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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449494/clinical-outcomes-for-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-with-adjunctive-resectional-lung-surgery-in-beijing-china
#1
Yan Ma, Yu Pang, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Liang Li, Weiwei Gao
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of adjective resectional lung surgery for multidrug resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients in Beijing, China. Between October 1992 and October 2012, 21 MDR/XDR patients undergoing pulmonary resection at Beijing Chest Hospital were enrolled in this study. The clinical outcomes of MDR- and XDR-TB patients were analyzed with a 3-year surgical follow-up. Out of 21 patients enrolled in this study, 20 patients (95.2%) had unilateral cavitary disease, and 1 patient (4...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446574/the-use-of-genexpert-remnants-for-drug-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-libreville-gabon
#2
Amel Kévin Alame-Emane, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Oriane Cordelia Aboumegone-Biyogo, Amandine Nzoghe-Mveang, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Christophe Sola, Joël Fleury Djoba-Siawaya, Brigitte Gicquel, Howard E Takiff
Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis are major problems in global health. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RIF-R), but detection of the additional resistance that defines MDR and XDR-TB, and for molecular epidemiology, specimen cultures and biosafe infrastructure are generally required. We sought to determine whether the remnants of sputa prepared for Xpert could be used directly to find mutations associated with drug resistance and for molecular epidemiology, and thus provide a precise characterization of MDR-TB cases in countries lacking BSL3 facilities for M...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440326/complex-multifractal-nature-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genome
#3
Saurav Mandal, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Keilash Chirom, Alok Bhattacharya, R K Brojen Singh
The mutifractal and long range correlation (C(r)) properties of strings, such as nucleotide sequence can be a useful parameter for identification of underlying patterns and variations. In this study C(r) and multifractal singularity function f(α) have been used to study variations in the genomes of a pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genomic sequences of M. tuberculosis isolates displayed significant variations in C(r) and f(α) reflecting inherent differences in sequences among isolates. M. tuberculosis isolates can be categorised into different subgroups based on sensitivity to drugs, these are DS (drug sensitive isolates), MDR (multi-drug resistant isolates) and XDR (extremely drug resistant isolates)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438132/early-detection-of-multidrug-and-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-smear-positive-sputum-by-direct-sequencing
#4
Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao, Weihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high among MDR-TB patients. Early diagnosis of MDR/pre-XDR-TB is essential for lowering transmission of drug-resistant TB and adjusting the treatment regimen. METHODS: Smear-positive sputum specimens (n = 186) were collected from Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422112/accurate-and-effective-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detection-method-using-gap-filling-ligation-coupled-with-high-resolution-capillary-electrophoresis-based-single-strand-conformation-polymorphism
#5
Woong Choi, Jongseok Lee, Eunjin Cho, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Tuberculosis (TB) has severely threatened public health via emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. For effective TB treatment, rapid, accurate, and multiplex detection of drug resistance is extremely important. However, conventional methods for TB diagnosis are time consuming and have a limited effect on treatment. Nucleic acid-based molecular detection methods have been developed as an effective MDR/XDR-TB diagnosis technology. Among the nucleic acid-based methods, ligation-dependent methods are attractive as MDR/XDR-MTB detection technologies, but multiplex analysis is limited by the detection method...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410695/linezolid-induced-optic-neuropathy-in-xdr-pulmonary-tb-a-case-series
#6
Anand Srivastava, Silpa Kshetrimayum, Sanjiv Kumar Gupta, Surya Kant
Optic neuropathy has been reported as a side effect of long-term use of linezolid. This is particularly seen in cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) where treatment with linezolid may continue for about 24-30 months. We, hereby, report two cases of XDR-TB treated patients with a regimen containing linezolid who developed progressive painless loss of vision during the course of treatment. In both the cases, the visual symptoms resolved completely on withdrawing linezolid. Early recognition of this rare side effect and timely withdrawal may salvage the eyesight of such patients...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409644/amphiphilic-tobramycin-lysine-conjugates-sensitize-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-minocycline
#7
Yinfeng Lyu, Xuan Yang, Sudeep Goswami, Bala Kishan Gorityala, Temilolu Idowu, Ronald Domalaon, George G Zhanel, Anshan Shan, Frank Schweizer
Chromosomally encoded low membrane permeability and highly efficient efflux systems are major mechanisms by which Pseudomonas aeruginosa evades antibiotic actions. Our previous reports have shown that amphiphilic tobramycin-fluoroquinolone hybrids can enhance efficacy of fluoroquinolone antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa isolates. Herein, we report on a novel class of tobramycin-lysine conjugates containing an optimized amphiphilic tobramycin-C12 tether that sensitize Gram-negative bacteria to legacy antibiotics...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404672/increased-tuberculosis-patient-mortality-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-second-line-antituberculous-drugs
#8
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Donald G Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Timothy C Rodwell
Rapid molecular diagnostics have great potential to limit the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). These technologies detect mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome that confer phenotypic drug resistance. However, there is little data published regarding the relationships between the detected Mtb resistance mutations and M/XDR-TB treatment outcomes, limiting our current ability to exploit the full potential of molecular diagnostics. We analyzed clinical, microbiological and sequencing data for 451 patients and their clinical isolates collected in a multinational, observational cohort study to determine if there was an association between Mtb resistance mutations and patient mortality...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#9
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390957/isoniazid-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activity
#10
REVIEW
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Shu Zhang, Feng Zhao, Chuan Gao, Lian-Shun Feng, Zao-Sheng Lv, Zhi Xu, Xiang Wu
Tuberculosis (TB), which has been a scourge of humanity for thousands of years, is a worldwide pandemic disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) increase the challenges to eliminate TB worldwide. Isoniazid (INH), a critical frontline anti-TB drug, is one of the most effective drugs used to treatment of TB infection for more than 60 years...
April 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389352/simple-strategy-to-assess-linezolid-exposure-in-patients-with-multi-drug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Jasper Kamp, Mathieu S Bolhuis, Simon Tiberi, Onno W Akkerman, Rosella Centis, Wiel C de Lange, Jos G Kosterink, Tjip S van der Werf, Giovanni B Migliori, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to predict the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for linezolid using a limited number of blood samples. Data from patients with MDR-/XDR-TB who received linezolid and therapeutic drug monitoring as part of their TB treatment were used...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374900/spoligotyping-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#12
Suzana Shirly, Sivakumar Shanmugam, K R Uma Devi, P N Swarna Latha, Joy S Michael
OBJECTIVE: Spoligotyping is a valuable genotyping tool to study the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The aim of this study was to analyse different spoligotype patterns of M. tb strains isolated from tuberculosis patients from different parts of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 163 M. tb isolates were spoligotyped between January 2014 and January 2015. 47% (n=77) were from patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis; of these, 10 were MDR and 7 were Pre-XDR...
April 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367880/predation-efficacy-of-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-on-multidrug-resistant-clinical-pathogens-and-their-corresponding-biofilms
#13
Yao Sun, Jianzhong Ye, Yuanbo Hou, Huale Chen, Jianming Cao, Tieli Zhou
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predation efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensive drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative pathogens and their corresponding biofilms. In this study, we examined the ability of B. bacteriovorus to prey on MDR and XDR gram-negative clinical bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Results showed that B. bacteriovorus was able to prey on all planktonic cultures, among which the most efficient predation was found for drug-resistant E...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367796/contact-investigation-after-a-fatal-case-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-in-an-aircraft-germany-july-2013
#14
Maria An der Heiden, Barbara Hauer, Lena Fiebig, Gisela Glaser-Paschke, Markus Stemmler, Claudia Simon, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Andreas Gilsdorf, Walter Haas
In July 2013, a passenger died of infectious extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) on board of an aircraft after a 3-hour flight from Turkey to Germany. Initial information indicated the patient had moved about the aircraft coughing blood. We thus aimed to contact and inform all persons exposed within the aircraft and to test them for newly acquired TB infection. Two-stage testing within 8 weeks from exposure and at least 8 weeks after exposure was suggested, using either interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) or tuberculin skin test (TST)...
March 23, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361737/therapy-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#15
Barbara J Seaworth, David E Griffith
The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin was recently reported as larger than previously estimated, with at least 580,000 new cases reported in 2015. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), MDR-TB with additional resistance to a second-line fluoroquinolone and injectable, continues to account for nearly 10% of MDR cases globally. Cases in India, China, and the Russian Federation account for >45% of the cases of MDR-TB...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336312/old-antibiotics-for-emerging-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb
#17
Philippe Brouqui, Fanny Quenard, Michel Drancourt
Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336136/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-2906-pseudomonasaeruginosa-clinical-isolates-obtained-from-patients-in-canadian-hospitals-over-a-period-of-8-years-results-of-the-canadian-ward-surveillance-study-canward-2008-2015
#18
Andrew Walkty, Philippe Lagace-Wiens, Heather Adam, Melanie Baxter, James Karlowsky, Michael R Mulvey, Melissa McCracken, George G Zhanel
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates obtained from inpatients and outpatients at hospitals across Canada from January 2008 to December 2015 (CANWARD Study). Susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In total, 2906 P. aeruginosa isolates were evaluated. The percentage of isolates susceptible to common antipseudomonal antimicrobials was: colistin 94...
January 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331031/an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Zhiyi Lan, Dick Menzies
This systematic review aimed to update the current evidence for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment.We searched for studies that reported treatment information and clinical characteristics for at least 25 patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB and either end of treatment outcomes, 6-month culture conversion or severe adverse events (SAEs). We assessed the association of these outcomes with patients' characteristics or treatment parameters. We identified 74 studies, including 17 494 participants...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320727/primary-clofazimine-and-bedaquiline-resistance-among-isolates-from-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
Jian Xu, Bin Wang, Minghao Hu, Fengmin Huo, Shaochen Guo, Wei Jing, Eric Nuermberger, Yu Lu
Clofazimine has been repurposed for the treatment of tuberculosis especially for MDR-TB. To test the susceptibility to clofazimine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, MICs of clofazimine were determined using the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) method for 80 drug-resistant isolates and 10 drug-susceptible isolates for comparison. Five clofazimine-resistant strains isolated from previously treated pre-XDR and XDR-TB patients without prior exposure to clofazimine or bedaquiline had clofazimine MICs ≥1...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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