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Pregnancy balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147461/the-role-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-the-ovaries
#1
REVIEW
Shan Wang, Guolin He, Meng Chen, Tao Zuo, Wenming Xu, Xinghui Liu
Proper physiological function of the ovaries is very important for the entire female reproductive system and overall health. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products during ovarian physiological metabolism, and antioxidants are indicated as factors that can maintain the balance between ROS production and clearance. A disturbance in this balance can induce pathological consequences in oocyte maturation, ovulation, fertilization, implantation, and embryo development, which can ultimately influence pregnancy outcomes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143647/modelling-stillbirth-mortality-reduction-with-the-lives-saved-tool
#2
Hannah Blencowe, Victoria B Chou, Joy E Lawn, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of stillbirths is large, with an estimated 2.6 million babies stillborn in 2015 including 1.3 million dying during labour. The Every Newborn Action Plan set a stillbirth target of ≤12 per 1000 in all countries by 2030. Planning tools will be essential as countries set policy and plan investment to scale up interventions to meet this target. This paper summarises the approach taken for modelling the impact of scaling-up health interventions on stillbirths in the Lives Saved tool (LiST), and potential future refinements...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135477/thrombin-potential-and-traditional-coagulation-assay-are-they-useful-in-exploring-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-risk
#3
Ilaria Romagnuolo, Monica Attanasio, Mauro Cozzolino, Enrichetta Paladino, Giancarlo Castaman, Maria E Coccia, Cinzia Fatini
: An adequate hemostatic balance is mandatory to get successful pregnancy. Obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), might be due to an impairment of placental perfusion possibly related to an underlying prothrombotic status. In this study, we used the global coagulation assay, calibrated automated thrombography and traditional coagulation assay to search for a possible underlying hypercoagulable status in women with history of RPL compared with uneventful pregnancy women. Thrombin generation, Fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and von Willebrand factor levels were analyzed in 92 not pregnant unexplained RPL and 64 uneventful pregnancy women...
November 10, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120272/factors-associated-with-adherence-to-nutritional-recommendations-before-and-during-pregnancy
#4
Rocío Olmedo-Requena, Julia Gómez-Fernández, Juan Mozas-Moreno, Anne-Mary Lewis-Mikhael, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, José-Juan Jiménez-Moleón
Several epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the value of balanced nutrition during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the degree of adherence to nutritional recommendations among 1,175 pregnant Spanish women and factors associated with such adherence pre-pregnancy and during the first half of pregnancy. Data were collected during June 2004 to March 2007 and included socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression models to identify factors associated with adherence to dietary recommendations...
November 9, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115087/methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-a-case-control-study
#5
Kyu Ri Hwang, Young Min Choi, Jin Ju Kim, Sung Ki Lee, Kwang Moon Yang, Eun Chan Paik, Hyeon Jeong Jeong, Jong Kwan Jun, Sang Ho Yoon, Min A Hong
The balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis is an essential part in early pregnancy. Mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene lead to decreased activity of the enzyme and hyperhomocysteinemia, which then induces platelet aggregation by promoting endothelial oxidative damage, possibly resulting in adverse effect on maintenance of pregnancy. We investigated the role of MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), C677T and A1298C, in Korean patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103729/a-mathematical-model-of-the-interaction-between-bovine-blastocyst-developmental-stage-and-progesterone-stimulated-uterine-factors-on-differential-embryonic-development-observed-on-day-15-of-gestation
#6
Paul R Shorten, Anita M Ledgard, Martyn Donnison, Peter L Pfeffer, Robin M McDonald, Debra K Berg
A complex interaction between the developing bovine embryo and the growth potential of the uterine milieu it inhabits results in an embryo capable of developing past the maternal recognition stage and on to a successful pregnancy. Previously, we observed variation in the lengths of embryos recovered 8 d after bulk transfer of Day 7 in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts into the same uterus. Potential causes of the differential embryonic growth were examined and modeled using 2 rounds of bulk (n = 4-6) IVP transfers and recovery of these embryos 8 d later...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077897/in-vivo-oxygen-temperature-and-ph-dynamics-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-and-their-importance-in-human-conception-a-systematic-review
#7
Ka Ying Bonnie Ng, Roel Mingels, Hywel Morgan, Nick Macklon, Ying Cheong
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity...
October 25, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070556/integrating-themes-evidence-gaps-and-research-needs-identified-by-workshop-on-iron-screening-and-supplementation-in-iron-replete-pregnant-women-and-young-children
#8
REVIEW
Patsy M Brannon, Patrick J Stover, Christine L Taylor
This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068263/hydric-costs-of-reproduction-pregnancy-increases-evaporative-water-loss-in-the-snake-vipera-aspis
#9
Olivier Lourdais, Andréaz Dupoué, Michaël Guillon, Gaëtan Guiller, Bruno Michaud, Dale F DeNardo
Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066285/understanding-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-pathophysiology-and-clinical-outcomes
#10
Spyridon N Karras, Carol L Wagner, V Daniel Castracane
This critical time frame of intrauterine life development is considered of major importance on the metabolic imprinting of overall health of the offspring, in later life. This requires a delicate immune balance that nurtures the allogeneic fetus, while maintaining reactivity against pathogens. Dysregulation of these tightly controlled biophenomena at a systemic and placental level, have been considered as a potential mechanism mediating pathogenesis of preeclampsia and spontaneous birth. In this context, vitamin D has been considered as a significant regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
October 21, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049852/parental-experiences-of-prenatal-whole-exome-sequencing-wes-in-cases-of-ultrasound-diagnosed-fetal-structural-anomaly
#11
Elizabeth Quinlan-Jones, Sarah C Hillman, Mark D Kilby, Sheila M Greenfield
OBJECTIVE: To explore parental experiences of WES for prenatal diagnosis, and ascertain what influenced their decision-making to undergo testing. METHOD: Twelve women comprised a purposeful sample in a series of semi-structured interviews. All had received a fetal anomaly diagnosis on ultrasound. A topic guide was used, and transcripts were thematically analysed to elicit key themes. RESULTS: Five main themes (parental experiences of prenatal WES, need for information, consent/reasons for prenatal WES, sources of support for prenatal WES, and return of WES findings to families) emerged, some with multiple sub-themes...
October 19, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048406/disparity-in-fetal-growth-between-twin-and-singleton-gestation-the-role-of-adipokines
#12
R Zemet, Y Shulman, R Hemi, B Brandt, E Sivan, H Kanety, S Mazaki-Tovi
OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies are characterized by unique pattern of attenuated fetal weight gain during late gestation compared with singleton gestation. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating twin growth has not yet elucidated. Leptin and adiponectin are two adipocytokines implicated in metabolism and energy balance of fetuses, newborns and adults. Moreover, these hormones have been suggested to play a role in fetal growth. The objective of the study was to determine cord blood adiponectin and leptin in twins and singletons, with and without growth impairment...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040188/phagocytosis-of-extracellular-vesicles-extruded-from-the-placenta-by-ovarian-cancer-cells-inhibits-growth-of-the-cancer-cells
#13
Qi Chen, Victoria Rutten, Wei-Tzu Cheng, Mancy Tong, Jia Wei, Peter Stone, Lai-Ming Ching, Lawrence W Chamley
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a common gynecological cancer, and parity is negatively associated with the incidence of this disease. This negative association is hypothesized to be due in part to shifting the balance of estrogen and progesterone toward more progesterone and reduced ovulation during pregnancy. However, studies suggested that parity is also associated with estrogen-independent gynecological cancers suggesting balance of hormones may not be the only protective factor. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039173/-effects-of-embryo-cryopreservation-and-thawing-on-clinical-outcomes-of-transplantable-embryos-after-cleavage-stage-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-or-screening
#14
Biwei Shi, Long Cui, Xiaoqun Ye, Yinghui Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of embryo cryopreservation and thawing on clinical outcomes of transplantable embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in cleavage-stage. METHODS: The clinical data of 302 cases (including 118 cases using frozen/thawing embryos and 184 cases using fresh embryos) undergoing PGD/PGS in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine during January 2011 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036769/the-management-of-irregular-bleeding-in-women-using-contraception
#15
Terri Foran
BACKGROUND: The pattern of menstrual bleeding seen in women during their reproductive years is the result of a finely tuned balance be-tween endogenous oestrogens, which stimulate the endometrial lining, and progesterone, which temporarily maintains that lining in anticipation of a pregnancy. Many women have expectations of a 'normal monthly' cycle, and may be wary of any-thing that has the potential to disrupt its regularity. From a clinical perspective, any alteration in vaginal bleeding may indicate underlying pathology, and lead to further investigation and management...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032163/massively-parallel-sequencing-on-human-cleavage-stage-embryos-to-detect-chromosomal-abnormality
#16
Zhi Zhou, Yanlin Ma, Qi Li, Yu Zhang, Yuanhua Huang, Zhihua Tu, Ning Ma, Minghong Li, Jun Wang, Jian Li, Weiying Lu
PURPOSE: Next-generation sequencing technology like MPS has recently been introduced to perform comprehensive chromosome screening on human trophectoderm samples for preimplantation embryo assessment. However, the potential of MPS in chromosome analysis of single cell from blastomeres has not yet been investigated. METHODS: In this study, 12 couples underwent MPS analysis, including 9 balanced translocation carriers and 3 carriers of numerical chromosomal abnormalities...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021126/healthydads-ca-what-do-men-want-in-a-website-designed-to-promote-emotional-wellness-and-healthy-behaviors-during-the-transition-to-parenthood
#17
Deborah Da Costa, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Nicole Letourneau, Andrew Howlett, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Brian Russell, Steven Grover, Ilka Lowensteyn, Peter Chan, Samir Khalifé
BACKGROUND: Up to 18% of men experience depression and/or anxiety during the transition to parenthood. Interventions designed specifically to promote the mental health of men during the transition to parenthood are scarce. Internet-delivered interventions may be acceptable and far-reaching in enhancing mental health, parenting knowledge, and healthy behaviors in expectant or new fathers. OBJECTIVE: To guide the development of Healthydads.ca, a website designed to enhance mental health and healthy behaviors in expectant fathers, a needs assessment was conducted to identify fathers' perspectives of barriers to seeking help for emotional wellness, informational needs, and factors affecting the decision to visit such a website...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018583/effects-of-nutrition-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-low-birth-weight-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#18
Katharina da Silva Lopes, Erika Ota, Prakash Shakya, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Olukunmi Omobolanle Balogun, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Luz Maria De-Regil, Rintaro Mori
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (LBW, birth weight less than 2500 g) is associated with infant mortality and childhood morbidity. Poor maternal nutritional status is one of several contributing factors to LBW. We systematically reviewed the evidence for nutrition-specific (addressing the immediate determinants of nutrition) and nutrition-sensitive (addressing the underlying cause of undernutrition) interventions to reduce the risk of LBW and/or its components: preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992103/maternal-programming-of-body-weight-in-syrian-hamsters
#19
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991995/energy-and-protein-requirements-for-maintenance-of-dairy-goats-during-pregnancy-and-their-efficiencies-of-use
#20
C J Härter, L D Lima, H G O Silva, D S Castagnino, A R Rivera, K T Resende, I A M A Teixeira
It has been suggested that maintenance requirements are similar among animals of different physiological stages; however, important physiological changes occur in the maternal body during pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for the maintenance of pregnant dairy goats and to estimate their efficiency of energy and protein utilization for maintenance and pregnancy. We used 66 multiparous pregnant goats having 49.0 ± 1.59 kg initial BW (around the third or fourth parturition) arranged in a randomized block design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme including slaughter at different days of pregnancy (DOP; 80, 110, and 140 d) and feed restriction (0, 20, and 40% feed restriction)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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