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Yanink Caro-Vega, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Brenda E Crabtree-Ramírez, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marcelo Wolff, Jean W Pape, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Catherine C McGowan, Juan G Sierra-Madero
Background: Efavirenz (EFV) and boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) are still the preferred options for firstline antiretroviral regimens (firstline ART) in Latin America and have comparable short-term efficacy. We assessed the long-term durability and outcomes of patients receiving EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet). Methods: We included ART-naïve, HIV-positive adults on EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in CCASAnet between 2000 and 2016...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Brain Research
Fabian Paul, Christoph Wehmeyer, Esam T Abualrous, Hao Wu, Michael D Crabtree, Johannes Schöneberg, Jane Clarke, Christian Freund, Thomas R Weikl, Frank Noé
In the original version of this Article, the Acknowledgement section omitted financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant SFB 958/A4. This error has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Nurgul Aytan, Ji-Kyung Choi, Isabel Carreras, Leah Crabtree, Brian Nguyen, Margaret Lehar, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Bruce G Jenkins, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Interest in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was greatly enhanced when it was recognized that its expression is reduced in neurodegenerative disorders, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BDNF signaling through the TrkB receptor has a central role in promoting synaptic transmission, synaptogenesis, and facilitating synaptic plasticity making the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway an attractive candidate for targeted therapies. Here we investigated the early effect of the small molecule TrkB agonist, 7,8 dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), on AD-related pathology, dendritic arborization, synaptic density, and neurochemical changes in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Elisabetta de Alteriis, Fabrizio Cartenì, Palma Parascandola, Jacinta Serpa, Stefano Mazzoleni
The mechanisms beyond the Warburg effect in proliferative mammalian cells, as well as for the similar Crabtree effect in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are still a matter of debate: why do cells shift from the energy-efficient respiration to the energy-inefficient fermentation at high sugar concentration? This review reports on the strong similarities of these phenomena in both cell types, discusses the current ideas, and provides a novel interpretation of their common functional mechanism in a dynamic perspective...
March 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Yusuke Sunada, Hajime Ogushi, Taiji Yamamoto, Shoko Uto, Mina Sawano, Atsushi Tahara, Hiromasa Tanaka, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hideo Nagashima
Disilaferra- and disilaruthenacyclic complexes containing mesityl isocyanide as a ligand, 3' and 4', were synthesized and character-ized by spectroscopy and crystallography. Both 3' and 4' showed good catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of alkenes. Com-pared with the iron and ruthenium carbonyl analogs, 1' and 2', the isocyanide complexes 3' and 4' were more robust under the hydrogenation conditions, and were useful even at higher temperatures (~80 °C) under hydrogen pressure (~20 atm). The iron complex 3' possessed the highest catalytic activity toward hydrogenation of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted alkenes among iron catalysts reported...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jin Ho Choo, Changpyo Han, Dong Wook Lee, Gyu Hun Sim, Hye Yun Moon, Jae-Young Kim, Ji-Yoon Song, Hyun Ah Kang
Pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) is a cytosolic enzyme located at the branch point between fermentative and respiratory sugar catabolism. Here, we identified and functionally characterized KmPDC1 and KmPDC5 encoding two homologs of Pdc in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC 17555. Despite the conservation of important Pdc domains, a few amino acid sequences essential for enzymatic activity are not conserved in KmPdc5p. Deletion of KmPDC1 alone eliminated most of Pdc activity, but the growth of the Kmpdc1Δ strain on glucose was comparable to that of the wild type (WT) strain under aerobic conditions...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J-P Mutebi, M B Crabtree, R C Kading, A M Powers, J P Ledermann, E C Mossel, N Zeidner, J J Lutwama, B R Miller
Despite evidence of arbovirus activity in northwestern Uganda (West Nile Sub-region), there is very limited information on the mosquito fauna of this region. The only published study reported 52 mosquito species in northwestern Uganda but this study took place in 1950 and the information has not been updated for more than 60 yr. In January and June 2011, CO2 baited-light traps were used to collect 49,231 mosquitoes from four different locations, Paraa (9,487), Chobe (20,025), Sunguru (759), and Rhino Camp (18,960)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Angela Hassiotis, Michaela Poppe, Andre Strydom, Victoria Vickerstaff, Ian S Hall, Jason Crabtree, Rumana Z Omar, Michael King, Rachael Hunter, Asit Biswas, Viv Cooper, William Howie, Michael J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Staff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) is a widespread treatment approach for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. Aims To evaluate whether such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour during routine care (trial registration: NCT01680276). METHOD: We carried out a multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial involving 23 community intellectual disability services in England, randomly allocated to manual-assisted staff training in PBS (n = 11) or treatment as usual (TAU, n = 12)...
February 12, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Eduardo Peris, Robert H Crabtree
Pincers, tridentate ligands that prefer a meridional geometry, are a rising class because of their distinctive combination of properties. They permit a good level of control on the nature of the coordination sphere by holding the donor groups in a predictable arrangement. Some groups, such as an aryl or a pyridine, that would normally be easily lost as monodentate ligands, become reliably coordinated, especially if they form the central donor unit of the three. Many pincer complexes show exceptional thermal stability, a property that is particularly prized in homogeneous catalysis where they can permit high temperature operation...
February 12, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Lorena O Fernandes-Siqueira, Julianna D Zeidler, Bruna G Sousa, Thiago Ferreira, Andrea T Da Poian
Dengue virus (DENV) is among the most important human arboviruses and is clinically and experimentally associated with lipid metabolism disorders. Using high-resolution respirometry, we analyzed the metabolic switches induced by DENV in a human hepatic cell line. This experimental approach allowed us to determine the contribution of fatty acids, glutamine, glucose, and pyruvate to mitochondrial bioenergetics, shedding light on the mechanisms involved in DENV-induced metabolic alterations. We found that while infection strongly inhibits glutamine oxidation, it increases the cellular capacity of metabolizing glucose; remarkably, though, this substrate, instead being used as an energy source, performs an anaplerotic role in the oxidation of endogenous lipids...
January 2018: MSphere
Sarah S Ono, Benjamin F Crabtree, Jennifer R Hemler, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Samuel T Edwards, Larry A Green, Arthur Kaufman, Leif I Solberg, William L Miller, Tanisha Tate Woodson, Shannon M Sweeney, Deborah J Cohen
Health care extension is an approach to providing external support to primary care practices with the aim of diffusing innovation. EvidenceNOW was launched to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular preventive care in the primary care setting. Seven regional grantee cooperatives provided the foundational elements of health care extension-technological and quality improvement support, practice capacity building, and linking with community resources-to more than two hundred primary care practices in each region...
February 2018: Health Affairs
Temple A Ratcliffe, Meghan A Crabtree, Raymond F Palmer, Jacqueline A Pugh, Holly J Lanham, Luci K Leykum
BACKGROUND: Attending rounds remain the primary venue for formal teaching and learning at academic medical centers. Little is known about the effect of increasing clinical demands on teaching during attending rounds. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships among teaching time, teaching topics, clinical workload, and patient complexity variables. DESIGN: Observational study of medicine teaching teams from September 2008 through August 2014...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Alfonso Zamudio-Rodríguez, Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Sierra-Madero, Jennifer Margarita Cuellar-Rodríguez, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan Luis Alcalá-Zermeno, Hélène Amieva, José Alberto Avila-Funes
INTRODUCTION: The population of aging adults living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is growing worldwide and evidence suggests that frailty occurs prematurely among them. In turn, frailty has been associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown, however, if people with both frailty and HIV-infection have higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with non-frail HIV-infected persons. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the association between the phenotype of frailty and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among adults aged 50 years or older living with HIV/AIDS...
February 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ignacio Fernández-Moncada, Iván Ruminot, Daniel Robles-Maldonado, Karin Alegría, Joachim W Deitmer, L Felipe Barros
Aerobic glycolysis is a phenomenon that in the long term contributes to synaptic formation and growth, is reduced by normal aging, and correlates with amyloid beta deposition. Aerobic glycolysis starts within seconds of neural activity and it is not obvious why energetic efficiency should be compromised precisely when energy demand is highest. Using genetically encoded FRET nanosensors and real-time oxygen measurements in culture and in hippocampal slices, we show here that astrocytes respond to physiological extracellular K+ with an acute rise in cytosolic ATP and a parallel inhibition of oxygen consumption, explained by glycolytic stimulation via the Na+-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew J Rosseinsky, Alexios Grigoropoulos, Alasdair I McKay, Alexandros P Katsoulidis, Robert P Davies, Anthony Haynes, Lee Brammer, Jianliang Xiao, Andrew S Weller
Crabtree's catalyst was encapsulated inside the pores of the sulfonated MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic framework by cation exchange. This hybrid catalyst is active for the heterogeneous hydrogenation of non-functionalized alkenes either in solution or in the gas phase. Moreover, encapsulation inside a well-defined hydrophilic microenvironment enhances catalyst stability and selectivity to hydrogenation over isomerization for substrates bearing ligating functionalities. Accordingly, the encapsulated catalyst significantly outperforms its homogeneous counterpart in the hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols in terms of overall conversion and selectivity with the chemical microenvironment of the MOF host favouring one out of two competing reaction pathways...
January 28, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Aysha L Sezmis, Martino E Malerba, Dustin J Marshall, Michael J McDonald
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how beneficial mutations translate into increased fitness. Here, we study beneficial mutations that arise in experimental populations of yeast evolved in glucose-rich media. We find that fitness increases are caused by enhanced maximum growth rate (R) that come at the cost of reduced yield (K). We show that for some of these mutants, high R coincides with higher rates of ethanol secretion, suggesting that higher growth rates are due to an increased preference to utilize glucose through the fermentation pathway, instead of respiration...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Osamu Kusuoka, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Chie Nakashima, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Takuya Mori, Shingo Kishi, Yoshihiro Miyagawa, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Hiroki Kuniyasu
The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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