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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454579/nucleus-accumbens-inflammation-mediates-anxiodepressive-behavior-and-compulsive-sucrose-seeking-elicited-by-saturated-dietary-fat
#1
Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Victor Issa Garcia, Philip A Barker, Nathalie Arbour, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452596/relationship-between-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-composition-in-serum-phospholipids-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-and-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Malgorzata Poreba, Pawel Rostoff, Aleksander Siniarski, Magdalena Mostowik, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent data about the role of serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between serum phospholipid fatty acid composition, systemic low-grade inflammation, and glycemic control in high-risk T2DM patients. METHODS: Seventy-four patients (26% women, mean age 65.6 ± 6.8 years) with T2DM (median diabetes duration 10 years) and documented ASCVD (74 with coronary artery disease, 26 with peripheral arterial disease) were enrolled in the study...
February 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450735/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-protects-dental-tissue-stem-cells-against-oxidative-stress-in-vitro
#3
Jasmina Martacic, Milica Kovacevic Filipovic, Suncica Borozan, Zorica Cvetkovic, Tamara Popovic, Aleksandra Arsic, Marija Takic, Vesna Vucic, Maria Glibetic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could protect stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) against oxidative damage, during in vitro cultivation, to preserve regenerative potential of these cells. Accordingly, we examined the potential of cell culture supplementation with NAC in prevention of lipid peroxidation, unfavorable changes of total lipids fatty acid composition, and the effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the extent of oxidative damage in SHED after 48 h treatment with different NAC concentrations...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444639/differential-expression-of-mrna-isoforms-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-pigs-with-distinct-growth-and-fatness-profiles
#4
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Anna Castelló, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills, Ángela Cánovas
BACKGROUND: The identification of genes differentially expressed in the skeletal muscle of pigs displaying distinct growth and fatness profiles might contribute to identify the genetic factors that influence the phenotypic variation of such traits. So far, the majority of porcine transcriptomic studies have investigated differences in gene expression at a global scale rather than at the mRNA isoform level. In the current work, we have investigated the differential expression of mRNA isoforms in the gluteus medius (GM) muscle of 52 Duroc HIGH (increased backfat thickness, intramuscular fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids contents) and LOW pigs (opposite phenotype, with an increased polyunsaturated fatty acids content)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433780/nutritional-enhancement-of-sheep-meat-fatty-acid-profile-for-human-health-and-wellbeing
#5
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433242/changes-in-extra-virgin-olive-oil-added-with-lycium-barbarum-l-carotenoids-during-frying-chemical-analyses-and-metabolomic-approach
#6
F Blasi, G Rocchetti, D Montesano, L Lucini, G Chiodelli, S Ghisoni, G Baccolo, M S Simonetti, L Cossignani
In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L. (EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268, and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant variations...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432806/characterization-of-lipid-metabolism-genes-and-the-influence-of-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-the-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-of-dusky-grouper-epinephelus-marginatus
#7
Bruno C Araújo, Nicholas M Wade, Paulo H de Mello, Jandyr de A Rodrigues-Filho, Carlos E O Garcia, Mariana F de Campos, Natasha A Botwright, Diogo T Hashimoto, Renata G Moreira
Dusky grouper is an important commercial fish species in many countries, but some factors such as overfishing has significantly reduced their natural stocks. Aquaculture emerges as a unique way to conserve this species, but very little biological information is available, limiting the production of this endangered species. To understand and generate more knowledge about this species, liver transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly was performed for E. marginatus by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Sequences obtained were used as a tool to validate the presence of key genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and their expression was quantified by qPCR...
February 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432005/several-pesticides-influence-the-nutritional-content-of-sweet-corn
#8
Matthew A Cutulle, Gregory R Armel, Dean Adam Kopsell, Henry P Wilson, James Brosnan, Jose J Vargas, Thomas E Hines, Rebecca M Koepke-Hill
Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicide applications through various forms of detoxification including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, TN and Painter, VA to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of 'Incredible' sweet corn (Zea mays L...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430648/effect-of-castration-and-carcass-suspension-method-on-the-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-beef-from-male-dairy-cattle
#9
Yingqun Nian, Paul Allen, Sabine M Harrison, Joseph P Kerry
BACKGROUND: The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages, however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by Pelvic suspension (PS). RESULTS: HF Steer beef had higher redness, yellowness, and chroma values, while bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428883/correlated-responses-to-selection-for-intramuscular-fat-in-several-muscles-in-rabbits
#10
Marina Martínez-Álvaro, Pilar Hernández, Saif Agha, Agustín Blasco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six generations of selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) in muscle Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) at 9 wk. in IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles with diverse metabolic profile in rabbits. Direct response to selection was 0.33 g of IMF/ 100 g of LTL, around 0.4 SD per generation. A positive correlated response was observed in IMF of Biceps femoris, Supraspinatus and Semimembranosus proprius muscles at 9 wk., representing around 0...
February 1, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428782/aromatic-hydrocarbon-biodegradation-activates-neutral-lipid-biosynthesis-in-oleaginous-yeast
#11
Farha Deeba, Vikas Pruthi, Yuvraj S Negi
In this study, the biodegradation ability of oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD for aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) was investigated. It was found to completely degrade range of AHs such as 1 g/L phenol, 0.75 g/L naphthalene, 0.50 g/L anthracene and 0.50 g/L pyrene with lipid productivity (g/L/h) of 0.0444, 0.0441, 0.0394 and 0.0383, respectively. This work demonstrated the ring cleavage pathways of AHs by this yeast which follow ortho route for phenol and naphthalene while meta route for anthracene and pyrene degradation...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428766/short-communication-field-study-to-investigate-the-associations-between-herd-level-risk-factors-for-milk-fat-depression-and-bulk-tank-milk-fat-percent-in-dairy-herds-feeding-monensin
#12
M M McCarthy, T R Overton, G D Mechor, D E Bauman, T C Jenkins, D V Nydam
Fat is the most variable milk component, and maintaining milk fat continues to be a challenge on commercial dairy farms. Our objectives were to establish associations between herd-level risk factors for milk fat depression and bulk tank milk fat content in commercial dairy herds feeding monensin. Seventy-nine Holstein commercial dairy herds in the northeast and upper Midwestern United States were enrolled in an observational study. Data were collected on herd characteristics, total mixed ration (TMR) samples, all component silage samples, and bulk tank milk samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425478/postprandial-lipid-response-to-high-saturated-and-high-monounsaturated-fat-meals-in-normal-weight-or-overweight-women
#13
Lílian L Lopes, Daniela Mayumi U P Rocha, Alessandra da Silva, Maria do Carmo G Peluzio, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana M Hermsdorff
PURPOSE: We evaluated postprandial response of the lipid metabolism markers after the intake of a high-saturated fat (HSM) or high-monounsaturated fat meal (HMM). METHODS: A randomized, controlled and acute intervention study included 63 women (age 26.9 ± 6.1 years): 35 normal weight (NW) and 28 overweight (OW) (total body fat [TBF] 24.7 ± 3.9% and 36.6 ± 3.9%, respectively). After 12 hours of fasting, each subject was given one of the two test meals standardized, including 2 muffins and water (HSM, 42...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422481/investigation-of-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-in-men-with-uronephrolithiasis-and-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Inga Bikulčienė, Laima Vasiliauskaitė, Zita Aušrelė Kučinskienė, Arvydas Kaminskas, Vaiva Hendrixson
BACKGROUND Fatty acids (FA) and their metabolites are closely related to some mechanisms involved in the development of uronephrolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FA composition and type of kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS Abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid methyl esters of 71 men with nephrolithiasis were identified by GC/MS, and the type of kidney stones was identified using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type of kidney stone...
February 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414921/microrna-125a-5p-affects-adipocytes-proliferation-differentiation-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porcine-intramuscular-fat
#15
Jingjing Du, Yan Xu, Peiwen Zhang, Xue Zhao, Mailin Gan, Qiang Li, Jideng Ma, Guoqing Tang, Yanzhi Jiang, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and composition are considered crucial indicators of porcine meat quality. However, the molecular mechanism of porcine IMF development is still mostly unclear. Recently, new evidence suggested that microRNA (miRNAs) play important roles in porcine intramuscular adipogenesis. Previously, microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was identified as an important regulator of adipogenesis. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-125a-5p is dynamically regulated during porcine intramuscular preadipocytes differentiation and that its expression levels in different porcine muscle tissues were negatively involved with IMF content...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413675/fatty-acid-composition-of-polar-and-neutral-meat-lipids-of-goats-browsing-in-native-pasture-of-brazilian-semiarid
#16
Natália L O Fonteles, Susana P Alves, Marta Suely Madruga, Rita R E Queiroga, Albericio P Andrade, Divan S Silva, Amanda P Leal, Rui J B Bessa, Ariosvaldo N Medeiros
Thirty six male goats grazing Caatinga native pasture were randomly assigned to 4 concentrate supplementation levels (0, 5, 10 and 15g/kg of body weight) and slaughtered after 120days. Longissimus muscle meat lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar (PL) lipids. Supplementation of grazing goats increased linearly (P<0.05) intramuscular fat (1 to 1.5% of meat) and NL (0.3 to 1% of meat) but decreased linearly (P=0.044) the PL (0.66 to 0.50% of meat). On NL, supplementation increased linearly (P=0...
February 3, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411856/improving-methyl-ketone-production-in-e-coli-by-heterologous-expression-of-nadh-dependent-fabg
#17
Ee-Been Goh, Yan Chen, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling, Harry R Beller
We previously engineered E. coli to overproduce medium- to long-chain saturated and monounsaturated methyl ketones, which could potentially be applied as diesel fuel blending agents or in the flavor and fragrance industry. Recent efforts at strain optimization have focused on cofactor balance, as fatty acid-derived pathways face the systematic metabolic challenge of net NADPH consumption [in large part, resulting from the key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme FabG (β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase)] and net NADH production...
February 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409996/fatty-acid-composition-in-native-bees-associations-with-thermal-and-feeding-ecology
#18
Susma Giri, Daniel C Rule, Michael E Dillon
Fatty acid (FA) composition of lipids plays a crucial role in the functioning of lipid-containing structures in organisms and may be affected by the temperature an organism experiences, as well as its diet. We compared FA composition among four bee genera: Andrena, Bombus, Megachile, and Osmia which differ in their thermal ecology and diet. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by direct transesterification with KOH and analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Sixteen total FAs ranging in chain length from eight to 22 carbon atoms were identified...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409806/vitamin-a-deficiency-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-islet-cells-implications-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-mediated-oleic-acid-synthesis
#19
M Raja Gopal Reddy, S Mullapudi Venkata, U K Putcha, S M Jeyakumar
Previously, we reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in the reduction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, which corroborated with attenuation of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin A deficiency on SCD1, MUFA levels and their impact on pancreas' structure and functions. Male weanling Wistar rats fed one of the four diets, namely control (Con), vitamin A-deficient (VAD), highfructose (HFr) and vitamin A-deficient diet with highfructose (VADHFr) for 16 weeks period...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408060/utilization-of-centrate-from-urban-wastewater-plants-for-the-production-of-scenedesmus-sp-in-a-raceway-simulating-reactor
#20
Ahlem Jebali, F Gabriel Acién, Sami Sayadi, Emilio Molina-Grima
This work investigates the production of the native microalgae strain Scenedesmus sp. in semi-continuous mode at lab scale in open raceway-simulating reactors and using centrate as the culture medium. The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of Scenedesmus sp. at different dilution rates were investigated indoors as well as its tolerance to centrate as the culture medium at different concentrations. A biomass productivity of 7.80 g/m2 day was obtained at 200 μE/m2 s, 5 cm culture depth, 0...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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