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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630430/a-multinational-analysis-of-mutations-and-heterogeneity-in-pzase-rpsa-and-pand-associated-with-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-m-xdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
S M Ramirez-Busby, T C Rodwell, L Fink, D Catanzaro, R L Jackson, M Pettigrove, A Catanzaro, F Valafar
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug in all existing and new tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens. PZA-resistance in M. tuberculosis is increasing, especially among M/XDR cases. Noted issues with PZA Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) have driven the search for alternative tests. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of PZA molecular diagnostics in M/XDR TB cases. A set of 296, mostly XDR, clinical M. tuberculosis isolates from four countries were subjected to DST for eight drugs, confirmatory Wayne's assay, and whole-genome sequencing...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630206/rapid-and-consistent-evolution-of-colistin-resistance-in-xdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-during-morbidostat-culture
#2
Bianca Regenbogen, Matthias Willmann, Matthias Steglich, Boyke Bunk, Ulrich Nübel, Silke Peter, Richard A Neher
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic commonly used against multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa To investigate the potential for in-situ evolution of resistance against colistin and to map the molecular targets of colistin resistance, we exposed two P. aeruginosa isolates to colistin using a continuous culture device known as morbidostat. As a result, colistin resistance reproducibly increased 10-fold within ten days, and 100-fold within 20 days, along with highly stereotypic, yet strain specific mutation patterns...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630205/the-impact-of-gyrb-and-eis-mutations-in-improving-second-line-drug-resistance-detection-among-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-georgia
#3
N Bablishvili, N Tukvadze, E Shashkina, B Mathema, N R Gandhi, H M Blumberg, R R Kempker
SETTING: The country of Georgia has a high burden of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the detection of mutations in gyrB and eis genes increased the sensitivity of detecting phenotypic resistance to ofloxacin and kanamycin or capreomycin as compared to use of the first generation MTBDRsl assay alone which evaluates for mutations in gyrA and rrs genes.DESIGN: A retrospective study of storedMycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. All isolates underwent DNA sequencing of resistance determining regions...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625141/bedaquiline-a-new-hope-for-shorter-and-better-anti-tuberculosis-regimens
#4
Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Federica Magnè, Lucia Taramasso, Antonio Di Biagio
In 2014, an estimated 1.8 million people died from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB); moreover, 680,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Currently available anti-MDR and XDR regimens are long-lasting and expensive, need high adherence and are undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, thus leading to a low success rate; moreover, in the last 50 years only two new molecules, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid, have been approved and released for treatment of MDR-TB. BDQ is a diarylquinoline anti-mycobacterial drug, active regardless the state of MTB; in fact, its efficacy is conserved against replicating and non-replicating bacilli, despite extracellular or intracellular location...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620844/comparison-of-the-characteristics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-sputum-and-lung-lesions-in-chronic-tuberculosis-patients
#5
M-S Hong, Y Kim, E-J Cho, J-S Lee, H-K Kwak, J-H Kim, C-T Kim, J-S Cho, S-K Park, D Jeon, Y-I Choi, H Lee, S-Y Eum
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in sputum originates from lung cavities in tuberculosis (TB) patients. But drug susceptibility testing (DST) of sputum Mtb can not be conducted the same as in the lung because mutagenesis of bacilli may be happening in the lung during treatment and result in the possibility of the presence of heterogeneous drug-resistant subpopulations in the different lung lesions. This could be one of the reasons for low cure rates for multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB. We studied the resected lungs of nine surgery patients with chronic TB...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606115/peripheral-neuropathy-in-a-diabetic-child-treated-with-linezolid-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, James A Seddon, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva, Rajabov Asladdin, Zulfiya Dusmatova
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effective drugs. Linezolid is one of the few drugs that has shown promise in treating these conditions. Long-term linezolid use is associated with toxicities such as peripheral and optic neuropathies. Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially when uncontrolled, can also result in peripheral neuropathy...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598559/new-structural-classes-of-antituberculosis-agents
#7
REVIEW
Vajinder Kumar, Sanjay Patel, Rahul Jain
Tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest diseases is shattering the health and socioeconomic status of the society. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains has provided unprecedented lethal character to TB. The development of MDR and XDR strains of TB results in more deaths, longer duration of therapy, and appearance of the disease in the immunocompromised patients. Because of the development of rapid resistance by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, researchers are confronted with serious challenges in combating TB...
June 9, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595939/role-of-second-line-injectable-antituberculosis-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-mdr-xdr-tuberculosis
#8
Fanny Quenard, Pierre Edouard Fournier, Michel Drancourt, Philippe Brouqui
Second-line injectable antituberculosis drugs (aminoglycosides and capreomycin) are the main drugs used in the management of resistant tuberculosis. Their preserved efficacy in the case of multi-drug-resistant bacillus is counterbalanced by frequent adverse events. Adverse events are linked to the drugs themselves and to the recommended 8-month period of parenteral administration. In numerous countries facing a high incidence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, treatment is administered by intramuscular injection...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594634/dissemination-of-blaoxa-23-blaoxa-24-blaoxa-58-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-four-tertiary-hospitals-in-thailand
#9
Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Suchada Wongprachan, Pollawat Thongsuk, Thawatchai Kitti, Kwanjai Ketwong, Chakkaphan Runcharoen, Narisara Chantratita, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major threat to public health due to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from four tertiary hospitals in Thailand during the period November 2013-February 2015. We screened 339 A. baumannii, nonrepetitive clinical isolates to determine drug susceptibility. Among all isolates, we found that 7.9% was nondrug-resistant A. baumannii (NR-AB)...
June 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587160/advances-in-drug-discovery-of-new-antitubercular-multidrug-resistant-compounds
#10
REVIEW
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Chung Man Chin, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused mainly by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is according to the World Health Organization (WHO) the infectious disease responsible for the highest number of deaths worldwide. The increased number of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) strains, and the ineffectiveness of the current treatment against latent tuberculosis are challenges to be overcome in the coming years. The scenario of drug discovery becomes alarming when it is considered that the number of new drugs does not increase proportionally to the emergence of drug resistance...
June 1, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581266/characteristics-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-sanatoria-of-north-korea
#11
Jihee Jung, Yangjin Jegal, Moran Ki, Young Jeon Shin, Cheon Tae Kim, Tae Sun Shim, Nackmoon Sung
Although several reports about drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in North Korea have been published, a nationwide surveillance on this disease remains to be performed. This study aims to analyze the drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among the patients in the sanatoria of North Korea, especially during the period when second-line drugs (SLDs) had not yet been officially supplied to this country. The Eugene Bell Foundation (EBF) transferred 947 sputum specimens obtained from 667 patients from 2007 to 2009 to the Clinical Research Center, Masan National Tuberculosis Hospital (MNTH), South Korea...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578621/drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-zhejiang-province-china-an-updated-analysis-of-time-trends-1999-2013
#12
Beibei Wu, Le Zhang, Zhengwei Liu, Haibo He, Aizhen Pan, Fei Wang, Mingwu Zhang, Bin Chen, Zuhong Lu, Songhua Chen, Xiaomeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) hinder the progress of TB control. OBJECTIVE: To track the trend of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) prevalence in Zhejiang Province from 1999 to 2013, and identify risk factors of resistance to second-line drugs among MDR-TB patients. DESIGN: Four DR-TB surveys had been done in Zhejiang Province in 1999, 2004, 2008 and 2013 through questionnaires, in which demographic and epidemiological items were included...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575437/successful-treatment-of-post-surgical-osteomyelitis-caused-by-xdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-ceftolozane-tazobactam-monotherapy
#13
Ivan Gentile, Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Riccardo Scotto, Federico De Zottis, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Guglielmo Borgia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559519/phenotypic-low-level-isoniazid-resistance-as-a-marker-to-predict-ethionamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Salima Qamar, Joveria Q Farooqi, Kausar Jabeen, Rumina Hasan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in Pakistan. Pakistan has the highest burden of MDR-TB in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Ethionamide is an anti-tuberculous drug frequently used to treat MDR-TB. Its drug susceptibility testing is not easily available in resource limited settings. Since it acts on the same target protein as isoniazid (inhA protein encoded by inhA gene), we sought to find out if phenotypic isoniazid resistance can be a marker of ethionamide resistance...
April 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559275/urinary-concentrations-of-colistimethate-and-formed-colistin-after-intravenous-administration-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#15
Sonia Luque, Carol Escaño, Luisa Sorli, Jian Li, Nuria Campillo, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Esther Salas, Santiago Grau
Objectives: Limited information is available on the urinary excretion of colistin in infected patients. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of colistimethate sodium (CMS) and formed colistin in urine in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections.Methods: Pharmacokinetic study conducted in 12 patients diagnosed with an infection caused by an extremely drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa and treated with intravenous CMS. Freshly urine samples were collected in 2-h interval and blood samples pre-dose (Cminss) and at the end of the CMS infusion (Cmaxss) for measurement of concentrations of CMS and formed colistin using HPLC...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558660/pneumonia-caused-by-extensive-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-among-hospitalized-patients-genetic-relationships-risk-factors-and-mortality
#16
Yu Jun Li, Chu Zhi Pan, Chang Quan Fang, Zhu Xiang Zhao, Hui Ling Chen, Peng Hao Guo, Zi Wen Zhao
BACKGROUND: The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected...
May 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545436/thymoquinone-tq-inhibits-the-replication-of-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-macrophages-and-modulates-nitric-oxide-production
#17
Hafij Al Mahmud, Hoonhee Seo, Sukyung Kim, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Hyun-Deuk Cho, Ho-Yeon Song
BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis, which is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a major public health concern. Increasing drug resistance poses a threat of disease resurgence and continues to cause considerable mortality worldwide, which necessitates the development of new drugs with improved efficacy. Thymoquinone (TQ), an essential compound of Nigella sativa, was previously reported as an active anti-tuberculosis agent. METHODS: In this study, the effects of TQ on intracellular mycobacterial replication are examined in macrophages...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540155/low-levels-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-isolates-and-their-relationship-to-risk-factors-surveillance-in-tehran-iran-2006-to-2014
#18
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
OBJECTIVES: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is more expensive and difficult to treat than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and outcomes for patients are much worse; therefore, it is important that clinicians understand the magnitude and distribution of XDR-TB. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the estimated incidence of and risk factors for M/XDR-TB with those of susceptible TB controls. METHODS: Sputum culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were performed in patients with known or suspected TB...
April 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#19
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535203/are-moxifloxacin-and-levofloxacin-equally-effective-to-treat-xdr-tuberculosis
#20
Thomas Maitre, Grégoire Petitjean, Aurélie Chauffour, Christine Bernard, Najoua El Helali, Vincent Jarlier, Florence Reibel, Pascal Chavanet, Alexandra Aubry, Nicolas Veziris
Background: : Moxifloxacin retains partial activity against some fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Levofloxacin is presumed to be as active as moxifloxacin against drug-susceptible tuberculosis and to have a better safety profile. Objectives: : To compare the in vivo activity of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against M. tuberculosis strains with various levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. Methods: BALB/c mice were intravenously infected with 10 6 M...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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