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Orthoptics and Refraction

Dorothée C van Trier, Anna M C Vos, Renske W Draaijer, Ineke van der Burgt, Jos M Th Draaisma, Johannes R M Cruysberg
PURPOSE: To determine the full spectrum of ocular manifestations in patients with Noonan syndrome (NS). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional clinical and genetic study in a tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with NS (mean age, 14 years; range, 8 months-25 years) clinically diagnosed by validated criteria. METHODS: All patients were examined by the same team following a detailed study protocol...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Sevilay Karahan, Ali Sefik Sanac
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the fixation preference testing with 10 and 20 diopter prisms ((Δ)) in children without strabismus in order to extrapolate its utility to preverbal children and to determine interexaminer agreement. Fourty children (24 girls, 16 boys) aged between 5 and 16 years with normal ophthalmological examination except refractive errors were included in the study. The visual acuity, refractive errors, and orthoptic findings were recorded. The base-down prism fixation test was performed by two experienced examiners with 10(Δ) and 20(Δ)...
August 6, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Nazife Sefi-Yurdakul, Betül Tuğcu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of strabismus in children initially diagnosed with pseudostrabismus and to identify risk factors for the development of strabismus. METHODS: The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with pseudostrabismus at initial examinations in outpatient clinic were reviewed retrospectively. Follow-up examinations were made at the strabismus department. Age at first examination, gender, family and developmental history, ophthalmic and orthoptic findings including orbit, and eyelid pathologies were investigated...
June 2016: Strabismus
C E Hagander, G Traber, K Landau, G P Jaggi
BACKGROUND: Glasses for children are recommended and prescribed by different groups of professionals. We set out to compare the prescription practices of ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists/opticians in Switzerland. METHODS: Online questionnaire on the prescription and recommendation of glasses in fictitious cases of children of different ages, refractive values and symptoms. The questionnaire was sent out to members of the Swiss Ophthalmological Society, Swiss Orthoptics and Schweizerischer Berufsverband für Augenoptik und Optometrie...
April 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
O Ehrt
Amblyopia is a frequent vision disorder with a prevalence of 3-6%, for which early treatment is more effective. More than half of the cases of amblyopia are due to refractive errors so that they are not obvious due to strabismus or other ocular abnormalities; therefore, examinations for early recognition are essential. Because no nationwide ophthalmological examination of infants with cycloplegia has been established in Germany, screening for refractive errors in the first 3 years of life could be very helpful...
April 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Naz Jehangir, S M Jafar Mahmood, Tova Mannis, Majid Moshirfar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to highlight some common issues when planning cataract surgery in patients with preexisting ocular pathologies and to assess the role of ocular dominance in cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to routine ocular examination, determination of ocular dominance and orthoptic evaluation for tropias, phorias, amblyopia, and diplopia can be helpful in planning for cataract surgery as these factors can affect postoperative outcomes...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
R Bergholz, D J Salchow
Intermittent exotropia (IXT) is a congenital form of divergent strabismus. Its incidence is estimated to be 32 per 100 000. Most often, IXT is first noted in early childhood when intermittently manifest outward deviation of the eyes is seen. Patients with IXT can control the deviation and keep the eyes aligned; this ability can be measured with "control scores". Complications such as amblyopia and loss of binocular functions are rare but should be looked for and need to be avoided. IXT can have a negative impact on quality of life...
October 2015: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Xiao-Ran Yan, Wan-Zhen Jiao, Zhi-Wei Li, Wen-Wen Xu, Feng-Jiao Li, Li-Hua Wang
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of the Plusoptix A09 photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children and determine referral criteria when using Plusoptix A09 for a large-scale vision screening. METHODS: Pediatric patients attending our eye clinic underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included photorefraction, orthoptic examination, anterior segment assessment, fundus examination and cycloplegic retinoscopy. The measurements were collected for statistical analyses...
2015: PloS One
Lina Raffa, Eva Aring, Jovanna Dahlgren, Ann-Katrine Karlsson, Marita Andersson Grönlund
PURPOSE: To evaluate ophthalmological findings in preschool children born moderate-to- late preterm (MLP) and relate the findings to auxological data at birth and at 5.5 years of age. METHODS: Seventy-eight MLP children [gestational age (GA) 32-36 weeks; 34 girls; mean age 5.7 years] were investigated. Gestational age, weight, length and head circumference at birth and at the time of assessment were registered. Visual acuity (VA), refraction, orthoptic evaluation, slit-lamp examination and ophthalmoscopy were conducted, and a history of visuoperceptual problems was recorded...
November 2015: Acta Ophthalmologica
Hamid Gharaee, Masoud Shafiee, Rafie Hoseini, Mojtaba Abrishami, Yalda Abrishami, Mostafa Abrishami
BACKGROUND: The angle kappa is important in proper centration of corneal ablation in keratorefractive surgery. Orbscan II device is widely used preoperatively in photoablation surgeries and can be used to measure the angle kappa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the mean angle kappa and its intercepts in healthy young Iranian adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, orthotropic patients (age range, 18-35 years) who were referred to the Khatam Eye Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) were included...
January 2015: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
J-A Little, K J Saunders
OBJECTIVE: Visual dysfunction is more common in children with neurological impairments and previous studies have recommended such children receive visual and refractive assessment. In the UK, children with neurological impairment often have educational statementing for Special Educational Needs (SEN) and the statement should detail all health care and support needs to ensure the child's needs are met during school life. STUDY DESIGN: This study examined the representation of visual information in statements of SEN and compared this to orthoptic visual information from school visual assessments for children in a special school in Northern Ireland, UK...
February 2015: Public Health
Seung Ah Chung, Il Suk Yun, Jong Wook Moon, Jong Bok Lee
The ocular and systemic abnormalities of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are often considered to be less severe than those of syndromic craniosynostosis and are less well described. The purpose of this article was to describe the frequency and nature of ophthalmic abnormalities in children treated for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis by expansion cranioplasty. A retrospective review identified 88 consecutive children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis who underwent expansion cranioplasty with distraction osteogenesis...
January 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Imran H Yusuf, Chetan Kantibhai Patel, John F Salmon
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8 weeks of life...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Chiara Ancona, Monica Stoppani, Veronica Odazio, Carlo La Spina, Giulia Corradetti, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To compare four stereo tests (Lang I, Lang II, Titmus, and TNO) and assess their effectiveness. The main focus of this study is to identify the most useful stereo test as a challenging tool in the screening of strabismus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 143 Caucasian subjects, 74 males (52%) and 69 females (48%), aged between 4 years and 78 years (mean age 19.09±15.12 years) were examined at our Strabismus Service (Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy) and included in this observational cross-sectional study...
2014: Clinical Ophthalmology
Nikolaos Kozeis, Georgios D Panos, Dimitrios I Zafeiriou, Philippe de Gottrau, Zisis Gatzioufas
The purpose of this study was to examine the refractive status, orthoptic status and visual perception in a group of preterm and another of full-term children with cerebral palsy, in order to investigate whether prematurity has an effect on the development of refractive errors and binocular disorders. A hundred school-aged children, 70 preterm and 30 full-term, with congenital cerebral palsy were examined. Differences for hypermetropia, myopia, and emmetropia were not statistically significant between the 2 groups...
July 2015: Journal of Child Neurology
Carla Lança, Helena Serra, João Prista
INTRODUCTION: Visual anomalies that affect school-age children represent an important public health problem. Data on the prevalence are lacking in Portugal but is needed for planning vision services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of strabismus, decreased visual acuity, and uncorrected refractive error in Portuguese children aged 6 to 11 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 672 school-age children (7...
September 2014: Strabismus
Lidia Puchalska-Niedbał, Stanisław Zajączek, Elżbieta Petriczko, Urszula Kulik
The Aim. Ring chromosome 15 is a very rare genetic abnormality with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. Up to date, about 50 cases have been documented, whereas no reports on ophthalmological treatment of such patients have been published. The aim of this study is not only to describe a new patient, but also, for the first time, to present the results of nonoperative management of divergent strabismus. Material and Methods. We present an amblyopic patient with 46,XX, r(15) karyotype: treated conservatively for exotropia of 60 prism diopters...
2014: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Alexander Oscar, Sylvia Cherninkova, Vasil Haykin, Ani Aroyo, Alina Levi, Nikolay Marinov, Stanislava Kostova, Chavdar Elenkov, Nevyana Veleva, Violeta Chernodrinska, Iva Petkova, Jeffrey Spitzer
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and the average age at first ophthalmological examination of school-aged children from northwestern Bulgaria. METHODS: Visual acuity testing, stereopsis, orthoptics, ocular motility, non-cycloplegic refraction, direct ophthalmoscopy, and external ocular inspection were performed. Cycloplegic refraction and indirect ophthalmoscopy were done as necessary. A total of 2,054 children (1,020 girls and 1,034 boys) were divided into three age groups: 6 to 8 years (803 children), 8 to 10 years (719 children), and 10 to 12 years (530 children)...
September 2014: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
C Orssaud
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the entire visual system, including the extra-striate cortex. It manifests mainly by impaired visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. However, other abnormalities of visual function can be observed, such as decreased contrast sensitivity and stereoscopic vision, and some abnormalities can be found in the "good" eye. Amblyopia occurs during the critical period of brain development. It may be due to organic pathology of the visual pathways, visual deprivation or functional abnormalities, mainly anisometropia or strabismus...
June 2014: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
M Fresina, A Finzi, P Versura, E C Campos
PURPOSE: To describe the results achieved using muscle belly union associated with the recession of the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle to treat myopic myopathy and restore the normal anatomical relationship of superior and lateral rectus (LR). METHODS: A retrospective, nonrandomized study performed on 33 eyes of 26 patients who underwent muscle belly union between January 2004 and October 2012. We preoperatively and postoperatively recorded: best-corrected visual acuity; refraction; intraocular pressure; complete orthoptic assessment, including the angle of deviation and maximal abduction measured using the Goldmann perimeter...
May 2014: Eye
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