced-liver-disease
#14
Ton Lisman, William Bernal
Liver diseases may be accompanied by profound changes in the hemostatic system including thrombocytopenia, decreased plasma levels of pro- and anticoagulants, and alterations in plasma levels of fibrinolysis. The net effect of the hemostatic changes in chronic and acute liver diseases is a hemostatic system that is in relative balance due to the simultaneous decline in pro- and antihemostatic drivers. A unique category of liver diseases are those induced by pregnancy. In acute fatty liver of pregnancy, profound hemostatic changes occur, which may be caused by a combination of liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation...
March 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254236/recurrent-2q13-microduplication-encompassing-mall-nphp1-rgpd6-and-bub1-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-intellectual-disability-and-liver-disorder
#15
Chih-Ping Chen, Shuan-Pei Lin, Chung-Lin Lee, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present recurrent 2q13 microduplication in a family with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and liver disorder. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman and her 52-year-old husband were referred for genetic counseling because of mental and liver disorders in their two sons and their planning for prenatal diagnosis of familial disorders in the future pregnancy. She and her husband were normal and healthy, but their 21-year-old elder son had suffered from ASD, severe intellectual disability, poor motor function, liver cirrhosis, and esophageal varices, and their 19-year-old younger son had suffered from ASD, mild intellectual disability, poor balance and coordination, hepatosplenomegaly, fatty liver, and mild liver cirrhosis...
February 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251714/the-transdifferentiation-of-regulatory-t-and-th17-cells-in-autoimmune-inflammatory-diseases-and-its-potential-implications-in-pregnancy-complications
#16
Zhao-Zhao Liu, Guo-Qiang Sun, Xiao-Hui Hu, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Ai-Hua Liao
In the past decades, studies have shown that a balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays a major role in autoimmune/inflammatory diseases as well as pregnancy complications. Decreased number and function of Tregs, and increased number of Th17 cells which often have an opposed effect of Tregs, are associated with these conditions. Recently, the plasticity of Tregs and Th17 cells has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Hence, we summarize the current knowledge of Tregs and Th17 cells plasticity with an emphasis on their reciprocal transdifferentiation in autoimmune/inflammatory diseases...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246204/science-signaling-podcast-for-28-february-2017-balancing-autophagy-in-the-stressed-heart
#17
Saumya Das, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features an interview with Saumya Das, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 28 February 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about a protein that inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Temporary increases in cardiac workload, such as those caused by exercise or pregnancy, induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy, a beneficial type of heart enlargement that is adaptive. However, a sustained increase in workload due to metabolic stress or uncontrolled high blood pressure induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which can contribute to heart failure...
February 28, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245457/steroids-and-autoimmunity
#18
Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Marianna Meroni, Maurizio Cutolo
From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#19
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208880/balanced-autosomal-translocations-in-two-women-reporting-recurrent-miscarriage
#20
Brindha Arumugam, Chandra R Samuel, Santhiya Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan
Spontaneous abortion or loss of fetus prior to 20 weeks of gestation is observed in 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and it affects 1-2% of women. Parental chromosomal rearrangements account for 2-5% of RM. This report describes two couples with a clinical history of RM who were subjected to conventional cytogenetic analysis to ascertain the chromosomal aetiology. Analysis of GTG-banded metaphases obtained from cultured lymphocytes at approximately 500-band resolution revealed balanced translocation in the female spouses as 46,XX,t(8;11)(p11...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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