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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#1
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893978/gut-bacteria-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-modulate-human-t-cells-and-exacerbate-symptoms-in-mouse-models
#2
Egle Cekanaviciute, Bryan B Yoo, Tessel F Runia, Justine W Debelius, Sneha Singh, Charlotte A Nelson, Rachel Kanner, Yadira Bencosme, Yun Kyung Lee, Stephen L Hauser, Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman, Ilana Katz Sand, Mar Gacias, Yungjiao Zhu, Patrizia Casaccia, Bruce A C Cree, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Sergio E Baranzini
The gut microbiota regulates T cell functions throughout the body. We hypothesized that intestinal bacteria impact the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder of the CNS and thus analyzed the microbiomes of 71 MS patients not undergoing treatment and 71 healthy controls. Although no major shifts in microbial community structure were found, we identified specific bacterial taxa that were significantly associated with MS. Akkermansia muciniphila and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, both increased in MS patients, induced proinflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in monocolonized mice...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888364/vdac-electronics-4-novel-electrical-mechanism-and-thermodynamic-estimations-of-glucose-repression-of-yeast-respiration
#3
Victor V Lemeshko
Inhibition of cell respiration by high concentrations of glucose (glucose repression), known as "Crabtree effect", has been demonstrated for various cancerous strains, highly proliferating cells and yeast lines. Although significant progress in understanding metabolic events associated with the glucose repression of cell respiration has been achieved, it is not yet clear whether the Crabtree effect is the result of a limited activity of the respiratory chain, or of some glucose-mediated regulation of mitochondrial metabolic state...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886026/population-fba-predicts-metabolic-phenotypes-in-yeast
#4
Piyush Labhsetwar, Marcelo C R Melo, John A Cole, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
Using protein counts sampled from single cell proteomics distributions to constrain fluxes through a genome-scale model of metabolism, Population flux balance analysis (Population FBA) successfully described metabolic heterogeneity in a population of independent Escherichia coli cells growing in a defined medium. We extend the methodology to account for correlations in protein expression arising from the co-regulation of genes and apply it to study the growth of independent Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in two different growth media...
September 8, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876510/optimization-of-photoanodes-for-photocatalytic-water-oxidation-by-combining-a-heterogenized-iridium-water-oxidation-catalyst-with-a-high-potential-porphyrin-photosensitizer
#5
Kelly L Materna, Jianbing Jiang, Kevin P Regan, Charles A Schmuttenmaer, Robert H Crabtree, Gary Brudvig
Development of water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) has gained interest due to their ability to generate renewable fuels using solar energy. In this study, photoanodes were assembled composed of a SnO2 film sensitized with a combination of a high potential CF3-substituted porphyrin dye with a THP-protected hydroxamic acid surface-anchoring group, and a Cp*-iridium water-oxidation catalyst containing a silatrane anchoring group. The dye-to-catalyst ratios were varied from 2:1 to 32:1 to optimize photocatalytic water oxidation...
September 6, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874015/arboviruses-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-uganda-2008-2012
#6
Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, John-Paul Mutebi, Julius J Lutwama, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Barry R Miller
A large number of arthropod-borne viruses are endemic to East Africa. As a part of the process of undertaking a systematic characterization of the mosquito fauna of Uganda, we examined mosquitoes collected from 2008 through early 2012 for known and novel viruses. In all, 8,288 mosquito pools containing 157,554 mosquitoes were tested. Twenty-nine isolations of 11 different viruses were made from mosquitoes of nine distinct species and from pools identified only to genus Culex. Identified viruses were from family Togaviridae, alphaviruses Sindbis and Babanki viruses; family Rhabdoviridae, hapaviruses Mossuril and Kamese viruses; family Flaviviridae, flaviviruses West Nile and Usutu viruses; family Phenuiviridae, phlebovirus Arumowot virus; and family Peribunyaviridae, orthobunyaviruses Witwatersrand, Pongola, and Germiston viruses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869999/preparation-of-tritium-labeled-pf-622-a-novel-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor
#7
Yinsheng Zhang
In order to make a detailed characterization of the mechanism of inhibition and selectivity of a novel fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor PF-622, three tritium isotopomers were prepared. [(3) H]PF-622a labeled at the piperazine ring B and [(3) H]PF-622b labeled at both the ring B and phenyl ring A were synthesized via catalytic H(hydrogen)-T(tritium) exchange, utilizing 1 equiv. and excess of Crabtree's catalyst, respectively. The preparation of [(3) H]PF-622c labeled only at the phenyl ring A was achieved via tritiodebromination of the bromide precursor, using Pd(PPh3 )4 as a catalyst...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868889/recruiting-practices-for-change-initiatives-is-hard-findings-from-evidencenow
#8
Shannon M Sweeney, Jennifer D Hall, Sarah S Ono, Leah Gordon, David Cameron, Jennifer Hemler, Leif I Solberg, Benjamin F Crabtree, Deborah J Cohen
Engaging primary care practices in initiatives designed to enhance quality, reduce costs, and promote safety is challenging as practices are already participating in numerous projects and mandated programs designed to improve care delivery and quality. Recruiters must expand their recruitment tools to engage today's practices in quality improvement. Using grant proposals, online diaries, observational site visits, and interviews with key stakeholders, the authors identify successful practice recruitment strategies in the EvidenceNOW initiative, which aimed to recruit approximately 1500 small- to medium-sized primary care practices...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821292/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-body-compositions-with-respect-to-the-timing-of-puberty-in-chongqing-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Fang He, Peiyu Guan, Qin Liu, Donna Crabtree, Linli Peng, Hong Wang
BACKGROUND: It is well known that excess adiposity during childhood may influence pubertal development. However, the extent to which body compositions vary in throughout puberty in boys and girls is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity and body compositions correlate with the timing of puberty in boys and girls. METHODS: By random cluster sampling, our study analyzed data from 1472 students (690 girls, 782 boys) aged 6-17 years from two schools in the Chongqing area...
August 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815915/synthesis-and-characterization-of-iridium-v-coordination-complexes-with-an-n-o-donor-organic-ligand
#10
Liam Sharninghausen, Shashi Bhushan Sinha, Dimitar Y Shopov, Brandon Q Mercado, David Balcells, Gary W Brudvig, Robert H Crabtree
We have prepared and fully characterized two isomers of [IrIV(dpyp)2] (dpyp = meso-2,4-di(2-pyridynyl)-2,4-pentanediolate). These complexes can be cleanly oxidized to [IrV(dpyp)2]+, which to our knowledge represent the first coordination complexes of Ir(V) in an N,O-donor environment. One isomer has been fully characterized in the Ir(V) state, including by x-ray crystallography, XPS, and DFT calculations, all of which support metal-centered oxidation. The unprecedented stability of these Ir(V) complexes is ascribed to the exceptional donor strength of the ligands, their resistance to oxidative degradation, and the presence of four highly donor alkoxide groups in a plane, which breaks the degeneracy of the d-orbitals and favors oxidation...
August 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807740/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-the-americas
#11
B Crabtree Ramírez, Y Caro Vega, B E Shepherd, C Le, M Turner, C Frola, B Grinsztejn, C Cortes, D Padgett, T R Sterling, C C McGowan, A Person
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with substantial mortality in HIV-infected patients. Optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons with CM represents a clinical challenge, and the burden of CM in Latin America has not been well described. Studies suggest that early ART initiation is associated with higher mortality, but data from the Americas are scarce. METHODS: HIV-infected adults in care between 1985-2014 at participating sites in the Latin America (the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet)) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) and who had CM were included...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764329/molecular-simulation-of-ionic-polyimides-and-composites-with-ionic-liquids-as-gas-separation-membranes
#12
Asghar Abedini, Ellis Crabtree, Jason E Bara, C Heath Turner
Polyimides are at the forefront of advanced membrane materials for CO2 capture and gas purification processes. Recently, "ionic polyimides" (i-PIs) have been reported as a new class of condensation polymers which combine structural components of both ionic liquids (ILs) and polyimides through covalent linkages. In this study, we report CO2 and CH4 adsorption and structural analyses of an i-PI and an i-PI + IL composite containing [C4mim][Tf2N]. The combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are used to compute the gas solubility and the adsorption performance with respect to the density, fractional free volume (FFV), and surface area of the materials...
August 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753021/oxygen-18-isotopic-studies-of-hooo-and-dooo
#13
Lou Barreau, Oscar Martinez, Kyle N Crabtree, Caroline C Womack, John F Stanton, Michael C McCarthy
Owing to questions that still persist regarding the length of the O-H and central O-O bond, and large-amplitude torsional motion of trans hydridotrioxygen HOOO, a weakly bound complex between OH and O2, new (18)O isotopic measurements of HOOO and DOOO were undertaken using Fourier transform microwave and microwave-millimeter-wave double resonance techniques. Rotational lines from three new (18)O species of DOOO (D(18)OOO, DO(18)O(18)O, and D(18)O(18)O(18)O) were detected, along with the two singly substituted (18)O isotopic species of HOOO (HO(18)OO and HOO(18)O) that were not measured in the previous isotopic investigation...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752911/the-hawthorne-effect-in-direct-observation-research-with-physicians-and-patients
#14
Meredith A Goodwin, Kurt C Stange, Stephen J Zyzanski, Benjamin F Crabtree, Elaine A Borawski, Susan A Flocke
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: This study examines the degree to which a "Hawthorne effect" alters outpatient-visit content. METHODS: Trained research nurses directly observed 4454 visits to 138 family physicians. Multiple data sources were used to examine the Hawthorne effect including differences in medical record documentation for observed visits and the prior visit by the same patient, time use during visits on the first versus the second observation day of each physician, and report by the patient, physician, and observer of the effect of observation...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731268/-13-c-metabolic-flux-profiling-of-pichia-pastoris-grown-in-aerobic-batch-cultures-on-glucose-revealed-high-relative-anabolic-use-of-tca-cycle-and-limited-incorporation-of-provided-precursors-of-branched-chain-amino-acids
#15
Meng Zhang, Xiao-Wei Yu, Yan Xu, Paula Jouhten, Gurla V T Swapna, Ralf W Glaser, John F Hunt, Gaetano T Montelione, Hannu Maaheimo, Thomas Szyperski
Carbon metabolism of Crabtree-negative yeast Pichia pastoris was profiled using (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to delineate regulation during exponential growth and to study the import of two precursors for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate. Cells were grown in aerobic batch cultures containing (a) only glucose, (b) glucose along with the precursors, or (c) glucose and Val. The study provided the following new insights. First, (13) C flux ratio analyses of central metabolism reveal an unexpectedly high anaplerotic supply of the tricarboxylic acid cycle for a Crabtree-negative yeast, and show that a substantial fraction of glucose catabolism proceeds through the pentose phosphate pathway...
July 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#16
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722632/pilot-intervention-study-of-household-ventilation-and-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-a-low-income-urban-area-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
Anne M Weaver, Shahana Parveen, Doli Goswami, Christina Crabtree-Ide, Carole Rudra, Jihnhee Yu, Lina Mu, Alicia M Fry, Iffat Sharmin, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for pneumonia; ventilation may be protective. We tested behavioral and structural ventilation interventions on indoor PM2.5 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We recruited 59 good ventilation (window or door in ≥ 3 walls) and 29 poor ventilation (no window, one door) homes. We monitored baseline indoor and outdoor PM2.5 for 48 hours. We asked all participants to increase ventilation behavior, including opening windows and doors, and operating fans. Where permitted, we installed windows in nine poor ventilation homes, then repeated PM2...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708777/intraoperative-topical-antibiotics-for-infection-prophylaxis-in-pelvic-and-acetabular-surgery
#18
Matthew T Owen, Emily M Keener, Zane B Hyde, Reaves M Crabtree, Parke W Hudson, Russell L Griffin, Jason A Lowe
OBJECTIVES: Determine if topical vancomycin and tobramycin powder reduces the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) following pelvic ring and acetabulum fracture surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING:: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Academic Level I Trauma Center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS:: 219 patients (140 meeting inclusion criteria) with pelvic and acetabular fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) from March 2012 to November 2013...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706277/dna-binding-drives-the-association-of-brg1-hbrm-bromodomains-with-nucleosomes
#19
Emma A Morrison, Julio C Sanchez, Jehnna L Ronan, Daniel P Farrell, Katayoun Varzavand, Jenna K Johnson, Brian X Gu, Gerald R Crabtree, Catherine A Musselman
BRG1 and BRM, central components of the BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complex, are critical in chromatin structure regulation. Here, we show that the human BRM (hBRM) bromodomain (BRD) has moderate specificity for H3K14ac. Surprisingly, we also find that both BRG1 and hBRM BRDs have DNA-binding activity. We demonstrate that the BRDs associate with DNA through a surface basic patch and that the BRD and an adjacent AT-hook make multivalent contacts with DNA, leading to robust affinity and moderate specificity for AT-rich elements...
July 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697603/introduction-ch-activation
#20
Robert H Crabtree, Aiwen Lei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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