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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331006/outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-burn-unit
#1
Usman Ali, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Fatima Kaleem, Irum Aftab, Tariq Butt
Stenotrophomonas maltophiliais an emerging cause of nosocomial infections. We report an outbreak of XDR-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection from burn unit of a tertiary care hospital in July 2016. The strain isolated was resistant to all antimicrobials tested but colistin. Outbreak investigation was carried out which subsided after timely intervention. Patients were treated adequately by Colistin.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324651/incidence-microbiological-profile-and-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-a-10-year-observation-in-a-provincial-hospital-in-southern-poland
#2
Małgorzata Kołpa, Marta Wałaszek, Agnieszka Gniadek, Zdzisław Wolak, Wiesław Dobroś
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319497/comparison-of-the-treatment-efficacy-between-tigecycline-plus-high-dose-cefoperazone-sulbactam-and-tigecycline-monotherapy-against-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
Youfa Qin, Jie Zhang, Lei Wu, Dailong Zhang, Lunjiao Fu, Xiaoyan Xue
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effect of high-dose cefoperazone-sulbactam combined with tigecycline against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 patients with VAP due to XDR-AB infection were randomized into two groups: the TIG group (received tigecycline injection) and the TIG+CFS group (received tigecycline and cefoperazone-sulbactam (1 : 1) injection)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#4
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311073/the-validation-of-cycloserine-efficacy-in-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-beijing-china
#5
Xia Yu, Xiling Zeng, Wenhui Shi, Yanjie Hu, Wenjuan Nie, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang
Cycloserine is recommended by the World Health Organization as a second line drug to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR TB), however its efficacy has never been sufficiently evaluated. To gain some insights into the value of cycloserine (Cs) for MDR TB treatment, in vitro bacteriostatic effect and patient validations were performed prospectively.The in vitro activity of Cs against 104 wild-type M. tuberculosis strains was determined, and serum Cs concentration was measured for 73 MDR TB patients 2 hours after administration...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310751/multi-clonal-evolution-of-multi-drug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-high-prevalence-setting-of-papua-new-guinea-for-over-three-decades
#6
Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Stenard Hiashiri, Suman Majumdar, Alice Honjepari, Rendi Moke, Paison Dakulala, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Sushil Pandey, Ben J Marais, Chris Coulter, Lachlan Coin
An outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported on Daru Island, Papua New Guinea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains driving this outbreak and the temporal accrual of drug resistance mutations have not been described. Whole genome sequencing of 100 of 165 clinical isolates referred from Daru General Hospital to the Supranational reference laboratory, Brisbane, during 2012-2015 revealed that 95 belonged to a single modern Beijing sub-lineage strain. Molecular dating suggested acquisition of streptomycin and isoniazid resistance in the 1960s, with potentially enhanced virulence mediated by an mycP1 mutation...
January 4, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305982/melt-extrusion-process-for-adjusting-drug-release-of-poorly-water-soluble-drug-felodipine-using-different-polymer-matrices
#7
Eirini Palazi, Evangelos Karavas, Panagiotis Barmpalexis, Margaritis Kostoglou, Stavroula Nanaki, Evi Christodoulou, Dimitrios N Bikiaris
The purpose of the present study was to use commercial available polymers like PVP/PEG, soluplus® and kollidon® SR to prepare immediate and sustained release formulations of felodipine by hot melt mixing method. Solid dispersions containing 5, 10, 20 and 30wt% drug have been prepared in a Haake-Buchler Reomixer at melt temperatures 130°C and mixing times 10min. As was found from DSC and XDR studies completely amorphous and miscible solid dispersions can be prepared. In all cases a single glass transition was recorded, which is depending from the used drug amount...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#8
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305368/treatment-of-a-complex-orthopaedic-infection-due-to-extensively-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Sidra Hassan, Mani D Kahn, Nidhi Saraiya, Priya Nori
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 51 000 healthcare-associated infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occur annually in the USA, more than 6000 of which (13%) are caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (TOL/TAZ) (Zerbaxa) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2014 for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections. At this time, clinical data on the role of TOL/TAZ treatment outside of FDA-approved indications is limited...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305096/automated-real-time-detection-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-a-lab-on-a-disc-by-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#10
I L G Law, J F C Loo, H C Kwok, H Y Yeung, C C H Leung, M Hui, S Y Wu, H S Chan, Y W Kwan, H P Ho, S K Kong
With the emergence of multi- and extensive-drug (MDR/XDR) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), tuberculosis (TB) persists as one of the world's leading causes of death. Recently, isothermal DNA amplification methods received much attention due to their ease of translation onto portable point-of-care (POC) devices for TB diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to devise a simple yet robust detection method for M. tb. Amongst the numerous up-and-coming isothermal techniques, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was chosen for a real-time detection of TB with or without MDR...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297426/risk-factors-for-extensive-drug-resistance-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-a-case-case-study
#11
L Guglielmetti, N Veziris, A Aubry, F Brossier, C Bernard, W Sougakoff, V Jarlier, J Robert
SETTINGS: Identification of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) may be delayed because of the lack of availability of molecular testing for second-line drugs (SLDs). Early suspicion of XDR-TB is therefore necessary to avoid developing further drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics associated with XDR-TB among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases before the availability of second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. METHODS: All MDR-TB cases with available second-line DST results recorded in France from 1998 to 2013 were classified as simple MDR-TB (no resistance to fluoroquinolones [FQs] or second-line injectable drugs [SLIDs]), pre-XDR-TB (resistance to FQs or SLIDs) and XDR-TB cases (resistance to both)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297425/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-burden-and-mutations-causing-second-line-drug-resistance
#12
P W Ei, W W Aung, W W Nyunt, T L Swe, M M Htwe, S M Win, S T Aung, C L Chang, H-Y Lee, J S Lee
SETTING: Two tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratories in Myanmar. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) cases among multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases and the mutations that cause resistance to second-line drugs in Myanmar. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected during 2015-2016. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed and drug-resistant mutations identified by sequencing...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297423/meropenem-clavulanate-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-follow-up-of-relapse-free-cases
#13
M C Payen, I Muylle, O Vandenberg, V Mathys, M Delforge, S Van den Wijngaert, N Clumeck, S De Wit
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), defined as TB caused by a Mycobacterium strain resistant to at least rifampicin, isoniazid, any fluoroquinolone and one of the injectable anti-tuberculosis drugs, remains a worldwide public health threat. Among repurposed drugs empirically used for XDR-TB cases, carbapenems have been studied in vitro and in animal models, with encouraging results. However, only short-term follow-up data from clinical studies are currently available...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288723/intravenous-colistin-combination-antimicrobial-treatment-versus-monotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether IV colistin in combination with other antibiotics (IVCC) was associated with lower mortality compared to colistin monotherapy (IVCM) and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with MDR/XDR Gram-negative infections and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IVCC versus IVCM...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282012/comparison-of-line-probe-assay-to-bactec-mgit-960-system-for-susceptibility-testing-of-first-and-second-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-a-referral-laboratory-in-south-africa
#15
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Lesibana A Malinga, John F Antiabong, Ruth M Lekalakala, Nontombi M Mbelle
BACKGROUND: The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a major challenge. Controlling resistance, reducing transmission and improving treatment outcomes in MDR/XDR-TB patients is reliant on susceptibility testing. Susceptibility testing using phenotypic methods is labour intensive and time-consuming. Alternative methods, such as molecular assays are easier to perform and have a rapid turn-around time...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281191/hyperbaric-oxygen-suppresses-growth-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-enhances-effect-of-tigecycline-in-vitro
#16
Lina Zhang, Qing Sun, Di Wu, Ying Yang, Tao Yu, Guangkai Gao
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) will inhibit growth of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-K. pneumoniae) and extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-K. pneumoniae); (2) To determine whether the effect of tigecycline on XDR-K. pneumoniae will be enhanced by HBO₂. METHODS: The effects of 1.5 hours of treatment with normoxia (21% O₂, 1 atmosphere absolute/ATA) or HBO₂ (100% O₂, 2 ATA) on bacterial counts of eight isolates of MDR-K...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280536/screening-of-genes-involved-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-differential-expression-of-complement-related-genes-induced-by-pax2-in-renal-tubules
#17
Xiu-Li Wang, Ling Hou, Cheng-Guang Zhao, Ying Tang, Bo Zhang, Jing-Ying Zhao, Yu-Bin Wu
AIM: To screen and verify downstream genes involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by paired box 2 (PAX2) in NRK-52E cells. METHODS: NRK-52E cells were transfected with lentivirus carrying PAX2 gene or no-load virus respectively. Total RNA was isolated 72 hr after transfection from PAX2-overexpressing cells and control cells. Isolated RNA was then hybridized with the Rat OneArray Plus expression profile chip. The chips were examined by Agilent 0...
December 27, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277728/draft-genome-sequence-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-belonging-to-st644-isolated-from-a-footpad-infection-in-a-magellanic-penguin-spheniscus-magellanicus
#18
Fábio P Sellera, Miriam R Fernandes, Quézia Moura, Tiago A Souza, Cristiane L Nascimento, Louise Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in wildlife animals has been investigated in order to improve the knowledge on the spreading of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was to report the first draft genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST644 recovered from a Magellanic penguin with footpad infection undergoing rehabilitation process. METHODS: Genome was sequenced on Illumina NextSeq platform, using paired-end reads (150bp)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276044/intraclonal-variations-of-resistance-and-phenotype-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-epidemic-high-risk-clone-st308-a-key-to-success-within-a-hospital
#19
F Abdouchakour, F Aujoulat, P Licznar-Fajardo, H Marchandin, M Toubiana, S Parer, A Lotthé, E Jumas-Bilak
Most multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa strains belonged to epidemic high-risk (EHR) clones that succeeded worldwide in the context of hospital outbreaks. In order to study the intraclonal diversity in EHR P. aeruginosa, we selected clinical and environmental strains of the EHR clone ST308 that caused outbreak clusters over five years in a hospital and then persisted in the hospital environment during four additional years, causing sporadic infections. Unexpectedly, resistance phenotype was very diverse within the population, independently of the origin (environmental or human) and the period of isolation (during or after outbreaks)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274493/1-3-5-triazaspiro-5-5-undeca-2-4-dienes-as-selective-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dihydrofolate-reductase-inhibitors-with-potent-whole-cell-activity
#20
Xuan Yang, Wassihun Wedajo, Yoshiyuki Yamada, Sue-Li Dahlroth, Jason Jun-Long Neo, Thomas Dick, Wai-Keung Chui
The emergence of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tubercular (MDR- and XDR-TB) strains of mycobacteria has limited the use of existing therapies, therefore new drugs are needed. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has recently attracted much attention as a target for the development of anti-TB agents. This study aimed to develop selective M. tuberculosis DHFR inhibitors using rationale scaffolding design and synthesis, phenotype-oriented screening, enzymatic inhibitory study, whole cell on-target validation, molecular modeling, and in vitro DMPK determination to derive new anti-TB agents...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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