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A Hernández, G Yagüe, E García Vázquez, M Simón, L Moreno Parrado, M Canteras, J Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired infections. In recent years, antimicrobial resistance is increasing and multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) isolates have been associated with an increase of mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical significance and analyze predictors and prognostic factors. METHODS: Prospective case-control non-paired study involving 64 patients with P...
March 21, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Joel Philip Samuels, Aashna Sood, Jonathon R Campbell, Faiz Ahmad Khan, James Cameron Johnston
Little is known about the impact of comorbidities on multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. We aimed to examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), alcohol misuse, and smoking on MDR/XDRTB treatment outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Registrar and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews as per PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified and treatment outcome data were extracted...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
L T Daum, O S Konstantynovska, O S Solodiankin, O O Liashenko, P I Poteiko, V I Bolotin, I I Hrek, A V Rohozhyn, J D Rodriguez, G W Fischer, J P Chambers, A P Gerilovych
The Ukraine ranks among the top twenty countries with the highest number of multi-drug resistant (MDR), and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cases in the world. However, little is known of the genetic diversity, i.e., resistance signatures in clinical isolates from this region. We analyzed seven of most prevalent MDR/XDR antibiotic resistance conferring genes from clinical isolates ( N = 75 ) collected from geographically diverse Ukrainian oblasts and its southern Crimean peninsula...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
J Heyckendorf, F van Leth, K Avsar, G Glattki, G Günther, B Kalsdorf, M Müller, I D Olaru, T Rolling, H J F Salzer, M Schuhmann, E Terhalle, C Lange
BACKGROUND: Excellent treatment outcomes have recently been reported for patients with multi/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in settings where optimal resources for individualised therapy are available. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether differences remain in treatment responses between patients with M/XDR-TB and those with non-M/XDR-TB. METHOD: Patients with TB were prospectively enrolled between March 2013 and March 2016 at five hospitals in Germany...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Irene Galani, Konstantina Nafplioti, Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Maria Souli
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of double-carbapenem combinations against OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. METHODOLOGY: Double combinations of ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem were evaluated for synergy and bactericidal activity using the time-kill methodology. All antibiotics were tested at 10 mg l-1 and at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.5× minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for isolates with a carbapenem MIC≤8 mg l-1 ...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Klemm et al. (mBio 9:e00105-18, 2018, present comprehensive antibiotic sensitivity patterns and genomic sequence data on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from typhoid fever cases during an epidemic in Pakistan. Microbiologic and genomic data pinpoint the identities and locations of the antimicrobial resistance genes and the outbreak strain's lineage. They propose that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi be added to the list of bacterial pathogens of public health importance that have become extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Vahid Lohrasbi, Malihe Talebi, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Lanfranco Fattorini, Michel Drancourt, Mohsen Heidary, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil
Despite the low expensive and effective four-drug treatment regimen (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) was introduced 40 years ago, TB continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2015, the WHO estimated a total of 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide. Currently, the increased number of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), extensively-drug resistant (XDR-TB) and in some recent reports, totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) cases raises concerns about this disease...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Bahare Salehi, Hossein Goudarzi, Bahram Nikmanesh, Hamidreza Houri, Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam, Zohreh Ghalavand
RATIONALE: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the antibiotic-resistant superbugs that threatens hospitalized patients. Emergence and spread of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) clones cause erratic outbreaks following environmental contamination of hospital settings. OBJECTIVE: The present study intended to characterize the antimicrobial resistant profiles and the genotypes of clinical and environmental isolates of A. baumannii as a result of dissemination of resistant strains...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
André Campaniço, Rui Moreira, Francisca Lopes
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. The infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a unique ability to survive within the host, alternating between active and latent disease states, and escaping the immune system defences. The extended duration of anti-TB regimens and the increasing prevalence of multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains have created an urgent need for new antibiotics active against drug-resistant organisms and that can shorten standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Monika Pobiega, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Dorota Romaniszyn, Lech Krawczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The impact of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), including non-fermentative bacilli (NFBs), is rising and underestimated, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The growing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR) is challenging for clinicians, as the treatment options are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent of the epidemiological problem of multidrugresistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant (PDR) non-fermentative bacilli isolated from pneumonia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients hospitalized in southern Poland...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
M Montero, Brian D VanScoy, Carla López-Causapé, Haley Conde, Jonathan Adams, Concepción Segura, Laura Zamorano, Antonio Oliver, Juan P Horcajada, Paul G Ambrose
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ceftolozane-tazobactam in combination with meropenem against an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa high-risk clone, ST175, isolated in a Spanish university hospital. A 14-day hollow-fiber infection model was used to simulate clinical exposure of the 2 drug regimens alone and in combination, and serial samples were collected to determine drug concentrations and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. The untreated control failed, as did each study regimen when administered alone...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Behnaz Soltani, Hamid Heidari, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Nahal Hadi, Jalal Mardaneh, Mohammad Motamedifar
The emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a global problem. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and to investigate the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants among A. baumannii isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 92 A. baumannii isolates in the years 2015-2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disk diffusion method. The presence of antibiotic resistance determinants was detected by the PCR method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Diana Machado, João Perdigão, Isabel Portugal, Marco Pieroni, Pedro A Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros
With the growing body of knowledge on the contribution of efflux activity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance, increased attention has been given to the use of efflux inhibitors as adjuvants of tuberculosis therapy. Here, we investigated how efflux activity modulates the levels of efflux between monoresistant and multi- and extensively drug resistant (M/XDR) M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. The strains were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing in the presence/absence of efflux inhibitors, molecular typing, and genetic analysis of drug-resistance-associated genes...
March 3, 2018: Antibiotics
Vikram Singh, Manju Bala, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Ravi Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone or cefixime plus azithromycin for gonorrhea. Azithromycin in combination with gentamicin or spectinomycin has been recommended in treatment failure cases. Due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it is important to look for efficacy of these combinations and also of others that might be used in future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate in vitro synergy of 21 dual combinations including current and alternative WHO recommended treatment regimens and other dual combinations...
2018: PloS One
Sadia Naz, Umar Farooq, Sajid Ali, Rizwana Sarwar, Sara Khan, Ruben Abagyan
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as global health threat, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Identification of new drug candidates for tuberculosis (TB) by targeting novel and less explored protein targets will be invaluable for antituberculosis drug discovery. We performed structure based virtual screening of eMolecules database against a homology model of relatively unexplored protein target: the α-subunit of Tryptophan synthase (α-TRPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis essential for bacterial survival...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Erik J Groessl, Theodore G Ganiats, Naomi Hillery, Andre Trollip, Roberta L Jackson, Donald G Catanzaro, Timothy C Rodwell, Richard S Garfein, Camilla Rodrigues, Valeriu Crudu, Thomas C Victor, Antonino Catanzaro
BACKGROUND: Growth-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) is the reference standard for diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), but standard time to result (TTR) is typically ≥ 3 weeks. Rapid tests can reduce that TTR to days or hours, but accuracy may be lowered. In addition to the TTR and test accuracy, the cost of a diagnostic test may affect whether it is adopted in clinical settings. We examine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostics for extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in three different high-prevalence settings...
March 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yang-Yang Zhang, Zhi-Xin Liang, Chun-Sun Li, Yan Chang, Xiu-Qing Ma, Ling Yu, Liang-An Chen
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial outbreaks caused by antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii remain a significant challenge. Understanding the antibiotic resistance mechanism of A. baumannii is critical for clinical treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A. baumannii strain, XDR-BJ83, which was associated with a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital of China, and to investigate the antibiotic resistance mechanism of this strain...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Amal Oudghiri, Hind Karimi, Fouad Chetioui, Fathiah Zakham, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, My Driss Elmessaoudi, Amin Laglaoui, Imane Chaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global TB control. Although multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- TB) prevalence and associated genetic mutations in Morocco are well documented, scarce information on XDR TB is available. Hence, the evaluation of pre-XDR and XDR prevalence, as well as the mutation status of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter region, associated with resistance to second line drugs, is of great value for better management of M/XDR TB in Morocco...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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