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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#1
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720955/crystallinity-properties-and-crystallization-behavior-of-chocolate-fat-blends
#2
Thais Lomonaco Teodoro da Silva, Renato Grimaldi, Guilherme Andrade Calligaris, Lisandro Pavie Cardoso, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves
Cocoa butter (CB) provides unique crystallization characteristics to chocolates and confectionary products; hence, it is an important value-add product. However, other alternative fats that minimally affect the crystallization behaviour of chocolates and confectionary products are now being increasingly used. This study analyzed the crystallization behaviour of CB, cocoa butter substitutes (CBSs), and their blends. Blends were prepared using CBS concentrations: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 37.5%. CB, CBS, and their blends were evaluated by following analysis: solid fat content, isothermal analysis, polarized light microscopic, thermal behaviour, X-ray diffraction and consistency...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720828/universal-mechanism-for-hybrid-percolation-transitions
#3
Deokjae Lee, Wonjun Choi, J Kertész, B Kahng
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718507/gene-expression-analyses-reveal-metabolic-specifications-in-acute-o2-sensing-chemoreceptor-cells
#4
Lin Gao, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Paula García-Flores, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
Acute O2 sensing is a fundamental property of cells in the peripheral chemoreceptors, e.g. glomus cells in the carotid body (CB) and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (AM), and is necessary for adaptation to hypoxia. These cells contain O2 -sensitive ion channels, which mediate membrane depolarization and transmitter release upon exposure to hypoxia. However, the mechanisms underlying the detection of changes in O2 tension by cells are still poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that CB glomus cells have specific metabolic features that favour the accumulation of reduced quinone and the production of mitochondrial NADH and reactive oxygen species during hypoxia...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718196/retracted-cannabinoid-cb-2-receptors-modulate-erk-1-2-kinase-signalling-and-no-release-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-by-s-merighi-s-gessi-k-varani-c-simioni-d-fazzi-p-mirandola-and-p-a-borea-british-journal-of-pharmacology
#5
(no author information available yet)
The above article, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology in March 2012 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01673.x/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The authors wish to state that in preparation of the original manuscript errors occurred resulting in duplication. This issue relates specifically to Figures 2A and 2B, lanes 3-5 of the pJNK1/2 in Figure 3B and lanes 1-3 of the pJNK1/2 blot from Figure 3C...
August 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716596/quality-comparison-of-umbilical-cord-blood-cryopreserved-with-conventional-versus-automated-systems
#6
Kyeong Mi Kim, Ji Young Huh, Jin Ju Kim, Myung Seo Kang
Umbilical cord blood (CB) banks usually freeze and store CB for clinical transplantation using conventional controlled-rate freezer or the automated BioArchive system. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of CB cryopreserved with conventional and automated methods and to make clear the cause of the quality difference between the two methods. The experiment used 80 CB units: 40 were conventionally cryopreserved and the remainder were cryopreserved with a BioArchive. After thawing, the following measures of CB quality were compared: recovery rates of cell count, cell viability of total nucleated cells (TNCs), mononuclear cells (MNCs), and CD34+ cells, as well as colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) content...
July 14, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715135/chronic-pharmacological-blockade-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-modulates-the-growth-and-development-of-the-purkinje-cell-dendritic-arbor-in-mouse-cerebellar-slice-cultures
#7
Pradeep Sherkhane, Josef P Kapfhammer
The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bi-directional plasma membrane antiporter involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotes. NCX has three isoforms, NCX1-3, and all of them are expressed in the cerebellum. Immunostaining on cerebellar slice cultures indicates that NCX is widely expressed in the cerebellum, including expression in Purkinje cells. The pharmacological blockade of the forward mode of NCX (Ca(2+) efflux mode) by Bepridil moderately inhibited growth and development of Purkinje cell dendritic arbor in cerebellar slice cultures...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714776/tissue-localization-of-glycosphingolipid-accumulation-in-a-gaucher-disease-mouse-brain-by-lc-esi-ms-ms-and-high-resolution-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#8
E Ellen Jones, Wujuan Zhang, Xueheng Zhao, Cristine Quiason, Stephanie Dale, Sheerin Shahidi-Latham, Gregory A Grabowski, Kenneth D R Setchell, Richard R Drake, Ying Sun
To better understand regional brain glycosphingolipid (GSL) accumulation in Gaucher disease (GD) and its relationship to neuropathology, a feasibility study using mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry was conducted using brains derived from a GD mouse model (4L/PS/NA) homozygous for a mutant GCase (V394L [4L]) and expressing a prosaposin hypomorphic (PS-NA) transgene. Whole brains from GD and control animals were collected using one hemisphere for MALDI FTICR IMS analysis and the other for quantitation by LC-ESI-MS/MS...
July 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#9
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713383/the-toxicological-mechanisms-of-environmental-soot-black-carbon-and-carbon-black-focus-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-pathways
#10
REVIEW
Rituraj Niranjan, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs) cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, "Sir Percival Pott" described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710010/local-network-component-analysis-for-quantifying-transcription-factor-activities
#11
Qianqian Shi, Chuanchao Zhang, Weifeng Guo, Tao Zeng, Lina Lu, Zhonglin Jiang, Ziming Wang, Juan Liu, Luonan Chen
Transcription factors (TFs) could regulate physiological transitions or determine stable phenotypic diversity. The accurate estimation on TF regulatory signals or functional activities is of great significance to guide biological experiments or elucidate molecular mechanisms, but still remains challenging. Traditional methods identify TF regulatory signals at the population level, which masks heterogeneous regulation mechanisms in individuals or subgroups, thus resulting in inaccurate analyses. Here, we propose a novel computational framework, namely Local Network Component Analysis (LNCA), to exploit data heterogeneity and automatically quantify accurate transcription factor activity (TFA) in practical terms, through integrating the partitioned expression sets (i...
July 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705098/prevention-of-systemic-toxicity-in-hyperthermic-isolated-lung-perfusion-using-radioisotopic-leakage-monitoring
#12
Francesco Fiz, Giuseppe Villa, Enrico Ferrari, Elena Pomposelli, Silvia Morbelli, Antonella Alloisio, Daniela Pende, Raffaella Meazza, Cristina Gereloni, Cecilia Marini, Giovanni Battista Ratto, Gianmario Sambuceti
RATIONALE: Hyperthermic isolated lung Perfusion (ILuP) is used to deliver high-dose chemotherapy to pulmonary metastases while sparing systemic toxicity. Accurate leakage monitoring is however necessary. This study aimed to verify the accuracy of radionuclide leakage monitoring in patients undergoing ILuP, by comparing this method with serial blood sampling. METHODS: A total of 15 consecutive ILuP procedures were performed on eleven patients affected by lung metastases from soft tissue sarcoma...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702607/perturbation-of-cationic-equilibrium-by-cucurbit-7-uril
#13
Santosh Kumar Behera, G Krishnamoorthy
The effect of cucurbit-7-uril (CB-7) on a cationic mixture with same charge has been investigated by studying monocationic mixtures of 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (DMAPIP-b) and 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (DMAPIP-c). The pKa of both the guests increases in CB-7. DMAPIP-b forms all three monocations in the ground and the excited states in aqueous as well as in CB-7 solution. However, CB-7 shifts the equilibrium more towards the less polar MC2 and MC3. On the other hand, DMAPIP-c exists only as MC1 and MC3 in aqueous solution, however, in CB-7 it exists not only as MC1 and MC3 but also as MC2 in CB-7 in the ground state...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700706/spatial-distribution-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-cb1-in-normal-canine-central-and-peripheral-nervous-system
#14
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Kristel Kegler, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699624/line-tension-effects-on-the-wetting-of-nanostructures-an-energy-method
#15
Hao-Yuan Guo, Bo Li, Xi-Qiao Feng
The superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property of micro/nano-structured solid surfaces require a stable Cassie-Baxter (CB) wetting state at the liquid-solid interface. We present an energy method to investigate how the three-phase line tension affects the CB wetting state on nanostructured materials. For some nanostructures, the line tension may engender a distinct energy barrier, which restricts the position of the three-phase contact line and affects the stability of the CB wetting state. We ascertain the upper and lower limits of the critical pressure at the CB-Wenzel transition...
July 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694660/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-delivering-anti-inflammatory-drugs-to-treat-inflammatory-bowel-disease-effects-in-an-in-vivo-model
#16
Chiara Dianzani, Federica Foglietta, Benedetta Ferrara, Arianna Carolina Rosa, Elisabetta Muntoni, Paolo Gasco, Carlo Della Pepa, Roberto Canaparo, Loredana Serpe
AIM: To improve anti-inflammatory activity while reducing drug doses, we developed a nanoformulation carrying dexamethasone and butyrate. METHODS: Dexamethasone cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles (DxCb-SLN) were obtained with the warm microemulsion method. The anti-inflammatory activity of this novel nanoformulation has been investigated in vitro (cell adhesion to human vascular endothelial cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine release by lipopolysaccharide-induced polymorphonuclear cells) and in vivo (disease activity index and cytokine plasma concentrations in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse colitis) models...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693968/trichoderma-asperellum-cultured-in-reduced-concentrations-of-synthetic-medium-retained-dye-decolourization-efficacy
#17
Samriti Marcharchand, Adeline Su Yien Ting
Trichoderma asperellum (Ta) was first cultured in synthetic medium (Potato Dextrose Broth, PDB) of various concentrations (100, 75, 50, 25%). The biomass was harvested and inoculated into dye solutions (crystal violet, CV; methyl violet, MV; malachite green, MG; and cotton blue, CB). Reduced concentrations (20, 50, 75%) affected growth rate but their decolourization efficacies remained unaffected. This was attributed to similar numbers and types of functional groups (hydroxyl, amine, ester-lipid, alkane groups) found on the surface of fungal biomass, as revealed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693444/the-value-of-ultrasound-guided-biopsy-of-fluorodeoxy-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-positive-supraclavicular-lymph-nodes-in-patients-with-suspected-lung-cancer
#18
Lennart Werner, Franziska Aebersold Keller, Ujwal Bhure, Justus Egidius Roos, Katharina Tornquist, Maria Del Sol Pèrez-Lago, Oliver Gautschi, Klaus Strobel
BACKGROUND: Accurate lymph node staging is essential for adequate prognostication and therapy planning in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive tool for the detection of metastases, including non-palpable supraclavicular lymph node (SCLN) metastases. Histological proof of metastatic spread and mutation analysis is crucial for optimal staging and therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy (CB) of FDG active, non-palpable SCLN's in patients with suspicion for lung cancer...
July 11, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692768/cucurbit-7-uril-an-emerging-candidate-for-pharmaceutical-excipients
#19
REVIEW
Kit Ieng Kuok, Shengke Li, Ian W Wyman, Ruibing Wang
Cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), belonging to the cucurbit[n]uril family (CB[n], n = 5-8, 10, or 13-15), may form host-guest complexes with a variety of small molecules of biomedical interest. The physical and chemical properties of the complexed drugs are often improved as a result of this complexation, suggesting the potential application of CB[7] as a pharmaceutical excipient. This review has summarized the most recent research progress reported between 2011 and early 2017 regarding the biocompatibility of CB[7] and the influence of CB[7] on the stability, solubility, biouptake, and biological activities (including therapeutic efficacies and toxicities) of guest drug molecules...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691158/anticonvulsant-effect-of-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-in-models-of-seizures-in-developing-rats
#20
Megan N Huizenga, Evan Wicker, Veronica C Beck, Patrick A Forcelli
OBJECTIVE: Although drugs targeting the cannabinoid system (e.g., CB1 receptor agonists) display anticonvulsant efficacy in adult animal models of seizures/epilepsy, they remain unexplored in developing animal models. However, cannabinoid system functions emerge early in development, providing a rationale for targeting this system in neonates. We examined the therapeutic potential of drugs targeting the cannabinoid system in three seizure models in developing rats. METHODS: Postnatal day (P) 10, Sprague-Dawley rat pups were challenged with the chemoconvulsant methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), after treatment with either CB1/2 mixed agonist (WIN 55,212-2), CB1 agonist (arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide [ACEA]), CB2 agonist (HU-308), CB1 antagonist (AM-251), CB2 antagonist (AM-630), fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (URB-597), or G protein-coupled receptor 55 agonist (O-1602)...
July 10, 2017: Epilepsia
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