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Stem cell transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914026/limbal-stem-cell-and-oral-mucosal-epithelial-transplantation-from-ex-vivo-cultivation-in-lscd-induced-rabbits-histology-and-immunologic-study-of-the-transplant-epithelial-sheet
#1
Napaporn Tananuvat, Kanokkan Bumroongkit, Chainarong Tocharusa, Umnat Mevatee, Aphisek Kongkaew, Somsanguan Ausayakhun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (CLET and COMET) in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)-induced rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three rabbits each. Limbal tissue was harvested from the first group, and oral mucosal biopsy was obtained from the second group. The tissues were cultured using an explant technique with amniotic membrane as a substrate and co-culture with the 3T3 fibroblast and air-lifting method...
December 2, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913896/mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#2
Leilei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Liangliang Tao, Zhijian Yang, Liansheng Wang
PURPOSE: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. RESULTS: Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913534/myelodysplastic-and-myeloproliferative-disorders-of-childhood
#3
Henrik Hasle
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorders are rare in children; they are divided into low-grade MDS (refractory cytopenia of childhood [RCC]), advanced MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), each with different characteristics and management strategies. Underlying genetic predisposition is recognized in an increasing number of patients. Germ line GATA2 mutation is found in 70% of adolescents with MDS and monosomy 7. It is challenging to distinguish RCC from aplastic anemia, inherited bone marrow failure, and reactive conditions...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913531/treatment-of-older-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Nicola Gökbuget
The treatment of older patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an unmet medical need. With increasing age, ALL patients have a significantly lower clinical remission rate, higher early mortality, higher relapse rate, and poorer survival compared with younger patients. This is only partly explained by a higher incidence of poor prognostic factors in the older age group. Most importantly, intensive chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation (SCT) is less well tolerated in older patients...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913522/role-of-stem-cell-transplant-and-maintenance-therapy-in-plasma-cell-disorders
#5
Philip L McCarthy, Sarah A Holstein
Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been an important component of therapy for myeloma patients eligible for high-dose chemotherapy. Recent studies comparing early transplant to low-dose chemotherapy support the continued use of ASCT as consolidation following induction therapy, even in the era of immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, and other novel agents. Despite the marked improvements in outcomes with this approach, most patients will eventually experience disease progression. Thus, inclusion of post-ASCT consolidation/maintenance strategies is used to improve long-term disease control...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913521/sequencing-of-nontransplant-treatments-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-with-active-disease
#6
Andrew J Yee, Noopur S Raje
The approval of several different classes of drugs in recent years has resulted in a dramatic expansion of treatment options for multiple myeloma patients, improving both survival and quality of life. Lenalidomide and bortezomib are now core components of treatment both at time of diagnosis and at relapse. Next-generation immunomodulatory drugs, like pomalidomide, and newer proteasome inhibitors like carfilzomib and ixazomib are available for use at relapse. Drugs with novel mechanisms of action such as the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat and the monoclonal antibodies targeting SLAMF7 (elotuzumab) and CD38 (daratumumab) are significant steps forward...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913520/myeloma-management-of-the-newly-diagnosed-high-risk-patient
#7
Angela Dispenzieri
Although there have been many definitions for high-risk (HR) myeloma, most recent consensus for classifying risk in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NMM) comes from the International Myeloma Working Group. This recently published revised International Staging System includes del(17p) or t(4;14) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, β-2 microglobulin, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase. These elements should be captured in all NMM patients. The optimal treatments for HR myeloma have not been fully worked out; therefore, these patients should be considered for clinical trials...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913519/transplantation-for-myelodysplastic-syndromes-who-when-and-which-conditioning-regimens
#8
Wael Saber, Mary M Horowitz
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Broad application is hindered by high risks of transplant-related morbidity and mortality, especially in the older age range represented by the MDS population. However, recent advances in strategies to minimize regimen-related toxicity make HCT a viable option for many more patients. Appropriate selection of patients involves consideration of patient factors, including use of geriatric assessment tools and comorbidity scales, that predict risks of regimen-related toxicity as well as disease factors, including genetic markers, which predict survival with both non-HCT and HCT therapy...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913517/treatment-of-low-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#9
Valeria Santini
The majority of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belong to the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and IPSS-revised (IPSS-R) lower-risk categories. Their precise diagnostics and prognostic stratification is often a challenge, but may ensure the optimization of therapy. The availability of diverse treatment options has significantly improved the quality of life and survival of this group of patients. Anemia is the most relevant cytopenia in terms of frequency and symptoms in lower-risk MDS, and may be treated successfully with erythropoietic stimulating agents, provided a careful selection is performed on the basis of IPSS-R, endogenous erythropoietin levels, and transfusion independence...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913510/frontline-therapy-and-role-of-high-dose-consolidation-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#10
Simon Rule
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is predominantly a disease of older individuals, with a median age at presentation of ∼70 years. For the majority of patients, the management revolves around immuno-chemotherapy often followed by maintenance rituximab, and at relapse, a range of options are available. For the younger patient, it is possible to be more intensive with therapy, consolidate responses with high-dose procedures, and in a few there might be the prospect of a cure...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913499/novel-agents-and-strategies-in-transplant-eligible-patients-with-relapsed-and-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma
#11
Craig Moskowitz
The majority of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are cured with frontline therapy; however, 10% to 15% with early-stage disease and 20% to 30% with advanced stage require second-line therapy that includes a potentially curative transplant, of which an additional 50% to 55% are cured. Those with multiply relapsed disease traditionally would receive novel agents on a clinical trial or combination chemotherapy as a potential bridge to an allogeneic stem cell transplant. This treatment paradigm has changed with the availability of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody drug conjugate used pre- and post-ASCT, as well as for palliation...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913469/can-we-make-a-better-match-or-mismatch-with-kir-genotyping
#12
Rohtesh S Mehta, Katayoun Rezvani
Natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a fine balance between numerous activating and inhibitory receptors, of which killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are among the most polymorphic and comprehensively studied. KIRs allow NK cells to recognize downregulation or the absence of HLA class I molecules on target cells (known as missing-self), a phenomenon that is commonly observed in virally infected cells or cancer cells. Because KIR and HLA genes are located on different chromosomes, in an allogeneic environment such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor NK cells that express an inhibitory KIR for an HLA class I molecule that is absent on recipient targets (KIR/KIR-ligand mismatch), can recognize and react to this missing self and mediate cytotoxicity...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913467/transplantation-for-bone-marrow-failure-current-issues
#13
Régis Peffault de Latour
The preferred treatment of idiopathic aplastic anemia (AA) is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor. Transplantation from a well-matched unrelated donor (MUD) may be considered for patients without a sibling donor after failure of immunosuppressive therapy, as may alternative transplantation (mismatched, cord blood or haplo-identical HSCT) for patients without a MUD. HSCT may also be contemplated for congenital disorders in cases of pancytopenia or severe isolated cytopenia...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913465/aplastic-anemia-and-clonal-evolution-germ-line-and-somatic-genetics
#14
Akiko Shimamura
Clonal progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a dreaded complication for a subset of patients with bone marrow failure (BMF). Recognizing risk factors for the development of MDS or AML would inform individualized treatment decisions and identify patients who may benefit from early or upfront hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Now that next-generation DNA sequencing is available in the clinical laboratory, research has focused on the implications of germ line and somatic mutations for diagnosing and monitoring patients with BMF...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913459/children-with-rare-diseases-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-from-therapeutic-orphans-to-pioneers-of-individualized-medicine
#15
Christoph Klein
Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant immune cells in the blood yet the pathways orchestrating their differentiation and biological function remain incompletely understood. Studying (ultra-) rare patients with monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes may open new horizons to understand basic principles of hematopoiesis and innate immunity. Here, recent insights into genetic factors controlling myelopoiesis and their more general role in biology will be presented in a clinical perspective. Advances in supportive care, first and foremost the use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has made a substantial difference for the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913458/therapy-related-myeloid-neoplasms-does-knowing-the-origin-help-to-guide-treatment
#16
Michael Heuser
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) combine t-MDS and therapy related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) patients in one entity because of their similar pathogenesis, rapid progression from t-MDS to t-AML, and their equally poor prognosis. Treatment with epipodophyllotoxins like etoposide has been associated with a short interval between treatment and development of t-AML, with fusion oncogenes like KMT2A/MLL-MLLT3 and a better prognosis. In contrast, treatment with alkylating agents has been associated with a longer latency, an initial MDS phase, adverse cytogenetics, and a poor prognosis...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912993/rehabilitation-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#17
REVIEW
Sean Robinson Smith, Arash Asher
Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a potentially debilitating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to the direct inflammatory effects of the disease on tissue, and the impact on muscle and bone of the high-dose glucocorticoid immunosuppression used to treat the disease, patients are at risk of developing multifactorial functional impairment. This review outlines the clinical assessment and rehabilitation interventions to manage aspects of the disease that cause the most impairment: involvement of the skin/fascial and cardiopulmonary organ systems, as well as steroid-induced myopathy and bone and joint destruction...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912953/evaluating-the-effect-of-matricaria-recutita-and-mentha-piperita-herbal-mouthwash-on-management-of-oral-mucositis-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Maria Tavakoli Ardakani, Sara Ghassemi, Mahshid Mehdizadeh, Faraz Mojab, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Samaneh Ghassemi, Abbas Hajifathali
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of Matricaria recutita and Mentha piperita on oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). DESIGN: Randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, and Bone Marrow Transplantation Center at Taleghani Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients undergoing HSCT were randomly assigned to two groups: placebo (n=33), and herbal mouthwash group (n=27)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912088/enhancing-stem-cell-transplantation-with-nutri-technology
#20
Valter D Longo, Salvatore Cortellino
It is necessary to employ myeloablative irradiation or chemotherapy to deplete the HSC niche to optimize hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In a recent issue of Science, Taya and colleagues provide evidence for an alternative to the toxic chemoirradiative procedure by showing that a valine-restricted diet is sufficient to empty the bone marrow niche.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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