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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919361/adverse-effects-on-insulin-secretion-of-replacing-saturated-fat-with-refined-carbohydrate-but-not-with-monounsaturated-fat-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-centrally-obese-subjects
#1
Lin F Chang, Shireene R Vethakkan, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Thomas A B Sanders, Kim-Tiu Teng
BACKGROUND: Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909891/canola-oil-rich-in-oleic-acid-improves-diastolic-heart-function-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#2
Sijo Joseph Thandapilly, Pema Raj, Xavier Lieben Louis, Danielle Perera, Prasanga Yamanagedara, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor, Thomas Netticadan
Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#3
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904041/fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-plays-a-key-role-in-regulating-cis-palmitoleic-acid-levels-in-the-liver
#4
Kohei Kawabata, Minako Karahashi, Takeshi Sakamoto, Yukiho Tsuji, Tohru Yamazaki, Mari Okazaki, Atsushi Mitsumoto, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima
Different monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) species have distinct pathophysiological activities. cis-Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) was previously reported to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies. The proportions of hepatic MUFAs are generally considered to reflect changes in the activities of fatty acid modifications (∆9 desaturation and fatty acid elongation). However, hepatic levels of 16:1n-7 are markedly lower than those of oleic acid (18:1n-9). Nevertheless, no convincing explanation has yet been provided for the low level of 16:1n-7...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903410/long-chain-n-3-pufa-supplied-by-the-usual-diet-decrease-plasma-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-index-in-non-hypertriglyceridemic-older-adults-at-high-vascular-risk
#5
Ana M Pérez-Heras, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana I Castellote, Carmen López-Sabater, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. METHODS: We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899485/circulating-microrna-122-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-new-onset-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Peter Willeit, Philipp Skroblin, Alexander R Moschen, Xiaoke Yin, Dorothee Kaudewitz, Anna Zampetaki, Temo Barwari, Meredith Whitehead, Cristina M Ramírez, Leigh Goedeke, Noemi Rotllan, Enzo Bonora, Alun D Hughes, Peter Santer, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Herbert Tilg, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is abundant in the liver and involved in lipid homeostasis, but its relevance to the long-term risk of developing metabolic disorders is unknown. We therefore measured circulating miR-122 in the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (n=810; survey year: 1995). Circulating miR-122 was associated with prevalent insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and an adverse lipid profile. Among 92 plasma proteins and 135 lipid subspecies quantified with mass spectrometry, it correlated inversely with zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein and positively with afamin, complement-factor H, VLDL-associated apolipoproteins, and lipid subspecies containing monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897978/effects-of-hazelnut-consumption-on-blood-lipids-and-body-weight-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gianluca Bonitta, Chiara Bologna, Antonio Isu, Davide Guido, Mariangela Rondanelli
Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891709/effect-of-dietary-kapok-oil-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-pork-in-finishing-pigs
#9
Keisuke Maeda, Kimiko Kohira, Hiroki Kubota, Kousuke Yamanaka, Kaoru Saito, Masakazu Irie
Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P < 0...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887752/changes-in-plasma-fatty-acid-composition-are-associated-with-improvements-in-obesity-and-related-metabolic-disorders-a-therapeutic-approach-to-overweight-adolescents
#10
Marcela Guerendiain, Rosa Montes, Gemma López-Belmonte, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Ana I Castellote, Elena Martín-Bautista, Amelia Martí, J Alfredo Martínez, Luis Moreno, Jesús Mª Garagorri, Julia Wärnberg, Javier Caballero, Ascensión Marcos, M Carmen López-Sabater, Cristina Campoy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884550/effects-of-changing-the-amount-and-source-of-dietary-carbohydrates-on-symptoms-and-dietary-satisfaction-over-a-1-year-period-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-canadian-trial-of-carbohydrates-in-diabetes-ccd
#11
Thomas M S Wolever, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Robert G Josse, Lawrence A Leiter, Pierre Maheux, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, N Wilson Rodger, Edmond A Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effects of changing the amount or source of dietary carbohydrate on quality of life (QOL), symptoms and dietary satisfaction in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Subjects with diabetes treated by diet alone (n=162) were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate/high-glycemic-index (HGI) diets; high-carbohydrate/low-glycemic-index (LGI) diets; or lower-carbohydrate/high-monounsaturated-fat (LC) diets for 1 year. We measured QOL at baseline and at study's end, and we measured symptoms and dietary satisfaction quarterly...
November 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884102/gene-expression-profile-of-intramuscular-muscle-in-nellore-cattle-with-extreme-values-of-fatty-acid
#12
Mariana P Berton, Larissa F S Fonseca, Daniela F J Gimenez, Bruno L Utembergue, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Marcos Vinicius A de Lemos, Carolyn Aboujaoude, Angélica S C Pereira, Rafael M de O Silva, Nedenia B Stafuzza, Fabieli L B Feitosa, Hermenegildo L J Chiaia, Bianca F Olivieri, Elisa Peripolli, Rafael L Tonussi, Daniel M Gordo, Rafael Espigolan, Adrielle M Ferrinho, Lenise F Mueller, Lucia G de Albuquerque, Henrique N de Oliveira, Susan Duckett, Fernando Baldi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid type in beef can be detrimental to human health and has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in longissimus thoracis muscle of 48 Nellore young bulls with extreme phenotypes for fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat by RNA-seq technique. RESULTS: Differential expression analyses between animals with extreme phenotype for fatty acid composition showed a total of 13 differentially expressed genes for myristic (C14:0), 35 for palmitic (C16:0), 187 for stearic (C18:0), 371 for oleic (C18:1, cis-9), 24 for conjugated linoleic (C18:2 cis-9, trans11, CLA), 89 for linoleic (C18:2 cis-9,12 n6), and 110 genes for α-linolenic (C18:3 n3) fatty acids...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881420/elongation-of-long-chain-fatty-acid-family-member-6-elovl6-driven-fatty-acid-metabolism-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-ampk-klf4-signaling
#13
Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Saki Anjo, Mas Risky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Tatsuya Iso, Takashi Matsuzaka, Hitoshi Shimano, Tomoyuki Yokoyama, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids constitute the critical components of cell structure and function, and dysregulation of fatty acid composition may exert diverging vascular effects including proliferation, migration, and differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, direct evidence for this hypothesis has been lacking. We investigated the role of elongation of long-chain fatty acid member 6 (Elovl6), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid, in the regulation of phenotypic switching of VSMC...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881409/intake-of-individual-saturated-fatty-acids-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-us-men-and-women-two-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#14
Geng Zong, Yanping Li, Anne J Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Peter L Zock, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. DESIGN:  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline...
November 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876051/dietary-marine-derived-long-chain-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Zhi-Hong Yang, Beatrice Emma-Okon, Alan T Remaley
Regular fish/fish oil consumption is widely recommended for protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Fish and other marine life are rich sources of the cardioprotective long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA). The lipid content and fatty acid profile of fish, however, vary greatly among different fish species. In addition to n-3 PUFA, certain fish, such as saury, pollock, and herring, also contain high levels of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA), with aliphatic tails longer than 18 C atoms (i...
November 22, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870652/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-macrophages-a-target-in-cardio-metabolic-diseases
#16
Louise Ménégaut, Charles Thomas, Laurent Lagrost, David Masson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted that macrophages dynamically and autonomously handle all the facets of fatty acid (FA) metabolism including FA oxidation and FA synthesis as well as the synthesis of monounsaturated FAs and long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophage M2 polarization is associated with an increase of FA oxidation. However, whether increased FA oxidation simply correlates with or is required for M2 polarization needs to be further evaluated...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864781/isolation-identification-and-high-throughput-screening-of-neutral-lipid-producing-indigenous-microalgae-from-south-african-aquatic-habitats
#17
S T Gumbi, B M Majeke, A O Olaniran, T Mutanda
Exploring indigenous microalgae capable of producing significant amounts of neutral lipids through high-throughput screening is crucial for sustainable biodiesel production. In this study, 31 indigenous microalgal strains were isolated from diverse aquatic habitats in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Eight superior lipid-producing strains were selected for further analysis, based on Nile red fluorescence microscopy screening. The microalgal isolates were identified to belong to the genera Chlorella, Neochloris and Chlamydomonas via morpho-taxonomic and molecular approach by 18S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861513/high-expression-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Jianfeng Wang, Yunze Xu, Liangsong Zhu, Yun Zou, Wen Kong, Baijun Dong, Jiwei Huang, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids, have been gradually recognized as a potential therapeutic target for various malignancies, particularly in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the prognostic value of SCD1 in ccRCC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of SCD1 expression in patients with ccRCC. SCD1 expression in tumor tissues obtained from 359 patients who underwent nephrectomy for ccRCC are retrospectively assessed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857545/fatty-acid-profiles-of-ten-muscles-from-high-and-low-marbled-quality-grade-1-and-2-hanwoo-steers
#19
Young-Hwa Hwang, Seon-Tea Joo
The aim of this research was to evaluate: 1) the fatty acid profile of ten muscles from high marbled (HM, quality grade 1(++)) and low marbled (LM, quality grade 2) Hanwoo carcass, 2) the relationship between the fatty acid profile and sensory traits. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid composition among the 10 muscles obtained from HM and LM Hanwoo steers. The proportions of SFA (saturated fatty acid), MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acid) and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) were significantly (p<0...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857540/meat-quality-and-physicochemical-trait-assessments-of-berkshire-and-commercial-3-way-crossbred-pigs
#20
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Da Rae Kang, Shah Ahmed Belal, Eun-So-Ri Cho, Jong-Hyun Jung, Young-Chul Jung, Yang-Il Choi, Kwan-Seob Shim
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
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