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Joana C Silva, Emmanuel Cornillot, Carrie McCracken, Sahar Usmani-Brown, Ankit Dwivedi, Olukemi O Ifeonu, Jonathan Crabtree, Hanzel T Gotia, Azan Z Virji, Christelle Reynes, Jacques Colinge, Vidya Kumar, Lauren Lawres, Joseph E Pazzi, Jozelyn V Pablo, Chris Hung, Jana Brancato, Priti Kumari, Joshua Orvis, Kyle Tretina, Marcus Chibucos, Sandy Ott, Lisa Sadzewicz, Naomi Sengamalay, Amol C Shetty, Qi Su, Luke Tallon, Claire M Fraser, Roger Frutos, Douglas M Molina, Peter J Krause, Choukri Ben Mamoun
Babesia microti, a tick-transmitted, intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite circulating mainly among small mammals, is the primary cause of human babesiosis. While most cases are transmitted by Ixodes ticks, the disease may also be transmitted through blood transfusion and perinatally. A comprehensive analysis of genome composition, genetic diversity, and gene expression profiling of seven B. microti isolates revealed that genetic variation in isolates from the Northeast United States is almost exclusively associated with genes encoding the surface proteome and secretome of the parasite...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Fang, J Im, W DeGottardi, Y Jia, A Glatz, K A Matveev, W-K Kwok, G W Crabtree, M G Kanatzidis
Two-dimensional heterostructures with strong spin-orbit coupling have direct relevance to topological quantum materials and potential applications in spin-orbitronics. In this work, we report on novel quantum phenomena in [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2], a new 2D strong spin-orbit coupling heterostructure system. Transport measurements reveal the spin-related carrier scattering is at odds with the Abrikosov-Gorkov model due to strong spin-orbit coupling. This is consistent with our band structure calculations which reveal a large spin-orbit coupling gap of εso = 0...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthieu Koepf, Christopher Koenigsmann, Wendu Ding, Arunbah Batra, Christian F A Negre, Latha Venkataraman, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, Charles A Schmuttenmaer, Robert H Crabtree
The development of molecular components functioning as switches, rectifiers or amplifiers is a great challenge in molecular electronics. A desirable property of such components is functional robustness, meaning that the intrinsic functionality of components must be preserved regardless of the strategy used to integrate them into the final assemblies. Here, this issue is investigated for molecular diodes based on N-phenylbenzamide (NPBA) backbones. The transport properties of molecular junctions derived from NPBA are characterized while varying the nature of the functional groups interfacing the backbone and the gold electrodes required for break-junction measurements...
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Gregg W Crabtree, Alan J Park, Joshua A Gordon, Joseph A Gogos
Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), which degrades L-proline, resides within the schizophrenia-linked 22q11.2 deletion suggesting a role in disease. Supporting this, elevated L-proline levels have been shown to increase risk for psychotic disorders. Despite the strength of data linking PRODH and L-proline to neuropsychiatric diseases, targets of disease-relevant concentrations of L-proline have not been convincingly described. Here, we show that Prodh-deficient mice with elevated CNS L-proline display specific deficits in high-frequency GABA-ergic transmission and gamma-band oscillations...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Pamela Samson, Traves Crabtree, Stephen Broderick, Daniel Kreisel, A Sasha Krupnick, G Alexander Patterson, Bryan Meyers, Varun Puri
BACKGROUND: National organizations have recommended quality measures for operations in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The outcomes of adherence to these guidelines are unknown. METHODS: Information about patients who underwent an operation for clinical stage I NSCLC was abstracted from the National Cancer Database. After reviewing current guidelines, the following quality measures were selected: anatomic resection, operation within 8 weeks of diagnosis, achievement of negative surgical margins, and sampling of 10 or more lymph nodes...
September 21, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rebecca Crabtree, Abigail Kirk, Moriah Moore, Sam Abraham
Oral health is a simple and important part of college students' lives but might often be overlooked or undermined because of increased stress levels and unhealthy habits associated with the college setting. Despite the challenges, college days may be one of the best times to establish lifelong healthy habits, including oral health routines. The purpose of this study was to determine the current oral care behaviors and perceptions of students at a midwestern college. This study was nonexperimental in nature with a quantitative method and a cross-sectional design, which included 126 participants...
September 21, 2016: Health Care Manager
Jeffrey L Crabtree, Jarrod M Wall, David Ohm
There is little information about prison-related occupational deprivation, and about doing research in prison. To document an occupational therapist and two prisoners' critical reflections on an informal occupational therapy education program using participatory action research (PAR), we reflect on our combined experiences of evaluating an occupational therapy program. The reflections include articulation of power differentials and examples of occupational deprivation and injustice at every stage of the program evaluation process...
September 19, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Jianbing Jiang, Robert H Crabtree, Gary W Brudvig
Trialkylstannanes are good leaving groups that have been used for the formation of carbon-metal bonds to electrode surfaces for analyses of single-molecule conductivity. Here, we report the multistep synthesis of two amide-containing compounds that are of interest in studies of molecular rectifiers. Each molecule has two trimethylstannyl units, one linked by a methylene and the other by an ethylene group. To account for the very different reactivities of the parent halides, a new methodology for one-step trimethylstannylation was developed and optimized...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
José Antonio Curiel, Zoel Salvadó, Jordi Tronchoni, Pilar Morales, Alda Joao Rodrigues, Manuel Quirós, Ramón Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Aerobic fermentation of grape must, leading to respiro-fermentative metabolism of sugars, has been proposed as way of reducing alcohol content in wines. Two factors limit the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for this application, the Crabtree effect, and excess volatile acidity under aerobic conditions. This work aimed to explore the impact on ethanol acetate production of different S. cerevisiae strains deleted for genes previously related with the Crabtree phenotype...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Alexandra I Mot, Jeffrey R Liddell, Anthony R White, Peter J Crouch
Most cells grown in glucose-containing medium generate almost all their ATP via glycolysis despite abundant oxygen supply and functional mitochondria, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect. By contrast, most cells within the body rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate the bulk of their energy supply. Thus, when utilising the accessibility of cell culture to elucidate fundamental elements of mitochondria in health and disease, it is advantageous to adopt culture conditions under which the cells have greater reliance upon OXPHOS for the supply of their energy needs...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jacob M Loupe, Patrick J Miller, Benjamin P Bonner, Elaine C Maggi, Jyothi Vijayaraghavan, Jovanny Zabaleta, Christopher M Taylor, Fern Tsien, Judy S Crabtree, Andrew D Hollenbach
While many solid tumors are defined by the presence of a particular oncogene, the role that this oncogene plays in driving transformation through the acquisition of aneuploidy and overcoming growth arrest are often not known. Further, although aneuploidy is present in many solid tumors, it is not clear whether it is the cause or effect of malignant transformation. The childhood sarcoma, Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), is primarily defined by the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation, creating the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
E C Maggi, J Trillo-Tinoco, A P Struckhoff, J Vijayaraghavan, L Del Valle, J S Crabtree
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which can have survival rates as low as 4%, currently have limited therapeutic interventions available highlighting the dire need for the identification of novel biological targets for use as new potential drug targets. One such potential target is retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2), an H3K4 demethylase whose overexpression has been linked to cancer formation and metastasis in non-endocrine tumor types. We measured RBP2 mRNA and protein levels in enteropancreatic NETs by measuring RBP2 in matched human normal and NET tissue samples...
2016: Oncogenesis
Byron K Peters, Jianguo Liu, Cristiana Margarita, Wangchuk Rabten, Sutthichat Kerdphon, Alexander Orebom, Thomas Morsch, Pher G Andersson
A number of cyclic olefins were prepared and evaluated for the asymmetric hydrogenation reaction using novel N,P-ligated iridium imidazole-based catalysts (Crabtree type). The diversity of these cyclic olefins spanned those having little functionality to others bearing strongly coordinating substituents and heterocycles. Excellent enantioselectivities were observed both for substrates having little functionality (up to >99% ee) and for substrates possessing functional groups several carbons away from the olefin...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pamela Samson, Clifford Robinson, Jeffrey Bradley, A Craig Lockhart, Varun Puri, Stephen Broderick, Daniel Kreisel, A Sasha Krupnick, G Alexander Patterson, Bryan Meyers, Traves Crabtree
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and overall survival among patients receiving either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation prior to esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Esophageal cancer patients receiving either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation prior to esophagectomy were identified using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Univariate analysis compared patient, tumor, and postoperative outcome characteristics...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Matthew Nava, Marie-Aline Martin-Drumel, Christopher A Lopez, Kyle N Crabtree, Caroline C Womack, Thanh L Nguyen, Sven Thorwirth, Christopher C Cummins, John F Stanton, Michael C McCarthy
Thionitrous acid (HSNO), a potential key intermediate in biological signaling pathways, has been proposed to link NO and H2S biochemistries, but its existence and stability in vivo remain controversial. We establish that HSNO is spontaneously formed in high concentration when NO and H2S gases are mixed at room temperature in the presence of metallic surfaces. Our measurements reveal that HSNO is formed by the reaction H2S + N2O3 → HSNO + HNO2, where N2O3 is a product of NO disproportionation. These studies also suggest that further reaction of HSNO with H2S may form HNO and HSSH...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tyler S Harmon, Michael D Crabtree, Sarah L Shammas, Ammon E Posey, Jane Clarke, Rohit V Pappu
Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in coupled folding and binding reactions and form alpha helical structures in their bound complexes. Alanine, glycine, or proline scanning mutagenesis approaches are often used to dissect the contributions of intrinsic helicities to coupled folding and binding. These experiments can yield confounding results because the mutagenesis strategy changes the amino acid compositions of IDPs. Therefore, an important next step in mutagenesis-based approaches to mechanistic studies of coupled folding and binding is the design of sequences that satisfy three major constraints...
September 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Tyler Y Takeshita, Thom H Dunning
Crabtree et al. recently reported the microwave spectrum of nitrosyl-O-hydroxide (trans-NOOH), an isomer of nitrous acid, and found that this molecule has the longest O-O bond ever observed: 1.9149 Å ± 0.0005 Å. This is in marked contrast to the structure of the valence isoelectronic trans-NSOH molecule, which has a normal NS-OH bond length and strength. Generalized valence bond calculations show that the long bond in trans-NOOH is the result of a weak through-pair interaction that singlet couples the spins of the electrons in singly occupied orbitals on the hydroxyl radical and nitrogen atom, an interaction that is enhanced by the intervening lone pair of the oxygen atom in NO...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
N J Crabtree, N J Shaw, N J Bishop, J E Adams, M Z Mughal, P Arundel, M S Fewtrell, S F Ahmed, L A Treadgold, W Högler, N A Bebbington, K A Ward
The increasing use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children has led to the need for robust reference data for interpretation of scans in daily clinical practice. Such data need to be representative of the population being studied and be 'future-proofed' to software and hardware upgrades. The aim was to combine all available paediatric DXA reference data from seven UK centres to create reference curves adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and body size to enable clinical application, using in-vivo cross calibration and making data back- and forward- compatible...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Elizabeth A Crabtree, Emily Brennan, Amanda Davis, Jerry E Squires
PROBLEM: Evidence-based practice (EBP) skills are crucial for delivering high-quality patient care. It is essential that medical students learn EBP concepts through a practical, in-depth research project. To date, literature on preparing students in this manner is limited. APPROACH: In academic year 2014-2015, the Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC's) Center for Evidence-Based Practice (now known as the Value Institute) partnered with College of Medicine faculty to revitalize the undergraduate medical student EBP curriculum...
August 2, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Bruce A C Cree, Pierre-Antoine Gourraud, Jorge R Oksenberg, Carolyn Bevan, Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Douglas S Goodin, Jennifer Graves, Ari J Green, Ellen Mowry, Darin T Okuda, Daniel Pelletier, H-Christian von Büdingen, Scott S Zamvil, Alisha Agrawal, Stacy Caillier, Caroline Ciocca, Refujia Gomez, Rachel Kanner, Robin Lincoln, Antoine Lizee, Pamela Qualley, Adam Santaniello, Leena Suleiman, Monica Bucci, Valentina Panara, Nico Papinutto, William A Stern, Alyssa H Zhu, Gary R Cutter, Sergio Baranzini, Roland G Henry, Stephen L Hauser
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the accrual of long-term disability in a cohort of actively treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to assess whether clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data used in clinical trials have long-term prognostic value. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 517 actively managed MS patients enrolled at a single center. RESULTS: More than 91% of patients were retained, with data ascertained up to 10 years after the baseline visit...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
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