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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100602/find-tuberculosis-strain-bank-a-resource-for-researchers-and-developers-working-on-tests-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-related-drug-resistance
#1
Belay Tessema, Pamela Nabeta, Eloise Valli, Audrey Albertini, Jimena Collantes, Nguyen Huu Lan, Elena Romancenco, Nestani Tukavdze, Claudia M Denkinger, David L Dolinger
BACKGROUND: The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant TB hampers the global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well characterized strains and samples from drug resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, FIND has focused on the collection, characterization and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and to make them available to researchers and developers...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#2
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098814/thioridazine-a-non-antibiotic-drug-highly-effective-in-combination-with-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-against-any-form-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-its-multi-mechanisms-of-action
#3
REVIEW
Leonard Amaral, Miguel Viveiros
This review presents the evidence that supports the use of thioridazine (TZ) for the therapy of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection regardless of its antibiotic resistance status. The evidence consists of in vitro and ex vivo assays that demonstrate the activity of TZ against all encountered Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) regardless of its antibiotic resistance phenotype, as well as in vivo as a therapy for mice infected with multi-drug resistant strains of Mtb, or for human subjects infected with extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mtb...
January 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#4
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089216/diabetes-is-associated-with-severe-adverse-events-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, José Caminero-Luna, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lia D'Ambrosio, José Luis Carrillo-Alduenda, Héctor Villareal-Velarde, Alfredo Torres-Cruz, Héctor Flores-Vergara, Dina Martínez-Mendoza, Cecilia García-Sancho, Rosella Centis, Miguel Ángel Salazar-Lezama, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a very common disease in Mexico, is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known by which extent DM predisposes to adverse events (AE) to anti-TB drugs and/or to worse outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). The main objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of TB treatment, the impact of DM and the prevalence of AE in a cohort of patients with MDR-/XDR pulmonary TB treated at the national TB referral centre in Mexico City...
January 11, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088439/antimicrobial-activity-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-combination-with-colistin-against-a-pan-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-patient
#6
Ebrahim Boluki, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Sima Shahabi, Leili Beytollahi, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh
Nosocomially-acquired multi-, extensively-, and pandrug resistant (MDR, XDR, and PDR) strains of microorganisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii remain a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. Treatment of patients with nosocomial burn wound infections is often complicated by drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii. Today, many researchers are focusing on the investigation of novel non-antibiotic strategies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report a new PDT strategy that suppresses colistin resistance in PDR A...
January 11, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069654/reduced-chance-of-hearing-loss-associated-with-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-aminoglycosides-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#7
R van Altena, J A Dijkstra, M E van der Meer, J F Borjas Howard, J G W Kosterink, D van Soolingen, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar
Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto-)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of TB patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period 2000 - 2012.Patients with culture-confirmed multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069652/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-results-from-four-years-2012-2015-of-the-international-network-for-optimal-resistance-monitoring-inform-program-in-the-united-states
#8
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major cause of health-care associated infections, and inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program monitors the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and many comparators agents. We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 7,452 P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 79 USA medical centers in 2012-2015. The isolates were collected and tested consecutively for susceptibility by broth microdilution method...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069649/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-when-tested-against-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-in-united-states-medical-centers-2011-2015
#9
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Bacterial isolates were collected from patients hospitalized with pneumonia (PHP), including ventilator-associated (VAP), from 76 USA medical centers in 2011-2015. The Gram-negative organisms (n=11,185; including 1,097 from VAP) were tested for susceptibility against ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase-encoding genes were screened using a microarray based assay on selected isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. were the most common Gram-negatives isolated from PHP and VAP...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062386/rna-expression-analysis-of-efflux-pump-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#10
Tae Sang Oh, Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Chang-Ki Kim, Sun Young Cho, Hee Joo Lee
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important communicable disease. Various mechanisms of resistance to antituberculosis drugs have been reported; these are principally mutations in target genes. However, not all M. tuberculosis resistance can be explained by mutations in such genes. Other resistance mechanisms associated with drug transport, such as efflux pumps, have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of three putative efflux pumps and mutations in target genes associated with injectable agents and fluoroquinolones with clinical MDR and XDR-TB isolates...
January 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#11
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056821/impact-of-colistin-plasma-levels-on-the-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-infections-caused-by-extremely-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Luisa Sorlí, Sonia Luque, Concepción Segura, Nuria Campillo, Milagro Montero, Erika Esteve, Sabina Herrera, Natividad Benito, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Santiago Grau, Juan Pablo Horcajada
BACKGROUND: Colistin has a narrow therapeutic window with nephrotoxicity being the major dose-limiting adverse effect. Currently, the optimal doses and therapeutic plasma levels are unknown. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study, including patients infected by colistin-susceptible P. aeruginosa treated with intravenous colistimethate sodium (CMS). Clinical data and colistin plasma levels at steady-state (Css) were recorded. The primary and secondary end points were clinical cure and 30-day all-cause mortality...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056222/in-vitro-activity-of-antimicrobial-agents-against-multidrug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Francielli Mahnic Vasconcellos, Monique Ribeiro Tiba Casas, Lais Calissi Brisolla Tavares, Doroti Oliveira Garcia, Carlos Henrique Camargo
Multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) difficult the treatment of severe infections. We evaluated the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against 71 carbapenem-resistant clonal diverse clinical Ab strains recovered from Brazilian hospitals. Minocycline and polypeptides presented activity against >98% of the isolates, indicating their potential against MDR or XDR carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from main clones circulating in Brazil.
January 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047066/we-ab-bra-11-improved-imaging-of-permanent-prostate-brachytherapy-seed-implants-by-combining-an-endorectal-x-ray-sensor-with-a-ct-scanner
#14
J Steiner, K Matthews, G Jia
PURPOSE: To test feasibility of the use of a digital endorectal x-ray sensor for improved image resolution of permanent brachytherapy seed implants compared to conventional CT. METHODS: Two phantoms simulating the male pelvic region were used to test the capabilities of a digital endorectal x-ray sensor for imaging permanent brachytherapy seed implants. Phantom 1 was constructed from acrylic plastic with cavities milled in the locations of the prostate and the rectum...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043788/comparison-of-bacteriological-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-mdr-tb-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-in-mexico-preliminary-data
#15
M Muñoz-Torrico, J Caminero Luna, G B Migliori, L D'Ambrosio, J L Carrillo-Alduenda, H Villareal-Velarde, A Torres-Cruz, H Flores-Ergara, D Martínez-Mendoza, C García-Sancho, R Centis, M Á Salazar-Lezama, R Pérez-Padilla
: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...
December 30, 2016: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043640/alternate-efflux-pump-mechanism-may-contribute-to-drug-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ambreen Zaver, Asho Ali, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Mussarat Ashraf, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the biggest threats to public health and TB control programs worldwide. XDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as well as to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one injectable aminoglycoside. Drug resistance in MTB has primarily been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, it has also been shown that efflux pumps may play a role in resistance of MTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#17
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#18
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043590/use-of-wgs-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-routine-diagnosis
#19
Daniela M Cirillo, Andrea M Cabibbe, Maria Rosaria De Filippo, Alberto Trovato, Tullia Simonetti, Gian Maria Rossolini, Enrico Tortoli
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is becoming affordable with overall costs comparable to other tests currently in use to perform the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and cluster analysis. The WGS approach allows an "all-in-one" approach providing results on expected sensitivity of the strains, genetic background, epidemiological data, and indication of risk of laboratory cross-contamination. METHODS: Although ideal, WGS from the direct diagnostic specimen is not yet standardized, and to date the two most promising approaches are WGS from early positive liquid culture and targeted sequencing from diagnostic specimens using Next-Generation Technology...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043550/predominance-of-beijing-lineage-among-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-tertiary-care-center-experience
#20
Syed Beenish Rufai, Manimuthu Mani Sankar, Jitendra Singh, Sarman Singh
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Increasing resistance to various first-line and second-line drugs has become a major concern in India. However, it is not known if some genotypes are more associated with second-line drug resistance. Thus, the main aim of this study was to find out the predominant genotype associated with second-line drug resistance. METHODS: During the study, a total of 234 multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isolated between 2008 and 2015, were randomly selected and screened for pre-extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and XDR patterns using second-drug susceptibility testing with BACTEC MGIT 960...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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