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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092655/circadian-and-upr-dependent-control-of-cpeb4-mediates-a-translational-response-to-counteract-hepatic-steatosis-under-er-stress
#3
Carlos Maillo, Judit Martín, David Sebastián, Maribel Hernández-Alvarez, Mar García-Rocha, Oscar Reina, Antonio Zorzano, Mercedes Fernandez, Raúl Méndez
The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins regulate pre-mRNA processing and translation of CPE-containing mRNAs in early embryonic development and synaptic activity. However, specific functions in adult organisms are poorly understood. Here we show that CPEB4 is required for adaptation to high-fat-diet- and ageing-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and subsequent hepatosteatosis. Stress-activated liver CPEB4 expression is dual-mode regulated. First, Cpeb4 mRNA transcription is controlled by the circadian clock, and then its translation is regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) through upstream open reading frames within the 5'UTR...
January 16, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089782/hepatic-co-cultures-in-vitro-reveal-suitable-to-detect-nrf2-mediated-oxidative-stress-responses-on-the-bladder-carcinogen-o-anisidine
#4
Franziska Wewering, Florent Jouy, Sükran Caliskan, Stefan Kalkhof, Martin von Bergen, Andreas Luch, Sebastian Zellmer
The azo dye o-anisidine is known as an industrial and environmental pollutant. Metabolites of o-anisidine remain in the liver for >24h. However, the toxicological impact of o-anisidine on the liver and its individual cell types, e.g., hepatocytes and immune cells, is currently poorly understood. A novel co-culture system, composed of HepG2 or Huh-7 cells, and differentiated THP-1 cells was used to study the metabolic capacity towards o-anisidine, and compared to primary murine hepatocytes which express high enzyme activities...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089781/genotoxic-effect-and-rat-hepatocyte-death-occurred-after-oxidative-stress-induction-and-antioxidant-gene-downregulation-caused-by-long-term-fluoride-exposure
#5
F D Campos-Pereira, L Lopes-Aguiar, F L Renosto, G A S Nogueira, E F D Costa, R Barbieri Pulz, E C M Silva-Zacarin, C A Oliveira, A A Pigoso, G D C Severi-Aguiar
Studies focusing on possible genotoxic effects of excess fluoride are contradictory and inconclusive. Currently, studies have reported a probable link to oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rat hepatocytes. We developed an in vivo study administering three doses of fluoride by gavage given to rats for 60 day. Micronucleus test was applied to investigate genotoxic potential of fluoride. The TUNEL method determined DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Biochemical parameters to investigate mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress...
January 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089395/royal-jelly-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-by-promoting-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-in-mice
#6
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Julia Aoyama, Mana Saito, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
INTRODUCTION: Identification of thermogenic food ingredients is potentially a useful strategy for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. It has been reported that royal jelly (RJ) supplementation improves insulin sensitivity; however, its impacts on energy expenditure and adiposity remain elusive. We investigated anti-obesity effects of RJ supplementation and their relation to physical activity levels and thermogenic capacities of brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
January 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#7
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086886/biochemical-mechanism-underlying-hypertriglyceridemia-and-hepatic-steatosis-hepatomegaly-induced-by-acute-schisandrin-b-treatment-in-mice
#8
Yi Zhang, Jing Zhao, Shu-Feng Zhou, Zhi-Ling Yu, Xiao-Yan Wang, Pei-Li Zhu, Zhu-Sheng Chu, Si-Yuan Pan, Ming Xie, Kam-Ming Ko
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that acute oral administration of schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzocyclooctadiene isolated from Schisandrae Fructus (a commonly used traditional Chinese herb), increased serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and hepatic mass in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanism underlying the Sch B-induced hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis and hepatomegaly. METHODS: Male ICR mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0...
January 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077576/specific-inhibition-of-acyl-coa-oxidase-1-by-an-acetylenic-acid-improves-hepatic-lipid-and-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-metabolism-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#9
Jia Zeng, Senwen Deng, Yiping Wang, Ping Li, Lian Tang, Yefeng Pang
Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) results in hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation (FAO), whether specific inhibition of peroxisomal FAO benefits mitochondrial FAO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism remains unclear. In this study, a specific inhibitor for the rate-limiting enzyme involved in peroxisomal FAO, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX1) was developed and used for the investigation of peroxisomal FAO inhibition upon mitochondrial FAO and ROS metabolism. Specific inhibition of ACOX1 by 10,12 -tricosadiynoic acid increased hepatic mitochondrial FAO via activation of the SIRT1-AMPK pathway and PPARα and reduced hydrogen peroxide accumulation in high-fat diet fed rats, which significantly decreased hepatic lipid and ROS contents, reduced body weight gain and decreased serum triglyceride and insulin levels...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#10
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073422/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-deacetylase-sirtuin3-and-liver-diseases
#11
J Yu, C Chen, W X Wang
The deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the Sirtuins mainly located in the mitochondrial matrix, and as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, it can regulate cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related pathways. The liver is the largest solid organ in the human body and plays a very important role in substance metabolism. Based on the features of SIRT3, it is closely associated with the development and progression of certain liver diseases. This article reviews the research advances in the role of SIRT3 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071871/harmonization-of-mangiferin-on-methylmercury-engendered-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Shubhankar Das, Ajanta Paul, Kamalesh D Mumbrekar, Satish B S Rao
Mangiferin (MGN), a C-glucosylxanthone abundantly found in mango plants, was studied for its potential to ameliorate methylmercury (MeHg) induced mitochondrial damage in HepG2 (human hepatocarcinoma) cell line. Cell viability experiments performed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) showed protective property of MGN in annulling MeHg-induced cytotoxicity. Conditioning the cells with optimal dose of MGN (50 µM) lowered MeHg-induced oxidative stress, calcium influx/efflux, depletion of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and prevented mitochondrial fission as observed by decrease in Mitotracker red fluorescence, expression of pDRP1 (serine 616), and DRP1 levels...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062951/the-effect-of-selenium-on-the-cd-induced-apoptosis-via-no-mediated-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-in-chicken-liver
#13
Runxiang Zhang, Ran Yi, Yanju Bi, Lu Xing, Jun Bao, Jianhong Li
Cd-induced apoptosis and the protective effects of Se against Cd-induced injury have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Cd-induced apoptosis in hepatic cells and the antagonistic effects of Se on Cd in poultry. In the present study, 128 healthy 31-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into four groups, which were fed basic diets, with the addition of Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), Cd (CdCl2, 150 mg/kg), or Se + Cd (150 mg/kg of CdCl2 and 2 mg/kg of Na2SeO3) for 90 days...
January 6, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059952/atp-citrate-lyase-genetics-molecular-biology-and-therapeutic-target-for-dyslipidemia
#14
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) has re-emerged as a drug target for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We review ACLY as a therapeutic strategy, its genetics, its molecular and cellular biology, and also its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: ACLY is a critical enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by providing acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Human genetic variants have been associated with enhanced growth and survival of several cancers, and with attenuated plasma triglyceride responses to dietary fish oil...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059465/rosmarinic-acid-mediates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-insulin-resistant-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-ampk
#15
Govindaraj Jayanthy, Vellai Roshana Devi, Kaliappan Ilango, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenol, is known to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity in experimental type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance is meagerly understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the upstream and downstream mediators of the molecular targets of RA in attenuating insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro. We found that supplementation of RA increased the expression of key genes involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, SIRT-1 and TFAM via activation of AMPK in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant rats as well as in L6 myotubes...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059170/in-ovo-injection-of-betaine-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-fatty-liver-in-chickens-through-epigenetic-modifications
#16
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Jie Liu, Yimin Jia, Demin Cai, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine alleviates high-fat diet-induced fatty liver and prenatal betaine programs offspring hepatic lipid metabolism. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes fatty liver in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether and how prenatal betaine modulates the susceptibility of CORT-induced fatty liver later in life. In this study, fertilized eggs were injected with saline or betaine before incubation, and the hatchlings were raised at 8 weeks of age followed by 7 days of subcutaneous CORT injection. CORT-induced fatty liver was less severe in betaine-treated chickens, with significantly reduced oil-red staining and hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055957/analysis-of-molecular-mechanisms-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-vitro-and-in-mice
#17
Judith Sommer, Abdo Mahli, Kim Freese, Tobias S Schiergens, Fulya Suzan Kuecuekoktay, Andreas Teufel, Wolfgang E Thasler, Martina Müller, Anja K Bosserhoff, Claus Hellerbrand
Chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis is attracting increasing attention because it heralds an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery because of liver metastases. The aim of this study was to develop in vitro and in vivo models to analyze the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced steatohepatitis.Therefore, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated with 5-FU at non-toxic concentrations up to 24 h. Furthermore, hepatic tissue of C57BL/6N mice was analyzed 24 h after application of a single 5-FU dose (200 mg/kg body weight)...
December 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054648/niclosamide-reduces-glucagon-sensitivity-via-hepatic-pka-inhibition-in-obese-mice-implications-for-glucose-metabolism-improvements-in-type-2-diabetes
#18
Md Kamrul Hasan Chowdhury, Nigel Turner, Nicholas L Bentley, Abhirup Das, Lindsay E Wu, Dulama Richani, Sonia Bustamante, Robert B Gilchrist, Margaret J Morris, Peter R Shepherd, Greg C Smith
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global pandemic. Currently, the drugs used to treat T2D improve hyperglycemic symptom of the disease but the underlying mechanism causing the high blood glucose levels have not been fully resolved. Recently published data showed that salt form of niclosamide improved glucose metabolism in high fat fed mice via mitochondrial uncoupling. However, based on our previous work we hypothesised that niclosamide might also improve glucose metabolism via inhibition of the glucagon signalling in liver in vivo...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053052/erk-activation-and-autophagy-impairment-are-central-mediators-of-irinotecan-induced-steatohepatitis
#19
Abdo Mahli, Michael Saugspier, Andreas Koch, Judith Sommer, Peter Dietrich, Seren Lee, Reinhard Thasler, Jan Schulze-Luehrmann, Anja Luehrmann, Wolfgang Erwin Thasler, Martina Müller, Anja Bosserhoff, Claus Hellerbrand
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative chemotherapy with irinotecan is associated with the development of steatohepatitis, which increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality for liver surgery. The molecular mechanisms of this chemotherapeutic complication are widely unknown. DESIGN: Mechanisms of irinotecan-induced steatohepatitis were studied in primary human hepatocytes in vitro, in mice treated with irinotecan and in liver specimens from irinotecan-treated compared with control patients...
January 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040864/glp-1-receptor-independent-pathways-emerging-beneficial-effects-of-glp-1-breakdown-products
#20
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) axis has emerged as a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and, recently, of obesity. The insulinotropic activity of the native incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36)amide, which is mainly exerted through a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GLP-1R), is terminated via enzymatic cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV that generates a C-terminal GLP-1 metabolite GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major circulating form in plasma. GLP-1(28-36)amide and GLP-1(32-36)amide are further cleavage products derived from GLP-1(7-36)amide and GLP-1(9-36)amide by the action of a neutral endopeptidase known as neprilysin...
December 31, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
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