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spinal dysraphism review

Usha D Nagaraj, Karin S Bierbrauer, Jose L Peiro, Beth M Kline-Fath
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify differences in findings between open and closed spinal dysraphisms seen on fetal MR images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institution retrospective analysis of fetal MR images for spinal dysraphism was performed. Postnatal images and clinical and operative reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Sixteen fetuses with postnatally confirmed closed spinal dysraphisms were included. Of these, 25% (4/16) had posterior fossa anomalies, 12...
September 9, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Natalie S Valeur, Ramesh S Iyer, Gisele E Ishak
Cervical dysraphism is rare, and the 3 recognized subtypes manifest as cystic, skin-covered masses. To our knowledge, no case of cervical lipomyelocele has been reported in the literature so far. We present a case of surgically and pathologically confirmed cervical lipomyelocele in a patient with spondylocostal dysostosis and multiple other congenital anomalies and a brief review of the literature. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates fat extension into a dysraphic cervical spinal canal, allowing for preoperative diagnosis...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Peyton Wilson, Erin Hayes, Andrew Barber, Jacob Lohr
Sacral dimples are common physical examination findings among newborns and are rarely associated with spinal dysraphism. Screening ultrasonography for simple sacral dimples in the absence of other physical findings leads to unnecessary health care costs and undue stress on families. This study was a retrospective chart review of infants with a sacral dimple on examination who underwent spinal ultrasonography in the first week of life. The documented indication for ultrasonography was compared to standard guidelines...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
C Corbett Wilkinson, Arianne J Boylan
INTRODUCTION: The most commonly used classification system for caudal appendages (aka human tails) dates from the 1980s and classifies appendages (tails) as either true tails or pseudotails. Advances in neuroimaging since the 1980s, however, as well as an ever-increasing number of reported cases, have made this system outdated. Sacrococcygeal eversion is a condition in which the distal sacral and coccygeal vertebrae are curved in a retroverted rather than anteverted direction. It can give rise to one type of caudal appendage...
August 6, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Lena Naffaa, Neville Irani, Charbel Saade, Gayathi Sreedher
Congenital malformations of the lumbosacral spine include spinal dysraphism and caudal anomalies. Most often, these malformations are discovered prenatally or in early infancy, but some are not diagnosed until late childhood or adulthood. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the multi-modality imaging characteristics in these complex anomalies and to provide a systematic radiological approach aiming at improving diagnostic accuracy.
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Sumit Thakar, Nandita Ghosal, Alangar S Hegde
The occurrence of epidermoids within the spinal canal is uncommon. Most of the reported spinal epidermoids (SEs) have been described in the thoracic or lumbar regions. They occur either following trauma or in the setting of coexistent spinal dysraphism. The authors describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old lady who presented with long-standing back pain and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her spine demonstrated a sacral SE without any coexistent spinal dysraphism. The diagnosis of an epidermoid was confirmed by histopathological examination following laminectomy and excision...
April 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Juliette Hascoet, Andrea Manunta, Charlène Brochard, Alexis Arnaud, Mireille Damphousse, Hélène Menard, Jacques Kerdraon, Hubert Journel, Isabelle Bonan, Sylvie Odent, Benjamin Fremond, Laurent Siproudhis, Xavier Gamé, Benoit Peyronnet
CONTEXT: Bladder management in spina bifida patients relies on clean intermittent catheterization and oral antimuscarinics with a significant failure rate. The efficacy of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin has been confirmed in patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis but not in patients with myelomeningocele. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of current evidence regarding the efficacy of intra-detrusor injections of Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A) in spina bifida patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to antimuscarinics...
May 17, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
U D Nagaraj, J L Peiro, K S Bierbrauer, B M Kline-Fath
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subependymal grey matter heterotopias are seen in a high proportion of children with Chiari II malformation and are potentially clinically relevant. However, despite its growing use, there is little in the literature describing its detection on fetal MRI. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy in diagnosing subependymal gray matter heterotopias in fetuses with spinal dysraphism on fetal MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 203 fetal MRIs performed at a single institution for spinal dysraphism during a 10-year period...
April 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Ishwar Singh, Seema Rohilla, Prashant Kumar, Saurabh Sharma
BACKGROUND: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. METHODS: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8...
2015: Surgical Neurology International
Kiyasettin Asil, Mahizer Yaldiz, Can Yaldiz, Birol Ozkal
Spinal dysraphisms are defined as open and closed dysraphisms. A hemivertebra is a congenital condition seen in 61% of patients with congenital anomalies. The first report of the excision of a hemivertebra was by Royle in 1928. A sixteen-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic with a congenital stain on the waist and a normal neurological examination. No new cases have been reported in recent literature. Our case, which is also rare, is associated with a tethered cord only and no other congenital abnormalities...
September 2015: Korean Journal of Spine
Andrea Talacchi, Pietro Meneghelli, Ignazio Borghesi, Francesca Locatelli
PURPOSE: Syringomyelia is a misleading disease since the problem always lies elsewhere. Arachnoiditis, because it is radiographically difficult to discern, is an especially insidious cause. To better guide selection from among surgical treatment options for syringomyelia, we reviewed our case series of patients without Chiari malformation or spinal injury. METHODS: Excluding syringomyelia due to Chiari malformation, spinal cord injury, and tumors, 32 patients (mean age 44 years) were operated on between 1995 and 2013 and followed up for a mean of 53...
June 2016: European Spine Journal
Hanan Goldberg, Shachar Aharony, Yael Levy, Bezalel Sivan, Jack Baniel, David Ben Meir
BACKGROUND: Studies in the past have shown that children with spinal dysraphism have highly prevalent latex allergy. These children have a spectrum of congenital spinal anomalies, caused by defects in neural tube closure, with an incidence of 1 in 1000 births. Proposed risk factors for latex allergy include multiple surgeries since birth, including an insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, elevated IgE titers, repeat multiple catheterizations, and atopy. In the 1990 s, studies published in the United States and Europe showed a latex allergy prevalence of over 70% in these patients...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Daisuke Shindo, Taro Shimono, Toshihiro Takami, Sayaka Tanaka, Taro Tsukamoto, Yukio Miki
Spinal hamartoma is a very rare, benign spinal lesion, usually occurring in children with either spinal dysraphism or neurofibromatosis type 1. We report a case of thoracic spinal hamartoma in a 75-year-old male without associated lesions. This patient represents the oldest of 19 patients whose cases we found reported in detail and one of only nine reported cases without associated lesions. On magnetic resonance imaging, the current patient showed a well-defined exophytic appearance arising from the dorsal midline surface of the spinal cord...
November 2015: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Sezgi Sarikaya Solak, Ilknur Kivanc Altunay, Gulsen Tukenmez Demirci, Burce Can
OBJECTIVE: There are limited reports studying on congenital cutaneous anomalies in newborns, particularly in Turkey. Some of congenital cutaneous anomalies serve as an important clue for accompanying syndromes or other medical conditions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of congenital cutaneous anomalies in newborns and to discuss their clinical significance with a brief review of literature. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1,000 newborns were examined by a dermatologist in a hospital-based, cross-sectional, prospective study between October 2011 and April 2012...
January 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Martin M Tisdall, Richard D Hayward, Dominic N P Thompson
OBJECT A dermal sinus tract is a common form of occult spinal dysraphism. The presumed etiology relates to a focal failure of disjunction resulting in a persistent adhesion between the neural and cutaneous ectoderm. Clinical and radiological features can appear innocuous, leading to delayed diagnosis and failure to appreciate the implications or extent of the abnormality. If it is left untreated, complications can include meningitis, spinal abscess, and inclusion cyst formation. The authors present their experience in 74 pediatric cases of spinal dermal tract in an attempt to identify which clinical and radiological factors are associated with an infective presentation and to assess the reliability of MRI in evaluating this entity...
June 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Saima Sadiq, Syed Muhammmad Faiq, Muhammad Khalid Idrees
OBJECTIVE: To find the frequency and types of spinal dysraphism in patients presenting with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from February to September 2011, and comprised patients of either gender 5-15 years of age with neurogenic bladder suspected to be due to lumbosacral dysraphism. They all had magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine. All images were reviewed by an experienced radiologist and patients were diagnosed as having spinal dysraphism and were categorised according to the radiological features...
May 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Khaled M Krisht, Michael Karsy, Wilson Z Ray, Andrew T Dailey
Seven cases of adult spinal vascular malformations presenting in conjunction with spinal dysraphism have been reported in the literature. Two of these involved male patients with a combined dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) and lipomyelomeningocele. The authors present the third case of a patient with an extraspinal DAVF and associated lipomyelomeningocele in a lumbosacral location. A 58-year-old woman with rapid decline in bilateral motor function 10 years after a prior L4-5 laminectomy and cord detethering for diagnosed tethered cord underwent magnetic resonance imaging showing evidence of persistent cord tethering and a lipomyelomeningocele...
2015: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Marcio Augusto Averbeck, Helmut Madersbacher
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the long-term urological follow-up strategies for patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), focusing on three main groups of neurological diseases: (i) spinal cord injuries, (ii) spinal dysraphism, and (iii) multiple sclerosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data acquisition comprised electronic search on the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database and the EMBASE database in August 2014 to retrieve English language studies...
April 2015: BJU International
Devon C Snow-Lisy, Elizabeth B Yerkes, Earl Y Cheng
PURPOSE: We review the current literature regarding urological management of spina bifida from prenatal diagnosis to adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE(®), EMBASE(®) and PubMed(®) for English articles published through December 2014 using search terms "spina bifida," "spinal dysraphism" and "bladder." Based on review of titles and abstracts, 437 of 1,869 articles were identified as addressing topics related to open spina bifida in pediatric patients, or long-term or quality of life outcomes in adults with spina bifida...
August 2015: Journal of Urology
D J Chalmers, A Bielsky, T T Wild, G L Siparsky, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: While many options for postoperative analgesia are available to the general patient population, choices are limited for individuals with spinal dysraphism. We hypothesized that the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion following major reconstruction of the lower urinary tract in children with spina bifida would significantly decrease need for opiate use, while maintaining adequate pain control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with spina bifida who underwent major reconstruction of the lower urinary tract at Children's Hospital Colorado were identified from January, 2003 through January, 2013 were identified...
April 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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